1899 Motor Show (Richmond)
The Automobile Club Show held in the Old Deer Park, Richmond 17th - 24th June 1899.
The Automobile Club Show, which has so long been looked forward to by all interested in the new pastime and industry, was duly opened on Saturday last, the 17th inst. The clubmen on the various show committees had worked hard, and the exhibits were fairly well prepared for inspection by midday, though a few were not ready till Monday. However, this was no fault of the club's.
The first function in connection with the show was the opening drive down to Richmond, which was arranged to leave Whitehall Court at 11 a.m., the cars taking part in this being limited to those specially invited, the object of the parade being to make as presentable a show as possible.
Amongst the earliest arrivals on the scene were -
- Mr. and Mrs. Hargreaves with an eleven horse-power Daimler,
- Mr. Heyermans with the Delahaye,
- Mr. Critchley with the new Daimlerette,
- Sir David Salomons with his Peugeot,
- Mr. Alfred Bird and
- Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Harmsworth with their respective Panhard cars,
- Hon. Evelyn Ellis and Mrs. Ellis, who brought both their Daimler eleven horse-power car and their Panhard waggonette,
- Mr. Arthur Mulliner and
- Mr. Fuller with their Daimlers,
- Hon. C. S. Rolls with his Panhard,
- Mr. Roger Wallace, Q.C., with a new and very taking looking electric dogcart,
- Mr. Atkins with the Hercules,
- Mr. Friswell,
- Captain Langrishe and
- Dr. Lehwess on Mors cars,
- a couple of Leitner electrics,
- a Headland car,
- an Oppermann, also electric,
- Mr. F. R. Simms with a Cannstadt Daimler,
- Mr. and Mrs. B. Weguelin with their Daimler,
- Hon. J. Scott Montagu also with a Daimler, and
- Mr. Gretton with an Iveagh.
There were also several Daimler waggonettes for the conveyance of guests of the club, and the Lifu steamer stood ready near by.
It had been intended to drive in procession through Hyde Park, but, unfortunately, the start was not very well stage-managed, and the cars did not get off well enough together to keep together, and much of the effect of this part of the drive was lost. After leaving the Park, too - where the two Critchley cars were left repairing a punctured tyre, - many of the vehicles, not being in sight of each other, took different routes, but most of them got together again in the Lower Mortlake Road, and some eighteen of the five and twenty which had started leached Richmond en bloc.
At the level crossing a jam occurred, in which Mr. Gretton ran into the tail of a car in front, smashing his apron and putting his pump out of gear, but beyond this no other incident occurred.
Inside the grounds, shortly after the appointed time, a bustle round about the entrance gates, the importunate signs and gestures of the police, and the centred interest of those nearest the portals, were evidence that the head of the procession from Whitehall was in sight, and in a very few moments the first car, in which was seated the president of the Automobile Club, Mr. Roger Wallace, M.P., swung into the grounds, and led the way round the track to a point in front of the Royal box, there to await the arrival of H.R.H. Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar, whose duty and pleasure it was to be to open the show.
As the cars swept on to the course, it was evident that many persons of light and leading in the ranks of society had graced the procession from town. For instance, the racing chemeleonic Panhard, owned and driven by the Hon. C. S. Rolls, bore Lord and Lady Llangattock; the Cannstadt Daimler waggonette, driven by Mr. F. R. Simms, convoyed the Earl of Rosse, the Hon. Gerald Lascelles, and the Hon. Clare Parsons. Mr. Heyermans, in his smart Delahaye phaeton, brought the Duke of Newcastle and Lord Ed. Pelham Clinton; the father of English motoring, the Hon. Evelyn Ellis, had with him Mrs. Evelyn Ellis and General Sir Art. Ellis in his Panhard. Lord Loch we noticed in a Daimler car, while the presiding genius of the Divorce Court, Sir Francis Jeune, with that ardent worker of good deeds, Lady Jeune, and Miss Stanley, occupied that of Mr. Alfred Charles Harmsworth, who was accompanied by Mrs. Harmsworth. Mr. Alfred Bird had his son in his fleet Panhard, while in another car by the same great French firm we noticed the Hon. Alfred and Mrs. Mulholland. Sir David Salomons, in his Peugeot phaeton with his nautically-attired expert in front, brought Mr. Arthur Barr. Mrs. Weguelin, driving Mr. Hugh Weguelin's Panhard, was next observed, then another Daimler car with Lord Suffield and Lady Muriel Paget aboard, followed by Mr. Hankinson's Cannstadt Daimler, Captain Langrishe on a Mors car, the sweet-running Lanchester car with its talented owner and a friend up, and the Lifu waggonette with a load of well-dressed passengers driven by Mr. House. Mr. Friswell, driving a Mors car with admirable skill, had Mr. Stanley Firth amongst his passengers, and on yet another Daimler car we noticed the Hon. J. Scott Montagu, M.P., Lady Cecil Scott Montagu, Lord Montagu of Burleigh, Mr. Ernest Beckett, M.P., and Mr. Lionel Phillips. The Rt. Hon. Sir Rd. Paget came down on a smart electric car, and Mr. and Mrs. Hargreaves on their own Daimler Grafton. Lord Rothschild also motored down, and altogether the crowd which came down by road from the Automobile Club was a distinctly smart one.
The committee of management, with the Mayor of Richmond wearing his insignia of office, and their zealous and hardworking secretary Mr. Johnson, received the party, and the cars, having been marshalled in the enclosure, all awaited the arrival of H.R.H. Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar to declare the show open.
In a very few moments a repetition of the bustle at the gateway suggested the approach of the Royal party, and heralded by two mounted policemen a smart open carriage and pair dashed through the gateway and on to the turf in the centre of the track. This conveyed the Prince and Princess, who alighted before the Royal box, and after sundry presentations had been made to his H.R.H., the Prince declared the first great show of automobiles ever held in this country open. The Royal personages then seated themselves in front of the Royal box, and those cars which had made the run from town and others already on the ground paraded before them, running round and round the cinder track.
The Prince evinced the keenest interest in the show, and put many questions to the members of the committee with regard to the class, construction, and efficiency of the various electric, spirit, and steam vehicles flitting by from time to time. The parade over, the company retired to the spacious marquee to participate in the luncheon offered by the committee of the club to the Prince and Princess. At this there were no speeches, the formal proceedings consisting of toasting "The Queen," "Prince Edward of Saxe Weimar and the Princess," "The Mayor and Corporation of Richmond," and "The Automobile Club,"
Mr. Roger Wallace, in replying to the latter, taking the opportunity of pointing out that the automobile movement was really only just commencing in this country, and that we hoped to eclipse all foreign rivals, as we had done in many other industries in which we had started late. He also referred to the road trials of the Liverpool branch of the Self-propelled Traffic Association, who, he said, were the real pioneers in this matter.
For the amusement of visitors to the show, and as leaven to the serious business of examining the numerous interesting exhibits which are hereafter detailed, the committee arranged motor tricycle races and a motor gymkhana, all of the events included in which greatly interested the numerous assemblage.
The first event to attract the public was a match between the Hon. C. S. Rolls, riding a De Dion motor tricycle, and a well-known trotter named Gold Ring, driven in the regulation trotting sulky by a resplendently-garbed driver. The hay-motor was evidently flurried by the contiguity of the "purring, spitting motor," and broke again and again, so that the event was not quite serious. It was evident, however, that Rolls's machine was distinctly faster than the horse.
Then came a mile match between those two daring and expert motor tricyclists Messrs. C. Jarrott and S. F. Edge, both riding De Dion motor tricycles, although we believe Jarrott's motor was but one and a half horse-power to Edge's two and a half horse-power. Edge got first away, but was quickly passed by Jarrott, who took a long lead, and though Edge closed up the gap considerably before the last lap Jarrott won by three lengths.
FORWARD DRIVING COMPETITION.
This competition took place over a length of about a hundred and fifty yards, along which at a suitable distance apart were placed two lines of twelve tall white posts. The cars had to be driven in and out of these posts, out and back, returning down the centre to the judge's line in the middle of the course. The competitors were started by Mr. Johnson, and judged by Captain Lloyd, I.S.C., assisted by Harry J. Swindley (The Autocar).
- Heat I. Campbell-Muir (Daimler) beat Fuller (Daimler) by three lengths.
- Heat II. Bird (Panhard) beat Lanchester (Lanchester car) by a foot.
- Heat III. A. Mulliner (Daimler) beat Clarkson (Clarkson steam car) by fifty yards.
- Heat IV. H. Mulliner (Benz dogcart) beat Dr. Bruce-Porter (Daimler) by fifty yards.
- Heat V. Shenley (Daimler) beat Estcourt (Daimler) by one length.
- Professional Race. Thery (Decauville) beat Dumond (Decauville) by five yards.
Thery (Decauville) beat Benz car (Oakes's Indian cigars) anyhow. Dumond (Decauville) beat Coles (Benz dogcart) by fifty yards.
DRIVING BACKWARDS COMPETITION
- Heat I. R. Bird (Panhard) beat Hon. C. S. Rolls (Panhard). Rolls's chain came off in run home.
- Heat II. Campbell-Muir beat Fuller by three lengths. Both gave good exhibitions.
- Heat III. Coles (Benz dogcart) beat Lanchester (Lanchester car) easily.
- Heat IV. Campbell-Muir beat Coles, the winner exhibiting some very skilful driving.
- Hon. C. S. Rolls beat Capel easily. Capel lifted first one wheel and then the other in swinging round the posts, and at bottom of course turned turtle altogether, but got up without damage and finished.
HORSE V. MOTOR CYCLE.
- The trotter Gold Ring trotted a mile against a professional rider on the Barriere tricycle, but the latter was not moving up to form, and the trotter won by over half a lap.
DRIVING BACKWARDS RACE (Saturday's contest)
- Final Heat. Campbell-Muir beat R. Bird by thirty yards.
TRICYCLE RACE (Saturday's contest).
- Hon. C. S. Rolls rode over.
DRIVING FORWARDS (Saturday's race)
- Final Heat. R. Bird (Panhard) beat H. Mulliner (Benz).
DRIVING FORWARDS COMPETITION No. 2.
- Lanchester beat H. Mulliner by fifty yards.
- Rolls beat Bird by a quarter of a length on post.
- Final.— Rolls beat Lanchester by three lengths.
- Professional.— Cesti (Delahaye) beat Andrews (Daimler dogcart) by forty yards. Thery (Decauville) beat Dumond (Decauville) by twenty yards.
- Lanchester beat H. Mulliner easily.
- Rolls beat R. Bird easily.
- Final.— Rolls beat Lanchester, the former scoring in the run in.
S. F. Edge tried conclusions with the trotter Gold Ring on the track, but owing to some misunderstanding on the part of the animal's helmsman, the horse was pulled up at the close of three laps, Edge being then in front.
- Heat I.- H. Mulliner (Benz) beat Hewetson (Benz) by three lengths.
- Heat II.— R. W. Buttemer (Benz) beat Hewetson (Benz) easily.
- Heat III. — R. W. Buttemer (Benz) beat H. Mulliner (Benz) by two lengths.
DRIVING COMPETITION (Professional).
- Thery (Decauville) beat Dumond (Decauville) by a length. An exciting race. A good deal of exhibition driving was sandwiched between these events, and a driving competition between jars was essayed, but owing to the varying gauges of the vehicles concerned this had to be abandoned.
The afternoon's sport was wound up by a mile scratch race between the trotter Gold Ring and S. F. Edge on a De Dion motor tricycle, which proved a very exciting event. The horse went off with the lead at the fall of the flag, with Edge hanging on, and in the second lap had drawn away from his mechanical opponent. In the third circuit Edge drew level on the outside, and held his own, but the spirited quadruped made a fine effort opposite the grandstand, and up the back stretch looked like winning, but the old cyclist whipped up his motor, and, coming with a rare rattle, just managed to make the finish a dead heat. Time 2m. 40s.
The exhibition of motor carriages is undoubtedly a success, and every available inch of space has been taken up. The rather scattered position of the buildings, however, somewhat interferes with the general effect, and the fact that many of the vehicles are entered both in the exhibition proper and for running on the track, and are consequently to be found either in the separate sheds in which these latter machines are stored, or else, being in use, are not to be found at all, makes the task of compiling anything like an accurate report extremely difficult, and if we should by any mischance have omitted to mention any machines of interest which are there, we must ask those interested to accept the above explanation as the cause thereof, just adding that in the report which follows we have been careful to deal with machines only that are actually there, and have not relied upon the catalogue to prove their presence.
In dealing with this exhibition we have, so far as special mention is concerned, confined ourselves to those cars presenting new features, and which are in themselves new introductions, preferring rather to little more than mention those vehicles with which readers of The Autocar should be well acquainted, owing to their former treatment at length in these columns.
Exhibition Building, No. 1.
BAYLEYS, LTD., 42, Newington Causeway, London, had their steam trolley (with which we have already dealt in connection with the heavy car trials in our issue last week) in position on Saturday, but it was removed subsequently, and, therefore, cannot be said to be in the exhibition.
CARLESS, CAPEL, AND LEONARD, Hackney Wick, N.E. Here, of course, we find motor spirit, and, in addition to this, every kind of drum, tin, or receptacle, which can be required for its safe storage and transit in large or small quantities. Beside the motor fuel, all kinds of lubricants of the various properties most suitable for motors or gearing will be found. Perhaps the most interesting item on the stand is a patent safety lantern, which will make the handling of petrol after dark a perfectly safe operation. It may be described as a safety miner's lamp, which can be safely used in the most explosive mixture of petrol and air, with the addition of an ignition fuse, which enables the light to be kindled inside the lamp without opening it or using a match. This is effected by a little tape, in which are fifty fuses or caps, so that the lamp can be lit fifty times without recharging. When we say that this lamp has received the approval of the London County Council for the uses for which it is designed we have stated all that need be said in its favour. Everyone who uses petrol should get one.
Exhibition Building, No. 2.
HEWETSONS, LTD, Dean Street, Oxford Street, W., have eight Benz carriages on their stand, besides four or five running about on the track and elsewhere in the grounds. These carriages are so well known to our readers, and have so often been dealt with in our pages, that we need say no more than that an excellent show is made. The different designs of carriages, not to mention the various colours in which they are finished and upholstered, give the exhibit a very taking appearance. In addition to the Benz Ideals will be found the two-cylinder eight horse-power brake with detachable canopy and the Benz delivery van. Besides these, batteries and other accessories in connection with the Benz motors and cars are to be found.
Exhibition Building, No. 3.
THE AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION, LTD, Prince's Road, Holland Park Avenue, W. It is absolutely out of the question to do justice to this exhibit, as so many cars are handled by this firm that they find it is impossible to get them all into the show, consequently they have changed them from day to day, and at the moment we only propose to deal with the more startling lines shown.
Among the motor cycles a novelty will be found in the Barriere sociable. This is built on the same system as the Barriere tricycle, which has already been fully described in our pages, but two saddles are fitted side by side with a long adjustable handle-bar in front. By mutual arrangement either rider can steer or drive, whilst comfortable footrests of respectable dimensions arc fitted. This should meet the views of those who object to trailers or tandems.
The Barriere carrier tricycle is also to be seen. This is the same as the single, but with a much longer wheelbase, so that there is room for the goods box behind the rider. In this class will be found the Autocycle motor, which is sold at eighteen guineas, as well as the one and three-quarter horse-power tricycle fitted with a similar engine at seventy guineas.
All kinds of seat arrangements for the cycles are shown among the accessories, as well as some specially-elegant trailers.
Among the petrol vehicles the Imperial Star, made by the Star Cycle Manufacturing Co., of Wolverhampton, is shown for the first time. This carriage is fitted with a three and a half horse-power single-cylinder motor, with electric ignition, and, in fact, it is to all intents and purposes a British-built Benz, and the work throughout is of a sterling character. Strongly-built tangentially-spoked wheels of cycle type and pneumatic tyres go to complete a nice-looking little car. A sprag is fitted to obviate the possibility of running backward, and we are promised a starting lever, so that the motor can be started from the seat.
We then come to the vibrationless car, manufactured by the Compagnie des Moteurs Gobron et Brillie. This is the first of its type which has been seen in Great Britain, and its great feature of novelty is found in its motor, from which there is practically no vibration. We have sat in the car, and can speak from experience. This result is brought about by having two pistons in each cylinder, with the explosions taking place between each pair. The two lower pistons are connected to the cranks in the usual way, whilst the two upper pistons are connected to a crosshead, which is in its turn connected with two more cranks. This, it will be seen, gives a four-throw crank, and the whole arrangement gets as near as it seems possible to arrive at the perfectly-balanced explosion engine. We shall be extremely interested to note the future of this interesting carriage. The motor is of six horse-power, and water jacketed, and the car is fitted to seat five people, though six can be carried at a pinch at the expense of obstructing the driver's view. Toothed gearing is used, giving three forward and one backward speed, the top speed on the level being twenty miles an hour.
The Mors dogcart is also a beautiful little machine. It is practically a replica of the big Mors car, but, instead of being fitted with the four-cylinder eight horsepower motor, it is driven by a two-cylinder engine of half the power. This engine is placed horizontally, athwart the front of the carriage, with the crankshaft in the middle, and a cylinder on each side of it, the crankshaft running fore and aft in the carriage. Toothed gearing giving three forward and one backward speed is fitted, water cooling, the More system of electrical ignition, and a proper system of lubrication from a central lubricator, which is connected with brass piping to every working part.
The Koch phaeton, burning common paraffin, or heavy oil, is exhibited. The electric machines were not on view at the time of our inspection, but they are expected daily from America, and it will be remembered that they are of the Waverley type, which has already received the high encomiums of our American correspondent, Hugh Dolnar.
The La Valette steam car was to have made its appearance during the week.
The firm are also agents for Mr. J. H. Knight's steam generator, which, it will be remembered, contains balls in the water tubes, which circulate with the ebullition of the water, and tend to control the production of steam and remove scale. The component parts and accessories shown by the firm are numerous and interesting, and should be examined by everyone.
Exhibition Building, No. 4.
THE MOTOR MANUFACTURING CO., LTD., Coventry, have, perhaps, the finest position in the show, as their stand cannot possibly be missed. The exhibits include motor tricycles of the improved De Dion type for ladies and gentlemen, quadricycles, the firm's latest improved voiturette of the Bollee type, motor char-a-bancs, waggonettes, and vans driven by Phoenix motors.
The Werner bicycle is also to be seen, as well as motors of the De Dion type for supplying to firms who wish to fit them to their own cycles.
The feature of the exhibit is Mr. Iden's "Princess" motor sociable. The machine shown is the first of its type. Its general construction and appearance can be easily gathered from the illustration. When desired, a third seat can be fitted on the front for a child. It is driven by toothed gearing with three speeds and reverse, and fitted with pneumatic tyres, but Mr. Iden has decided in future to supply the machine with a four and a half horsepower two-cylinder motor, and with belt transmission. The new machine will have double suspension and solid tyres. These improvements will not only give more than ample power, so far as the motor is concerned, and silence in running, but will ensure great comfort, even without pneumatic tyres. The "Princess" is also fitted with the Lehut improved band brake. This is a forked, band so arranged that it partakes somewhat of the good qualities of block, as well as band, brakes. The steering is by wheel, a pinion at the base of the column moving a toothed rack, which directly operates the steering wheels.
Exhibition Building, No. 5.
ILIFFE, SONS & STURMEY LTD., 3, St. Bride Street, E.C., and Coventry. The Autocar finds a temporary home at this stand. All publications connected with the sport and pastime can also be found, with touring maps, guide books, etc. This stand is also the headquarters of the official photographers to the Automobile Club, who have taken all the photographs and made all the blocks with which this issue is illustrated.
CARL OPPERMANN, 2, Wynyatt Street, Clerkenwell, E.C. Some of the Oppermann electrical machines were probably to be seen in the grounds, but we could not locate them, but on the stand the workmanlike Oppermann patent transmission gear was the only thing exhibited.
THE SOUTHERN MOTOR CAR CO., 59, 7 Brixton Road, S.W., have two nice-looking Georges Richard cars. These machines are fitted with Benz motors, and are exceedingly well finished. They partake of the latest Benz improvement, the Crypto, or third speed gearing, also little refinements not usually associated with this motor, viz., oil-tight crank case and oil (instead of grease) lubricators to the motor-shaft. This is a single lubricator, with a double tube leading to each bearing.
A De Dion tricycle and quadricycle were also shown, as well as a Papillon motor tricycle. A very complete range of accessories was staged, including a speed indicator for motor tricycles.
THE STEAM CARRIAGE AND WAGGON CO., LTD., Holmefield, Chiswick, W. The two giant Thornycrofts command general attention. The dray which was built in December last for Messrs. Fuller and Co., the Chiswick brewers, has been lent for the show. Since January 1st it has been driven some 3,200 miles. The total cost of running per mile per ton works out at three-pence, and this sum includes interest, depreciation, wages, fuel, water, repairs, and stores.
The other vehicle is a lorry finished in grey, and it is astonishing what a handsome appearance this gives the machine, which weighs under three tons, will carry three tons, and haul a further three tons in a trailer. These figures can only be fully appreciated by engineers who have actually tackled the problem of high speed goods transit on ordinary roads. We need not further describe the Thornycroft, as it has already been fully dealt with and illustrated in The Autocar, but we should add that for countries where the white ants or conditions generally make wood an unsuitable material for the wheels, strong metal-built wheels are provided, and specimens of these are shown. All who study frame design for heavy traffic admire the light, yet strong, outline of the work below the "deck" of the big machines.
Simms and Co, 12, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C. Simms's compound pneumatic tyre for motor vehicles may be roughly described as a solid rubber tyre encircling a pneumatic one, so that the wear is taken on the road surface by a solid, and not delicate, tyre, whilst the comfort and speed of the compressed air tyre is to some considerable extent retained. The construction of the tyre will be made perfectly plain from the illustration, though we should add that a specially good feature is the rim, which is designed to take the brake block friction, so that no damage is done to the rubber.
THE ACCLES-TURRELL MOTOR Co., Holford Works, Perry Barr, Birmingham. The chief novelties on this stand, besides the Accles motor, which we have already dealt with, will be found in the new carburetter. This consists of a double tank, that is to say, inside the carburetter another case is placed with its mouth downwards, and from this case communication to the motor is made. Air is admitted in the space between the two cases, so that it has to find its way through the petrol before reaching the motor. This ensures the regular level of the petrol, and perfect carburation of the air. There is also an ingenious thing in the way of an automatic feed. As the level of the petrol gets to the right point it compresses the air, and the rod of the admission valve, which is bolted to a very thin steel plate or diaphragm, which forms the head of the air-tight feed chamber, is moved by the pressure of the air, which forces up the thin steel top. The upward movement of this diaphragm shuts the petrol valve, and no more spirit can enter till the petrol has been used up to some extent, when the pressure. of the air is reduced, and the "flop" of the diaphragm opens the spirit valve again. We were assured that vibration did not affect the working of the apparatus. When we finished our report, the new sociable with water-cooled cylinder had not arrived, but we hope to deal with it next week. One of the cylinders of this machine was shown with the head and water jacket all cast in one piece.
THE TAXAMETER SYNDICATE, LTD., Clun House, Surrey Street, W.C., show their meters, and all interested in the running of motor hackney vehicles will doubtless cogitate over this exhibit carefully.
THE ARIEL CYCLE CO., LTD., Birmingham. A beautifully-finished specimen of that extremely handsome motor tricycle, the Ariel, is shown, but, as this machine is already well known to our readers, we need say no more about it at the moment, save that the exhibit excites a large amount of interest and favourable comment.
J. C. HOWELL, LTD., 24, Queen Victoria Street, E.C., have a patent epicyclic two-speed gear, which may be roughly described as a very ingenious adaptation of a balance or differential gear to the purpose of speed reduction or multiplication. At some future period we shall refer further to it, as it is impossible to properly describe it without a drawing. The sample shown is for two speeds, but the gear is being made to give three. This gearing is already well known in connection with lathes and drilling machines.
THE SHREWSBURY AND TALBOT CAB AND NOISELESS TYRE CO., LTD., 24, Page Street, Westminster, S.W., have a solid rubber tyre fixed on in a somewhat novel manner. The wires which hold it in the rim are surrounded by a loosely-wound spiral wire of about half their thickness, and it is claimed by thus increasing the area of the wire, and surrounding it with a spring envelope, it does not cut the rubber in the least.
RUBERY AND Co., Darlaston, South Staffs., have plenty to interest the motor car builder. This firm has made a great name for itself for motor car frames. Channel steel and iron frames of all sections are shown, as well as angles and bracing pieces to fit and bind together or strengthen any part.
THE SIRDAR RUBBER CO., LTD., 36, Duke Street, E.C. This spirally-compressed tyre, which has already been pictorially dealt with in our pages, will be seen for the first time by many. We need only remind our readers that, whilst the tread or outside of the tyre is in strong compression, the part inside the, rim is stretched so that comfort and durability are ensured in a very ingenious manner.
THE ROLLER BEARINGS CO., LTD., 1, Delahay Street, Westminster, S.W. These roller bearings, which are used for all sorts of vehicles, from main line railway coaches to light autocars, can be examined. Mr. W. Hugh Woodcock, the firm's engineer, fully described these bearings in his interesting paper read before the Liverpool branch of the Automobile Club on December 14th, 1897, and reported in The Autocar at the time, so that we need say no more about them now, except that one or two slight improvements have been made since then. The rollers are of a slightly smaller diameter, and proportionately more numerous, whilst it is now arranged for the journals to be sleeved so that, when in progress of time wear has taken place, the bearing can easily be made as good as new.
It is not generally known that these bearings are used on the rolling stock of the Waterloo and City Railway. We should add that special patterns are made for the hubs of autocar wheels, and, of course, on these carriages, in which the axle revolves, a slight modification of the standard pattern as used for shafting is all that is required to make it conveniently suitable for the purpose.
THE PENDLETON RUBBER CO., LTD., 63, Frederick Street, Edinburgh, have in the "Woodlock" tyre a new method of securing rubbers to felloes. For want of a better term, what we may call large wire hairpins are pushed through the foot of the tyre on alternate sides. The long ends of the hairpins then, of course, project at right angles to the tyre. They are bent parallel, and when the tyre has been so treated the whole way round it is sprung into the rim. It is claimed that these tyres will wear right down to the rim without giving any trouble, so far as coming loose is concerned. In any case the idea avoids excessive compression at the foot of the tyre, so that the cushioning of the rubber should be more effective.
THE ANGLO-AMERICAN OIL CO., LTD., 22, Billiter Street, E.C. This well-known firm of motor spirit manufacturers and distributors have a finely-arranged stand, which thoroughly well exemplifies the method of handling their motor car spirit. A very useful novel feature, and one which we understand is largely appreciated, is a strongly-made wooden packing-case, in which four two or eight one-gallon tins of petrol can be placed. This, of course, is most convenient for handling, and not, only so, it enables the tin tanks to be sent by rail without fear of damage resulting.
SELIG, SONNENTHAL, AND CO., 85, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. This firm of tool makers and importers are so well known in the engineering world that we need scarcely do more than say that they have very fine exhibit of tools and machinery of home and American make. They deserve every credit for having the enterprise to appreciate the possibilities of the motor car industry by taking part in the present show.
SHIPPEY BROTHERS, LTD., 13 and 14, Cheapside, E.C. This firm, who are agents for the Riker motor and motor carriage, exhibit one of the motors, as well as sundry other electrical fittings, and they also have a full range of illustrations of the different types of the vehicles.
THE MACKENZIE CARRIAGE WORKS, Walnut Tree Walk, Kennington Road, S.E., exhibit a handsome two-passenger vehicle similar to that run in the trials last week, and dealt with in our description of the trials.
THE HEADLAND'S PATENT ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY CO., LTD., Pall Mall, S.W., have three electrical motor carriages driven by Headland's patent batteries, as well as one running in the grounds. Their first machine, an old phaeton, which was transformed into an electrical carriage two years ago, and driven in the Lord Mayor's Show of 1897, is to be seen, as well as the latest pattern they make, which we illustrate. This, it will be seen, is a front-driver. The motor is fixed lengthwise with the vehicle, just behind and above the front differential axle. The armature shaft gears with the differential case on the front axle by means of worm gearing. The vehicle has range of about thirty-five miles with one charge, and three speeds are attained - of three, seven, or fourteen miles an hour, by grouping the forty cells of which the battery is composed in the parallel series method.
ELECTRICAL UNDERTAKINGS, LTD., Camden Town, N.W. This company has three electrically-propelled carriages, which most of the time were running about the grounds. It will be remembered that it was one of these cars which performed so satisfactorily in the Automobile Club trials on the 10th inst. The small carriage with the yellow body for two is an extremely pretty little vehicle, whilst the big sporting car with extra powerful batteries and motor is a veritable flier of its type, as a speed of thirty-five miles an hour has been accomplished on it, and the batteries are guaranteed to run seventy miles on one charge. It appears to be the "fastest stayer" of the electrical type in Great Britain.
MOSSBERG ROLLER BEARINGS, LTD., 6, Victoria Street, S.W. This stand is generally known as the "Pendulum" stand, on account of a large pendulum which runs on one of the Mossberg roller bearings and oscillates for a tremendous time after a single impulse. Mossberg bearings are made on the cage principle, that is to say, each roller is kept from contact with its fellow by a suitably-drilled cage. This bearing is largely used on trams, and for heavy stock, and will no doubt soon be widely applied to auto-cars.
In addition to the ordinary bearings, suitable for carriages of all weights, will be found a thrust bearing, which should also come in well in autocar construction. The rollers in this case are kept apart by an annular cage, whilst they themselves are tapered in the correct proportion to ensure accurate running along the whole length of each roller.
STIRLING'S CARRIAGES, LTD., Hamilton, N.B. This firm have some of the most stylish and best-finished Carriage work in the show. Their larger exhibits consist of five Daimler carriages, which include a phaeton, dogcart, tourist car, fine family bus splendidly upholstered, and the Brandon brougham. This last is the most neatly designed and finished motor brougham we have yet seen, and does every credit to the firm.
Each of these machines is fitted with a standard five and a half horse-power two-cylinder motor. There is also a neat-looking Stirling-Pennington car called the "Universal." This, too, is cleverly designed, as will be seen from our illustration. Two persons are seated on the front, whilst a third person can obtain accommodation by opening the back. The body is natural walnut. A three horse-power motor is fitted, with the flywheel lying horizontally beneath the floor. Electrical ignition is used, but the rope driving, which was shown on the Pennington car at the Crystal Palace last November, has been replaced by a belt drive, though the arrangement for tightening the belt is practically the same as that which was used for rope adjustment.
SOCIETE DES VOITURES AUTOMOBILES DES ETABLISSEMENTS DECAUVILLE AINE, Paris, have the most elegant-looking set of light vehicles in the show. Their graceful appearance and tasteful colouring attract general attention to the Decauvilles. They are driven by a little two-cylinder engine, air-cooled. The three horse-power motor is in advance of the main axle and under the seat, but the cylinders are placed tandem fashion. Better cooling would be ensured if the cylinders were side by side. As it is, the front cylinder gets the lion's share of the air, and, not only so, it positively keeps the wind off the back cylinder. The ignition is electric, and the battery is in front of the two riders, with a light low seat on the top, on which a child can be comfortably carried. The gearing is toothed, and two patterns are made, One giving two variations and the other three. The short countershaft is just behind the motor, and engages with the differential cover on the rear axle by means of bevel gear. A small wheel is placed at the side of the seat for starting the motor without a dismount — an extremely good feature. The steering is effected by a cross-handle on a vertical standard and the management of the car is very simple indeed. The Decauville is the best example we have seen of a machine which, whilst having practically the whole of its machinery open to view, presents an elegant and pleasing appearance. The one great objection is the noise made by the toothed gearing, which would be much lessened if the gear were properly cased in and running in grease. The little delivery car of this type which is shown is almost, if not quite, as good-looking as the passenger machines.
SOCIETE FRANCAISE D'AUTOMOBILES, Hammersmith, W. The French company exhibit through their English house a tricycle of two and three-quarter horse-power (Gaillardet system) and a two-seated quadricycle. Compared with the standard type of motor tricycle, the great difference in these machines will be found in the very ample surfaces of the cooling flanges and extreme accessibility of the valve which can be taken out and replaced in a few minutes, and the removal of which also gives access to the interior of the cylinder and ignition points.
There is also a two-speed gear on both tricycle and quad. This is a toothed gear, with the wheel teeth always in mesh, the driving or idling wheels being held or released by means of a sliding clutch, whilst free running can be indulged in between the two gears. The front for the quad is extremely comfortably sprung. Before long this firm will be introducing a voiturette, with a three and a half horse-power air-cooled motor in front, and from what we can gather it will be an extremely interesting and fast little machine.
THE DUNLOP PNEUMATIC TYRE CO., LTD., Coventry, have an interesting exhibit of the world-famed tyres, and specimens of those used for cycles, motor cycles, voiturettes, and heavy cars are shown. In fact, it is only a question of specifying the weight and work which the tyres are required to endure, and the Dunlop Co. will make tyres for the purpose, provided none of their standard tyres are suitable. Tyres are to be seen up to 40in. in diameter, and with a solid rubber tread half an inch thick down to 26in. racing cycle tyres, with covers only about as thick as a couple of sheets of notepaper.
MARSHALL AND CO., Clayton,. Manchester, the agents for whom are the London Autocar Co, of Gray's Inn Road.,W.C., show an extremely nice-looking machine. It is on the Benz principle, but with a larger cylinder, five-inch bore by five and a half inches stroke stated to run up to four B.H.P. Electrical ignition is used, and a system of central lubrication with pipes communicating with all bearings, including big end. A crank nit and splash-guard are fitted. The small seat in front leaves room for a third passenger. The details of the car are carefully thought out, the batteries being under the main seats, and whilst the tools are carried in a cunning way beneath the cushion for the front rider, but as they are in sunk slots they cause him no inconvenience.
In addition to a double tyre brake a very strong internal band brake is fitted to work on the interior of the rims of both large chain rings. The car is hooded, and can be made suitable for driving in the worst of weather by putting on the front double curved windows, whilst the top of this frame is coupled to the hood, so that a complete covered carriage is made. We have little doubt that some arrangement of this kind will become universal on cars which are meant for use in other than fair weather. The finish and workmanship throughout appear excellent, whilst the firm guarantee prompt delivery. The work, we are assured, is British throughout.
THE CLIPPER PNEUMATIC TYRE CO., LTD., Aston Cross, Birmingham, exhibit for the first time their motor tyres, and very promising tyres they are too. The covers are held in the rims, which have interned edges, by means of beads or thickened edges. To make certain doubly sure, bolts with butterfly nuts are placed at intervals round the centre line of the rim between the spokes. These bolts have long leather covered heads, and when they are tightened down they force the thickened edges of the cover into the side channels of the rim, so that it is impossible for the tyre cover to come off even if deflated, and the possibility of the cover blowing out is reduced to a minimum. Broadly speaking, the Clipper may be described as a British-made motor tyre possessing all the advantages of the far-famed Michelin, plus some good qualities all its own.
Exhibition Building, No. 6.
This building is situated at the far corner of the trial ground at the back of the grand stand, and contains the following:
J. H. H. BERKELEY is showing two Britannia Motor Carriages, but, as these are running on the track, they are more frequently to be found outside the building than in it. The Britannia electric motor has already been described in these columns, and the carriages shown consist of a Victoria and a bath chair, the latter in particular attracting much attention, as it was driven slowly about the grounds, sometimes with a single occupant, and at other times with a little girl sitting by the side of the driver.
DES VIGNES, CLOUD, AND CO., Strand-on-the-Green, Chiswick, S.W., show a small collection of water tube and fire tube boilers, with which they are prepared to supply steam autocar manufacturers. In these the tubes, are placed in two straight sets, crossing each other in alternate layers. A pair of 3in. engines, seven horse-power, very neat and well finished, to work with the boilers shown, are also on view,
JOHN MORGAN AND SONS, 81, Palmerston Road, Southsea, are the only competitors for the prize offered by the club for a design for an uniform for a servant accompanying the owner of a motor vehicle. They exhibit a rather stylish-looking drab uniform set off with red cording, and consisting of overcoat, Norfolk jacket, trousers, and leggings, made of a material termed "Cantoon."
WYNNE JOHNSTON, Chiswick School of Art, Bedford Park, W. This was the only exhibitor of a poster suitable for advertising an automobile firm. The design is passable, but nothing remarkable, and we note that the price asked for it is twenty-five guineas!
SALSBURY AND SON, Long Acre, W.C. This very old firm in the carriage and cycle lamp industry have a showcase on view containing numerous specimens of a new oil lamp they are bringing out for use upon autocars, with a very large bell reflector, light, and of good appearance, and provided with several different modes of attachment to the car.
THE CROWDUS ACCUMULATOR SYNDICATE, LTD., Bridge Place, Eccleston Square, S.W., exhibit their accumulators in several sizes, both complete, and showing the several parts of which they are constructed. Full description and illustrations of these appeared in a recent issue of The Autocar.
DAIMLER MOTOR CO., LTD., Coventry, find space in this building for the storage of the large G.P.O. van which took part in the heavy vehicle trials ore Tuesday last week.
THE LIQUID FUEL ENGINEERING CO., East Cowes, I.W., occupy the centre of the building with what is undoubtedly a centre of attraction in the shape of a fine twenty-eight-passenger steam omnibus, built for passenger traffic between Hyeres and Toulon. The Lifu system of driving we need not refer to here. The vehicle is of the double storey order, arranged to carry four first-class passengers, twelve third-class, and twelve on the top, together with ten hundred-weight of luggage on the roof, and is at once a striking and practical-looking machine.
Two examples of the Lifu patent steel-shielded rubber-tyred wheels, which we recently described when dealing with a visit to this company's works, are also shown, and the public have a practical example of the working capacity of the firm's cars in the big waggonette which is running to ant fro between the club and the show each day, and, all day and every day conveying many passengers around the track.
FRISWELL, LTD., 18, Holborn Viaduct, E.C., show a neat Benz brougham, a Hurtu carriage, and examples of the Decauville, Mors, and De Dion tricycle, all of which are well known to our readers, and they show for the first time in this country a little car, which strikes us at first sight very favourably. This is the Elan, made by Messrs. Becot and Mazurie, which to a large extent is a miniature Daimler, in so far as general principle of design and construction is concerned. The motor is in front under a neat cover, much of the same shape as the Panhard and Daimler carriages. This motor is vertical, but air cooled, fitted with radiating flanges, upon which a strong blast of air is forced by the rotation of a fan carried in front of the motor. The driving system, using a clutch actuated by the foot, and a system of gearing enclosed in a case behind it, follows very much on the lines of the Daimler vehicles, driven by two chains off a balance-geared countershaft at the back of the gear box. The seats are arranged for two, and there is a capacious box at the back, the whole car being very neat in design, and small and light.
LYON AND WHITMARSH, 13, Downing Street, Cambridge, introduce two novelties of especial interest to those using tube ignition engines. In the first place, they do away with the ordinary burners for heating the platinum tubes, by means of a tube with a platinum brush point inserted inside the tube itself, and connected with the pressure system of the petrol tank. There is no outside flame, and the tube is heated entirely from the inside, and, as shown in working, a very fine and even heat is secured.
In addition to this, the firm are competing for Major Barclay's prize, and for this purpose show a cut-off arrangement fitted to the supply pipe conveying petrol to the burners. This consists of a small bell-crank lever working a cut-off valve, and attached by a cord or chain to a heavy steel ball, an inch or so in diameter, supported on a bracket in a ring, so arranged that an inclination of forty-five degrees will be sufficient to cause the ball to drop out of the ring, and its weight acting upon the lever at once closes the valve and cuts off the petrol supply. It appears to us to be likely to prove effective, if in practice it is not found to possess the drawback of being displaced by jolts.
THE NEW GRAPPLER TYRE CO., LTD., 164, Corporation Street, Birmingham, make an exhibit of wheels fitted with pneumatic tyres upon the now well-known Grappler principle. The firm are laying themselves out specially for the manufacture of pneumatic tyres for both motor cars, carriages, and motor cycles, and we see no reason why their productions should not answer as well as those of other firms; indeed, we know from actual experience that some of their tyres are giving very good satisfaction in use.
THE GOODWINS' INVENTIONS SYNDICATE, 285, High Holborn, W.C., occupy a small stand of more particular interest to cyclists, with a puncture locater, an instant lighting device for lamps, and a foot attachment for pneumatic cycle tyre pumps.
Exhibition Building, No. 7.
This building consists of a storage for motor vehicles, each of which is provided with a separate box, and here the vehicles which are entered to run on the track, and not intended for display in the exhibition buildings proper, find a place. As we have remarked elsewhere, however, the majority of them will not be found "at home," and some of them also are exhibited with their different exhibitors' displays in other parts of the grounds, and some have not made their appearance at all. The principal machines of novelty which are to be found here by the enquirer are as follow:
No. 8. F. W. LANCHESTER, of Birmingham. This exhibitor shows the car of which our readers have frequently heard, and with which he did so well in the trials on Monday. As is well known, the entire car is novel in construction, and the principle of the beautifully balanced engine was illustrated and described in our patent columns last week. Mr. Lanchester is engaged in driving it about the grounds during the greater part of the day, and many interested autocarists had the pleasure of noting the facility of its management, and the absence of vibration from the motor.
Nos. 9 and 10, shown by ROOTS AND VENABLES, were the only heavy oil vehicles in the exhibition besides the Koch of the Automobile Association. One was the van which made its appearance at the Royal Agricultural Society's trials last year, and the other, Messrs. Roots's sociable, a compact little carriage with the motor at the back, and which seemed to run very steadily, though, truth compels us to admit, not entirely without odour of burnt oil.
No. 11. THE ROVER CYCLE CO., LTD., Coventry, have a Coventry Chair driven by a De Dion motor at the back. This machine was shown in an unfinished condition at the National Cycle Show at the Crystal Palace last year. It is now in working order, and is frequently being driven about the grounds with a passenger on board. The motor is so fitted that it is started without pedals, and by means of a clutch put in gear with the driving system at will, and the chair is one of the most comfortable yet designed, being, in fact, the pedal-driven chair without alteration which the firm have been supplying for some years.
Nos. 13 and 14 are a couple of Decauville carriages. These, however, are dealt with in our description of the exhibits in building No. 5. Suffice it to say that the two French drivers in charge of these particular vehicles are wonderfully clever and expert drivers, and in turning sharply frequently tip the light cars up, and spin round on two wheels.
No. 16 is the YORKSHIRE MOTOR CAR Co.'s Doctor car. This is an exceedingly well-finished vehicle, and very taking in appearance, but, except for fairly level districts, we fancy considerably under-powered. It is lightly-built, using cycle parts largely in its construction, and both appearance and detail can be gathered by reference to our last issue, in which it was illustrated and described. At any rate, it is a wonderful example of what can be done with a De Dion motor.
Nos. 19 and 20 are specimens of the new Critchley car or Daimlerette of the DAIMLER MOTOR CO., Coventry. These cars, too, have been illustrated and described in a previous issue. They are neatly finished, and in running about the grounds have attracted much favourable attention. They were not on view on Monday, as the tyres of both came to grief in the park when driving down.
No. 23, shown by the DELAHAYE MOTOR CAR Co., Donington House, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C., is the eight horse-power Delahaye phaeton which figured so well in the hill-climbing, running, and speed trials last week.
The other cars which find, or should find, a space in this building are dealt with in our descriptions of the cars in other buildings.
Exhibition Building, No. 8.
This is a long shed facing the back of the grand stand, and passing from the exhibits last referred to we commence with
THE ELECTRIC MOTIVE POWER CO., LTD., 74, Caistor Road, Balham, S.W., who make a first and strong appearance with electric carriages, showing also a number of samples of aluminium tubing, sheeting, castings, etc. In carriages they have three, all of which are also entered for running on the track. The first to attract attention is the four-wheeled dogcart belonging to Mr. Roger Wallace, Q.C., which led the procession down to the grounds on Saturday. The arrangement is novel, the car being shaped exactly alike in either direction. The body is of light varnished wood, and the four seats placed back to back. The car is fitted with sixty-two Crowdus cells, and a five horse-power motor, provided with four speeds of three, six, nine and twelve miles per hour, obtained by parallelling the cells by a special controller by means of which the speed may be varied without breaking the circuit. With a battery weighing complete thirteen and a quarter hundredweight, with a capacity of twenty-two horse-power hours, an average run of fifty miles with one charge is claimed to be obtained with a full complement of passengers. The car is very nicely finished, and runs very steadily.
The electric phaeton is similar in its electrical and mechanical arrangements. The back driving wheels are fixed to the live axle, to which the power is supplied through a special form of enclosed differential gear, and, as in the other machine, there are three brakes, viz., an electric brake, which on being applied operates in charging the cells, a rim brake on the tyres of the driving wheels, and a band brake on the live axle. The other machine is a three-wheeled carriage for two passengers, with two horse-power battery and twenty-two Crowdus cells, and 26in. pneumatic-tyred wheels. It is, however, much too short in the wheelbase, and looks dumpy and top heavy.
All the machines are nicely finished, and, save the last-named, attractive in appearance, and, in addition, the firm show a three and a half horse-power heavy oil engine connected with a dynamo, this being built under New's patents, which the firm have recently taken up, and which are shown in a special inlet valve, which does away with a vaporiser, and enables the velocity of the mixture to be varied to facilitate starting, etc. An electric time firer is another thing. It can be switched off when the engine has once started, the device then becoming self-firing, and the point of ignition can be altered to suit the speed, the firm claiming that this arrangement does away with all sparking devices, and prevents early firing.
MULLINER, Bridge Street, Northampton, and 28, Brook Street, W., has one Daimler car on view as an example of his work in the carriage body department, Mr. Mulliner building the bodies for the Daimler Co. and a number of other manufacturers. The work shown is excellent, and the design one of Mr. Mulliner's own.
THE INTERNATIONAL MOTOR CAR CO., 15, High Road, Kilburn, N.W., make a compact and practical exhibit of International motor cars. The principal point of attraction in their exhibit is a Parisian vehicle specially built to the order of Baron de Zuylen de Nyevelt, president of the Automobile Club de France, and lent by him for the purpose of the English show. This vehicle is a large and roomy carriage, with a twelve horse-power motor carried at the back, the motor being a two-cylinder one of the Benz type, but improved in many details. A block of flanged radiators for cooling the water supply finds a place under the centre of the car, which has pneumatic tyres and other up-to-date features, and the price of which is £800.
Several International dog-carts of Continental manufacture are shown, as well as a light three horse-power parcels van, and a large twelve horse-power brake or waggonette, fitted with double-cylinder motor, three speeds, hill-climbing gear, etc., and fitted complete with sun-awning and glass front shield.
Chief attention, however, is attracted to the International tourist's car, fitted with a four and a half horse-power English-built motor, and seating three by means of a detachable front seat. This car is made on the lines of the Benz vehicles, but is English-built throughout, and possesses more power than the foreign-built International car, and has many minor detail improvements. It appears to be a thoroughly practical and strongly-built vehicle, and can be tried on the track if desired.
A fine seven and a half horse-power International victoria is shown, this being a new introduction, also of English build, with a one-cylinder motor placed at the back, following generally Benz lines. A selection of coils, batteries, tanks, Price's brakes, and fittings, are also to be found here.
THE MOTOR CARRIAGE SUPPLY CO., LTD., Donington House, Norfolk Street, Strand, W.C., come next with a large and striking exhibit, at either end of which will be found the two Daimler lorries, which we illustrated in our last issue as taking part in the heavy vehicle trials on Tuesday. The samples of the Cannstadt-Daimler waggonette and sporting car, which we have already referred to and illustrated, are also to be seen, and some attention is attracted by the motor gearing and other parts intended for Simms's patent Motor War Car, this exhibit giving the visitor the opportunity of inspecting the motor gearing, water cooling device, and other such like features of Daimler construction.
Samples of Simms's Patent Motor Wheel, a three-wheeled tandem tricycle, and a single tricycle fitted with Simms's automatic petrol motor of one and a half horse-power - a machine on the De Dion type with Simms's ignition - are to be found, and much attention is attracted by Simms's Motor Scout, a quadricycle, with one and a half horse-power motor at the back, and a Maxim gun worked from the saddle, and pivoted on a swivel over what would be the front seat, ten boxes of cartridges resting upon the platform beneath. All this warlike paraphernalia can be removed at will, and the machine converted to a two-seated tandem.
Models of Simms's patent magneto-electric ignition gear are also on view, and a new carriage in the shape of a four-wheeled Prince Albert - a sociable to carry two persons - fitted with a pair of Simms's petrol motors, air-cooled, and placed horizontally at the back of the car, developing together about three horse-power, the machine, which is well built and well finished, selling at £195 with Simms's patent shielded pneumatic tyres. Altogether, this firm have much to interest the enthusiastic autocarist.
DAIMLER MOTOR CO., LTD., Coventry. In addition to a number of machines shown in the running section, and busily engaged in conveying passengers about the grounds, this firm have examples of their Universal sporting car, Cranford waggonette (seating eight people), a Marseilles phaeton, and parcels delivery van, all fitted with five and a half horsepower motors.
Samples of the new Critchley car, or two-seated belt-driven Daimler, are to be found running about the grounds, and in the Marseilles phaeton the mechanical will find an entirely new gearing system employed, in which the gear wheels are always in mesh with each other, the different sets being put into gear with the shaft with sliding internal clutches, as required. This is a very good thing, the invention of Mr. Critchley, and should get over the wear of the gears and surrounding bearings.
Exhibition Buildings, Nos. 8a, 9, 10, and 11
are somewhat isolated from the remainder of the exhibits, and will be found at the opposite side of the track facing the grand stand. In the first of these
W. H. NEWMAN, of Totteridge Park, Bedford, shows a small Crossley oil engine driving a new thing in variable speed gears, by means of which the speed of the shaft connected to the road wheels can be varied at will from zero to the maximum, the speed of the motor-shaft remaining constant. So far as can be gathered by watching its operations, it appears to do all that its inventor claims for it. The gearing itself is compact, and consists of a combination of three gear wheels and eccentrics meshed together, and varied in their relation to each other by the shifting of a lever by means of a screw with small winch handle. We hope to illustrate the construction of this interesting exhibit in an early issue.
CORDINGLEY AND CO., 40, Shoe Lane, E.C., occupy a stall with motor car and other publications.
THE MOTOR CARRIAGE SUPPLY CO., LTD., whose main exhibit will be found in Building No. 8, show a motor with Simms's patent ignition gear at work, but the most important exhibit in this portion of the exhibition buildings is that of the
CLARKSON AND CAPEL STEAM CAR SYNDICATE, LTD., Deverell Street, Great Dover Street, S.E., who have decidedly one of the most novel and interesting exhibits in the show, introducing an entirely new series of steam carriages, and exhibiting a steam lorry designed to carry four to five tons of goods, a landau to carry six including the driver, and a Victoria with seats for two. The latter vehicle it running about the grounds, and after a ride in it we can only say that it is a most comfortable vehicle to travel in - very fast and extremely mobile, and answers instantly to the wish of the driver.
The steam lorry and the landau are supported (so far as their driving wheels are concerned) so that they may be shown with the machinery at work in a stationary position, and all carriages are constructed upon new systems in several directions. First of all, steam is raised in a new form, of boiler, which may almost be termed a flash boiler, and the heat applied by a new form of paraffin burner. This latter burns ordinary lamp oil, and is unaffected by wind, and constructed on the Bunsen principle, giving a perfectly blue flame entirely without smoke or smell, so much so, in fact, that nothing in the way of a chimney is requisite, and the heat escapes through a couple of holes at the top of the boiler case, the application of the nose to which detecting no smell, but only heat. This strikes us as being about the best thing in burners for this class of work we have yet seen.
In the steam Victoria the generator is constructed entirely of coiled tubes, a series of these being placed above the burner, so that the heat reaches the different tubes of the coils as quickly as can be arranged. This vehicle is driven by a twin-cylinder double-acting enclosed engine, working at any speed up to 2,000 revolutions, and driving the car by means of a small pinion on the engine-shaft gearing into an internally-toothed gear ring on one driving wheel, the exterior portions of which on either wheel form two powerful band brakes two feet in diameter operated by a foot lever. Speed is regulated solely by the steam throttle, placed in easy reach of the right hand of the driver, and in the front of the car a set of patent condensers are carried, which, together with side wings over the front wheels, constructed entirely of fine copper tubing, practically condense all the water used. The fuel and reserve water tanks contain sufficient for a fifty-mile run, and pressure gauges and indicators are placed conveniently in view of the driver. The body of the carriage is supported entirely free from any connection with the frame and machinery. The landau is a much more imposing affair, and reminds us very much of the state carriages of the last century; as the body is suspended entirely by C springs it should ride with great ease and comfort.
The entire design of this carriage is novel. The same system of oil firing is used, with a steam generator of a modified Thornycroft type supplying steam at 200 lbs. to the inch. It is fitted with a patent reciprocating float gear, which keeps the water constantly level, and dispenses with gauges, and is driven by an enclosed self-lubricating engine, developing seventeen horse-power, with the power transmitted by a Renold chain to a counter-shaft and balance gear. There is also a two-speed friction clutch, and the fuel and water tanks contain sufficient for a hundred miles run. The frame of the carriage is bent to elliptic curves, the body being suspended above, and the driver placed at the back. The car strikes us as being very practical, very comfortable, but, if anything, a shade on the "big" side, and not commercial.
The steam lorry uses the oil-fired vertical boiler, patent reciprocating float gear, patent oil burner, steam brake, and steam regulator, adopted in the other vehicles, and the exhaust steam is condensed by the atmosphere acting upon wire-covered copper tubes fitted into the roof of the cab over the driver. The weight of the vehicle is about 58 cwt. unladen, and for emergencies and hill work a low gear of treble power is brought into operation. It was intended to make this vehicle take part in the trials before the show opened, but, unfortunately, it was not ready in time, as it has only just been finished. It looks like being a very practical car.
Another very interesting portion of the exhibit of this firm is Clarkson's patent atmospheric condenser and cooler, consisting of light copper tubing corrugated spirally with a spiral coil of tinned copper electrical wire wrapped round it, following the spiral corrugations, and soldered to the tube, giving lightness and strength with a relatively large surface to the air. Messrs. Clarkson and Capel are making these tubes up into frames by the employment of light aluminium junction pieces, and so providing an exceedingly practical form of condenser for cooling the water jacket of petrol cars, and we fancy (as far as we can see without trial) they have about the best thing in the market of the kind.
Major Barclay's Prize.
Major Barclay, whose car was unfortunately destroyed by fire after an upset into a ditch, offered a special prize for a device which should automatically extinguish the lamps of a lamp-ignition vehicle should it by any chance be upset, and for this quite a spirited competition appeared likely to result, no less than seven entries having been made for it. Of these, however, only two ultimately materialised, these being Messrs. Lyon and Whitmarsh, whose ball and ring arrangement we dealt with in our description of exhibits in building No. 6, and Mr.
R. W. BUTTEMER, of St. Mary's, near Godalming, whose exhibit, although not so simple as the previous one, certainly possessed more striking features. In order to effect his object he provides a vessel containing water or other suitable liquid, with a tube leading to the burner compartment, so that when pressure is exerted upon the surface of the liquid it is forcibly driven into the hot burner box, instantly cooling the tubes, and extinguishing the flame. To effect this a set of weighted levers are so arranged that should the car overturn one of them is thrown over, and in so doing caused to actuate a valve which lets air into the water vessel either from the pressure tank of the petrol supply, or from a special reservoir provided for that purpose, when, of course, the water in the container is at once blown through the tube on to the burners. Mr. Buttemer also arranges as an alternative that the lever may release a piston, or let water into a mixture of dry acid and alkali, or let acid drop on to a carbonate in order to obtain pressure where no pressure tank is used.
The judges were hard at work through the early part of the week carefully examining the different points of the various vehicles submitted to them, and their full report is expected to be ready in a few days. At the moment of going to press, however, we are able to announce that, so far as cars are concerned, the following awards have been made, viz.:
GOLD MEDALS to the Daimler Motor Co., F. W. Lanchester, the Delahaye Syndicate, the Steam Carriage and Waggon Co. (Thomycrofts), and the Motor Carriage Supply Co.
SILVER MEDALS to Messrs. Hewetsons, Ltd., the Daimler Motor Co., the Automobile Association, and the Motor Carriage Supply Co. We hope to give further particulars concerning these awards in our next issue.
The show was not generally considered a success as attendance was low and it showed a loss of £1,600. Claude Johnson offered his resignation over it but was persuaded by Simms to withdraw it. 
By 1899 the Automobile Club, rising into influence and power, determined on a motor show of its own. This was held under very elaborate conditions in the Old Deer Park, Richmond, in June, and brought together 65 or 66 cars, which were arranged in tents. Trials were also held. It was thought this would kill the Agricultural Hall Show, which had been brought forward to the early part of July. It had an opposite effect, as nearly 150 cars were on view at Islington, a new record in motor shows, but an enormous percentage were of foreign make. So successful was this show that the Automobile Club came to terms and made Cordingley's their "official" show. This gave it a standing it never possessed before, and for some years it held this privilege.Cite error: Closing
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Sources of Information
- The Motoring Century – The Story of the RAC by Piers Brandon. Published 1997. ISBN 0 7475 3034 3
- The Autocar of 24th June 1899