Grace's Guide

British Industrial History

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 148,100 pages of information and 233,633 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co

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April 1921.

Later International Business Machines (IBM).

1880s Herman Hollerith invented the punched-card technology for use in the US census[1].

1896 Hollerith formed a small business in the United States to manufacture and market his machines.

1902 Tabulating Machine Company (or TMC) owned the rights to Hollerith's machines[2].

1908 The Tabulating Machine Company (TMC) gave an exclusive license to the British Tabulating Machine Co of London to market its punched-card machines in Britain and the Empire.

1911 TMC became part of a new company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co (C-T-R) which made timing devices, scales and slices (sic), in addition to tabulators.[3]

1924 C-T-R was renamed International Business Machines - IBM.

See Also


Sources of Information

  1. [1] BTM
  2. The Staffordshire University Computing Futures Museum Computers Page [2]
  3. The Shaping of Automation: A Historical Analysis of the Interaction Between ... By Dirk de Wit (1994)