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British Industrial History

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Gloster Aircraft Co: Meteor

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1945. "Meteor" Fighter in Flight.
1945. Meteor Jet Fighter.
1945. Meteor Jet Fighter from below.
Sept 1945.
1946. Meteor Single-Seat Jet-Propelled Fighter.
September 1946.
September 1946.
Sept. 1946.
February 1947.
1947. Trent- Meteor Research Aircraft.
1949. Refuelling from a Lancaster Tanker.
1950.
1950. Meteor Mark 8.
October 1951.
1951. Meteor Night Fighter.
1951.
October 1951.
1952.
1953.
1956.

Note: This is a sub-section of Gloster Aircraft Co

Type

  • Jet Fighter

Designers

Manufacturers

Production Dates

  • 1944-

Number produced

  • 3,947

Engines

The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only operational jet aircraft during the Second World War. The Meteor's development was heavily reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, Power Jets Ltd. Development of the aircraft itself began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936. The Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No. 616 Squadron RAF. Nicknamed the "Meatbox", the Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter.

Several major variants of the Meteor incorporated technological advances during the 1940s and 1950s. Thousands of Meteors were built to fly with the RAF and other air forces and remained in use for several decades. The Meteor saw limited action in the Second World War. Meteors of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) fought in the Korean War. Several other operators such as Argentina, Egypt and Israel flew Meteors in later regional conflicts. Specialised variants of the Meteor were developed for use in photographic aerial reconnaissance and as night fighters.

Armstrong Whitworth Meteor NF.11

In order to replace the increasingly obsolete De Havilland Mosquito as a night fighter, the Gloster Meteor was adapted to serve in the role as an interim aircraft.

Gloster had initially proposed a night fighter design to meet the Air Ministry specification for the Mosquito replacement, based on the two seater trainer variant of the Meteor, with the pilot in the front seat and the navigator in the rear. Once accepted however, work on the project was swiftly transferred to Armstrong Whitworth to perform both the detailed design process and production of the type; the first prototype flew on 31 May 1950. Although based on the T.7 twin seater, it used the fuselage and tail of the F.8, and the longer wings of the F.3. An extended nose contained the AI Mk 10 (the 1940s Westinghouse SCR-720) Air Intercept radar. As a consequence the 20 mm cannons were moved into the wings, outboard of the engines. A ventral fuel tank and wing mounted drop tanks completed the Armstrong Whitworth Meteor NF.11.

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