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of Gillingham Street, London
1897. THE KRIEGER ELECTRIC ROAD CARRIAGE 
A paper was recently read before the Societe des Electriciens, in Paris, by M. L. Krieger, giving a description of some electric carriages recently brought out.
The first carriage, converted from an ordinary horse-cab, has for some time past been driven about Paris. In this vehicle the driving power is applied to the fore-carriage by means of an electric motor geared to each wheel. To the armature shaft of each motor is attached a pinion wilh helical teeth engaging with a similar wheel rigidly attached to the corresponding driving wheel. The ratio of gearing is as 1 to 10. The field magnets of the two motors are coupled in series, and the two armatures in parallel.
The use of an independent motor to each driving wheel enables the steering to be effected electrically. For instance, if the armature of the motor on the inside of the curve it is desired to traverse be short-circuited, the fore carriage will turn to that side. The short-circuiting is brought about by means of a special commutator arranged for this purpose. The fore-carriage turns to an angle equal to that made by the steering handle. Hand steering gear of the usual type is also fitted to the carriage.
The second carriage was made by transforming a cab belonging to the Compagnia l'Abeille. It weighed 1,150 kilogrammes (2,535 lbs), and has taken trips of 30 kilometres without recharging the battery of "Fulmen" accumulators, which in itself weighed 285 kilogrammes (628 lbs). M. Krieger very naturally points out that the ancient build of the carriage, constructed 10 years ago, for horse traction, shows his system at a disadvantage, owing to the great strain on the fore-carriage, which was not designed for such a purpose.
Another carriage, especially constructed for electric traction, weighs, when empty, 1,880 kilogrammes (4,144 lbs). This includes the weight of the fore-carriage, which is 1,630 kilogrammes (3,593 lbs), and it is possible to travel a distance of 80 kilometres without recharging the batteries. This battery, especially designed by M. H. Meynier, commercial agent for the Julien accumulators, has a capacity of 450 ampere-hours, with a total weight of 640 kilogrammes (1,410 lbs.). It consists of 16 cells, each weighing 33 kilogrammes, and enclosed in an ebonite case having three compartments. Each compartment contains 13 plates, 6.5 millimetres in thickness, that is to say, 39 plates per element. The capacity being 450 ampere-hours, one obtains about 15 ampere-hours per kilogramme of plates. The ebonite cells are protected by thin oak boxes. A layer of special luting is poured on to the surface of the liquid of each cell. This composition, once dried, performs the function of a thin sheet of slate, sealing the cell hermetically, and preventing splashing over, which is one of the serious drawbacks in the carrying of accumulators by road.
Two motors of 150 kilogrammes, running at an angular velocity of 600 revolutions per minute, give a maximum couple of 13 kilogrammes, the normal couple being 1.5 kilogrammes. The rate of discharge of the accumulators is from 60 to 80 amperes, at 30 volts on the level, at a mean speed of 10 to 12 kilometres per hour, and the same speed can be maintained over such gradients as those on the road from St. Cloud to Garches. With a load of five passengers this carriage has run 65 kilometres at an average speed of 11 kilometres per hour. It has also covered a distance of 2,500 kilometres in the suburbs of Paris at an average speed of 10 kilometres per hour.
M. Krieger is having constructed an ordinary brougham with two seats, which is to travel 125 kilometres without recharging, and is to weigh only 800 kilogrammes (1,723 lbs), 350 of which are for some new accumulators, the name of which M. Krieger does not divulge, a single charge being sufficient during the night. This is notable, as the price of the kilo-watt hour of electric energy is very high in Paris.