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1870s At the Oakbank Oil Co, an oil shale company, George Thomas Beilby and William Young increased the yield of oil, ammonia, and other useful materials from the shale by retorting and fractional distillation improvements.
1882 The Young and Beilby retort was patented.
1885 Young and Beilby received a gold medal for invention in respect of improvements in the distillation of shale oils.