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1917 Year Book of Wireless Telegraphy: Biographical Notes

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Note: This is a sub-section of 1917 Year Book of Wireless Telegraphy

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES

Abraham, Henri.—General Secretary of the Societe Francaise de Physique from 1901 to 1913, now Professor of Physics at the Sorbonne in Paris.

Arco, Graf Georg von.—Born at Grossgorschiitz, Germany, he was educated at Berlin University and the Technical High School, Charlottenburg. In 1898 he was appointed assistant to the late Professor Slaby in the department of wireless telegraphy; later he joined the Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft, Berlin, continuing at the same time his work on the Slaby-Arco system of wireless telegraphy, and in 1903 receiving the appointment of manager of the Gesellschaft fur Drahtlose Telegraphic. In December, 1906, he carried out practical wireless telephony over a distance of 35 km. (21.7 miles). In 1912 he exhibited high-frequency apparatus at the International Radiotelegraph Congress in London.

Austin, Louis Winslow, Ph.D.—Head of the U.S. Naval Radiotelegraphic Laboratory, Washington, D.C. Son of Professor L. A. Austin, of Middlebury College; educated at Middlebury College, Clark University, and the Universities of Strassburg and Berlin. For a time he acted as assistant professor of physics at the University of Wisconsin, then joined the staff of the Physikalisch- Technische Reichsanstalt, Berlin, and has held his present position since 1908. Dr. Austin is especially interested in quantitative high frequency measurements, was a delegate to the International Radiotelegraphic Congress of London. During 1914 he held the office of President of the Institute of Radio Engineers.

Baker, T. Thorne.—Born March 19th, 1881. Educated at Mercers' School, London, and passed Intermediate Science examination at the University of London. After five years' work as research chemist he went to Paris in 1907 for the Daily Mirror to take up Prof. Korn's system of photo-telegraphy, and superintended the operation of the system between Manchester, Paris, and London. This was eventually superseded by a new system of his own invention. He has since devoted his time to high-frequency and X-ray research work.

Bangay, Raymond D.— Born at Lyme Regis in 1883. Mr. Bangay was educated at Epsom College and Finsbury Technical College, and joined the Marconi Company in 1902. After spending five years in America, during which time he was engaged in different branches of the Service, he returned to England and took up the study of Military Wireless Stations. In 1914 he was appointed Chief of the Field Station Department in the service of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd. He is the author of " The Elementary Principles of Wireless Telegraphy."

Beggerow, Dr. Hans.—Born September 3oth, 1874. Educated at the University of Berlin and at Freiburg-in-Breisgau, where he obtained his Doctorate. Since 19oi he has been expert adviser to the German Admiralty in all matters concerning wireless telegraphy, and since 1906 he has occupied a similar position in the Prussian Army.

Bellini, Dr. Ettore.—Born at Foligno, Italy, on April 13th, 1876, and educated at Naples University. In 1901 he was appointed Electrical Engineer to the Royal Italian Navy, and in 1906 he became Chief of the Naval Electrical Laboratory at Venice, in which latter capacity he was responsible for carrying out research work dealing with the employment of wireless telegraphy on warships and submarines. Later, in conjunction with Capt. Tosi, he invented the Radiogoniometer, an apparatus for directive wireless telegraphy. In 1910 the Bellini-Tosi system was installed at the Boulogne-sur-Mer station of the French Post Office.

Bethenod, J. F. .1., was born at Lyons in 1883, and went through a course of technical study at the Central School of that city. He has for a number of years acted as the Assistant of Professor Andre Blondel. Front 19o3 onward, he published a large number of theoretical articles on Electro-Dynamic Machinery, and has entered into business relationship with a number of Constructional Engineering Houses for the exploitation of his inventions. After a term of military service in the Engineers, when he served under Col. Ferri& he specialised in wireless telegraphy. In this field, both scientific investigation and industrial practice owe several important contributions Is his activities, a tact attested by articles which have appeared in the various French and foreign magazines. A number of wireless stations of varying power have been installed, wherein his devices are utilised. Of recent years, M. Bethenod has turned his attention to high frequency alternators, and has built machines giving remarkable results. He now holds the post of Engineer-in- Chief to the French Societe Radio-Electnique.

Blondel, Andre E.—Born in Chaumont, France, in 1863, and graduated at Paris University. He has been a frequent contributor to learned . societies and technical journals on several subjects, including wireless telegraphy, in connection with which he invented, in 1893, a new apparatus which is known as the Oscillograph," and which opened a fresh field for the study of alternate currents. He was the first to explain, mathematically, in 1893, the effect of inertia in the hunting of alternators. Among his other activities in wireless telegraphy, mention should be made of directed waves produced by a double aerial oscillating on the fifth harmonic, and also of a system of acoustically syntonic wireless telegraphy.

Blondlot, Professor Prosper Rene.—Born at Nancy in 1849. After completing his scientific studies in Paris, he returned to his native city, where he became Professor at the Faculty of Sciences. He is now an Hon. Professor and Correspondent of the Institute of France. Professor Blondlot has devoted considerable study to the problem of electromagnetic waves, the main object of his researches being to determine the speed of propagation of such waves. In the year 1891 he found for this speed the value 302,20o km. per second, and, in the year 1893, by another and quite different method, the value 297,2oo km. per second. 8 74 Tear-Book of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony

Bradfield, William Walter.— Born in London in 1879. Mr. Bradfield's connection with wireless telegraphy dates from September 3rd, 1897, when he entered what was then known as the "Wireless Telegraph and Signal Co., Ltd." He acted as Electrical Assistant to Senatore Marconi all through the course of his experimental work in Radiotelegraphy on the Salisbury Plain, during 1897. In the year 1899 he installed the first wireless apparatus on British battle- ships, and a little later assisted in demonstrations to the United States Government on board the United States battleship Massachusetts. In 1901 similar demonstrations conducted by him for the French Government resulted in the establishment of wire- less communication between the French Riviera and Corsica. In the same year he supervised the erection of the well-known station at Siasconset and the Nantucket Lightship. In 1902 Mr. Bradfield accepted the position of Chief Engineer to the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of America, a post he held until 1908, when he returned to England as Deputy Manager of the Parent Company and of the Marconi International Marine Communication Co., Ltd. In 1910 he became the Manager of both concerns, a position which he still occupies.

Branly, Edouard.—Born at Amiens on October z3rd, 1844. He studied at St. Quentin College, and afterwards at Henry IV. College, Paris. He is a Fellow of the University, Doctor of Physical Science, and Doctor of Medicine. Some of his works relate to the electrical conductivity of radio-conductors. In 1900 the Inter- national Jury of Superior Precept Instruction awarded him grand ieix for his exhibition of radio-conductors, and the French Minister of Public Instruction made him a "Chevalier of the Legion of Honour " in recognition of the part he had played in connection with the discovery of "Wireless Telegraphy." He has- constructed various independent distributing apparatus for producing tele-mechanical effects without wires. In January, 1911, he was elected a member of the Academy of Science, Paris.

Braun, Prof. Ferdinand.—Born at Fulda on June 6th, 1850, and studied at Marbourg and Berlin, graduating at the latter place in 1872. In October, 1895, he was appointed Director of the Physikalische Institut at Strassburg. His early works refers to mechanical oscillations, but for many years he has devoted himself mainly to electrical research, with special attention to wireless telegraphy. He has held several academic appointments of the highest importance, and is the author of numerous books and papers on wireless telegraphy and kindred subjects. In December, 1910, he received (with Senatore Marconi) the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Bright, Charles, F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., M.I.E.E.—Consulting Engineer and Electrician to the Commonwealth of Australia. Born in London 1863 and educated at Lancing College and King's College. In 1881 he was articled to his father, the late Sir Charles Tilston Bright. Since that date he has been engaged, both as engineer and electrician, in the construction, testing, laying, and repairing of some 25,000 miles of submarine cable. He represented Australia as sole delegate at the International Radio- telegraphic Conference of 1912. He is a Vice-President of the Wireless Society of London. Biographical Notices 875

Brown, Sidney George, M.I.E.E.—Born in 1873 in Chicago, U.S.A., of English parents, and brought to England when 18 months old.. He received his education at Harrogate and London University. He made a special study of submarine telegraphy and is the inventor of the magnifying cable relay. In 1898 he invented the drum cable relay and the magnetic shunt. Since that date he has also devoted much attention to telephony and wireless telegraphy and has achieved some important results, such as the carbon telephone relay, telephone transmission on land trunk lines, the improved wireless telephone receiver, and other inventions. He is a Vice-President of the Wireless Society of London, and a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers.

Bullard, Capt. W. H. G., U.S.N.—Born December 6th, 1866, in State of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. In 1886 he was graduated at the United States Naval Academy. He subsequently served on ships of the Navy on the Atlantic, South Atlantic, Pacific, and Asiatic Stations, with shore duty, which had particular reference to the science of Electrical Engineering and its Development, in which he bad specialised throughout his career. From 1912 to 1916 Captain Bullard held the post of Superintendent of the Naval Radio Service. He was the first to occupy this position; and under his super- vision the communication system of the Navy Department was developed and enlarged. He was one of the delegates-plenipotentiary of the United States at the International Conference for Safety of Life at Sea, held in London in November, 1913. He was in charge, on behalf of the United States Navy, of the wireless operations contained in the series of experiments carried out between the Eiffel Tower and Arlington to determine longitude by means of wireless telegraphy.

Bnrstyn, Dr. W.—Born in Austria in 1877, and educated at the University of Vienna. He started his career as an electrical engineer with the Siemens-Schuckert Werke at Charlottenburg and with the Gesellschaft fiir Drahtlose Telegraphic.

Chamberlain, Eugene Tyler.—Son of General Frank Chamberlain. He was born in Albany, N.Y., on September 28th, 1856. Educated at the Albany Academy and Harvard College, graduating with • honours in Metaphysics in 1878. After being in business for two years, he took up journalism and acted as legislative and political correspondent to the Associated Press. In 1893 he came to Washington and was appointed Commissioner of Navigation by President Cleveland. In 1903, on the creation of the Department of Commerce and Labour, he joined others in urging the importance of wireless telegraphy as a means of promoting safety of life on merchant vessels at sea, and he has since played a prominent part in promoting legislation on this subject. He was a delegate for the U.S.A. to the Convention on Safety of Life at Sea, at London, 1914.

Chree, Charles.—Born 1860. Sc.D. of Cambridge; Hon. LL.D. of Aberdeen; F.R.S. Graduated M.A. at Aberdeen in 1879, with first-class honours in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. At Cambridge in 1883 he obtained the high place of sixth wrangler, gaining also first-class honours in the final parts of the Mathematical and Natural Science Triposes. He became Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, in 1885; and was re-elected as Research Fellow in 1891. He held the position of Superintendent of Kew Observatory since 1893, and is an ex-President of the Physical Society of London, besides being a member of the British Association Committee for Radiotelegraphic Investigation. During the last fifteen years he has been largely concerned with geophysics, especially terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity. He is author of " Studies in Terrestrial Magnetism," and a contributor of articles in the last edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Clarke, E. Russell.—Born in 1871, he was educated at Charterhouse and Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he took a first-class in the Mathematical Tripos of 1893, and was equally successful in the Mechanical Science Tripos of the succeeding year. He became a barrister of the Inner Temple in 1895. He specialises in cases of a scientific nature, and has an expert knowledge of the laws on patents, designs, and trade marks. He is an associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers, an associate and member of council of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, a member of council of the Institution of Automobile Engineers, and a Vice-President of the Wireless Society of London. For the last twelve years Mr. Clarke has been closely interested in the development of wireless telegraphy, and has erected two stations, one in London, and one at Penbydwl, Abergavenny, in Wales.

Cohen, Louis.—Born in 1876, he studied electrical engineering in Armour Institute of Technology, 1897-1901, and physics and mathematics in the University of Chicago and Columbia University, 1902-1905. He was on the Scientific Staff of the Bureau of Standards front 1905 to 1909 and Assistant Professor at the George Washington University, 1907-1909. In 1909 he was appointed chief of the re- search department of the National Electric Signalling Co., to take charge of the development of wireless apparatus. During his connection with that company he has also carried on extensive investigations in connection with the Heterodyne receiver. Since the latter part of 1912 he has been engaged in developing his own inventions in wireless telegraphy, particularly the Electrostatically Coupled Receiver, and recently he has also taken up the practice of consulting and research engineering. He is the author of the book "Formulae and Tables for the Calculation of Alternating Current Problems," and has published scientific and technical papers dealing with problems in wireless telegraphy and kindred subjects.

Coursey, Philip R., B.Sc. (Eng.), F.P.S.L.—Born 1892. Educated at University College, London, and awarded Diploma in Electrical Engineering with Distinction. Graduated with first-class Honours in Electrical Engineering at the University of London. He subsequently acted as Assistant to Dr. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S., in the Electrical Engineering Department, and Research Laboratories of University College, London; and is at present engaged under the Admiralty in the Inspection of Wireless Telegraph Apparatus. He is the author of several papers on Radio-telegraphy and telephony, read before various societies.

Crawley, Major C. G., Royal Marine Artillery, M.I.E.E.—Deputy Inspector of Wireless Telegraphy, General Post Office. He was engaged at wireless telegraph work in the Navy from 1903 to 1913, when he entered the service of the Post Office, from which he was lent to the Admiralty for wireless work on the outbreak of war.

Crookes, Sir William, O.M., F.R.S., D.Sc. (Hon.), LL.D.—Born in London June 17th, 1832. He entered the Royal College of Chemistry in 1884 as a pupil of Dr. Hofmann, and gained the Ashburton Scholarship in 1849. Later on he became senior assistant to Dr. Hofmann, which position he retained until 1854, when he received the appointment of Superintendent of the Meteorological Department of Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1863. Although his career has been mainly devoted to chemical research, he has carried out a long series of original investigations in radio-telegraphy, and has also published some interesting articles on the subject. He is a past-president of the British Association, the Chemical Society, and the Institution of Electrical Engineers. In November, 1913, he was elected President of the Royal Society.

De Forest, Dr. Lee.—Born at Iowa, U.S.A., and graduated at Yale College. Since 1896 he has been actively interested in wireless telegraphy and has made material contributions to the radio art.

Desbarats, George Joseph, C.M.G., B.A.Sc.—Deputy Minister and Comptroller of the Canadian Naval Service. Born at Quebec, January 27th, 1861. Educated at the Public Schools; Terrebonne College, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (honours and gold medal, 1879); Laval University (B.A.Sc., 1901). Engineer on construction and other public works; assistant to late John Page, Chief Engineer of Canals; Inspector, Railway Construction, B.C., 1892-96; Engineer of Construction, Galops Canal, 1896-99; employed in hydraulic survey work, St. Lawrence River, three years; rebuilt and enlarged the Government shipyard, Sorel, Quebec, 1901; Government Agent, Sorel, 1908-9; Acting Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, 1908-9; Deputy Minister, 1909-10; received present appointment, June, 1910. Plenipotentiary for Canada at the Radiotelegraph Conference held at London, England, 1902. Member of the Canadian Society Civil Engineers, 1897; Councillor, 1907; Vice-President, 1909; Councillor, Ecole Polytechnique, 1909.

Duddell, W., F.R.S.—Born in London in 1872, and educated privately in this country and in France. He carried out research work at the Central Technical College, London, between 1893 and 1900, and obtained a Whitworth Scholarship and Exhibition. In 1908 he read, in conjunction with Dr. E. W. Marchant, a paper on "Experiments on Alternate Current Arcs by the Aid of Oscillographs" before the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and in 1900 he read a paper on "Rapid Variations of Current through the Direct-Current Arc." He received a gold medal for oscillographs at the Paris Exhibition of 1900, and at St. Louis in 1904, and also the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society. He was President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers for two years, 1912, 1914. He was chairman of the meetings of the International Scientific Radiotelegraphic Commissions held in Brussels in 1913 and 1914. He was also a member of the technical committee appointed by the Government in 1912 to consider the question of long-distance wireless telegraphy. He acted for three years as Consulting Engineer for Wireless Telegraphy at the Post Office, and is a member of the Admiralty Board of Invention and Research, and served for one year on the Munition Invention Board. He is also a Member of the Council for Industrial Research.

Eccles, W. H., D.Sc., A.R.C.S., M.I.E.E.— Born in Furness, Lancs, in 1873, and entered the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, in 1894. Three years later he was appointed demonstrator in the Physics Laboratory at the College, and in 1898 he graduated at the London University with first-class honours in Physics. In 1899 he entered Mr. Marconi's laboratory at Chelmsford and spent a great part of his time in the investigation of electrical oscillations of air wires and in "jiggers." He also devised a laboratory method for testing and classifying coherers, and results of a later study of coherers were presented. as one of his D.Sc. theses. In 1901 Dr. Eccles was appointed head of the department of mathematics and physics at the South-Western Polytechnic, Chelsea, and afterwards University Reader in Graphics at University College, London. He is now Professor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Technical College, Finsbury, E.C. He is secretary of the Physical Society, examiner in mathematics at the London University, and secretary of the British Association Committee for Radiotelegraphic Investigation.

Eichhorn, Gustav, Ph.D.— Born at Dusseldorf (Germany) on December 1st, 1867. After leaving the Realgymnasium he took up the study of physics, but this was interrupted by the death of his father, and for ten years he devoted himself to a business career; then he returned to the profession of his choice and continued his interrupted studies. After three years at Berlin, Munich, and Zurich, he took the degree in physics (Phil. Dr.) at the last-named University. He entered a wireless telegraph laboratory, and soon after he was appointed manager of experimental stations on the Baltic, where for about eighteen months he conducted a number of investigations. The results of these are incorporated in a book which was published in England and Germany. He has contributed to various technical journals and has invented a device which is used in connection with wave meters and other instruments. He returned to Zurich in 1905 and two years later launched the Jahrbuch de drahtlosen Telegraphic and Telephonic, which is now a well-known annual publication. He is still engaged in practical and theoretical work in wireless telegraphy and telephony.

Eisenstein, S. Al.—Born at Kief, Mr. Eisenstein was educated at the University of that city, afterwards studying at the University of Berlin and the Charlottenburg Polytechniz. He first turned his attention to wireless telegraphy in 1900, and in 1904 obtained his preliminary wireless patent, and established a private experimental laboratory. General Soukomlinoff, then commanding the troops of the Kief Division, heard of the young wireless enthusiast and encouraged him to carry out experiments on a large scale, eventually prevailing on the Russian War Office to provide the young scientist with sites for the erection of stations. The action, taken in consequence by the War Office, resulted in the realisation of the necessity for forming a wireless company; the project was speedily materialised and Mr. Eisenstein changed his headquarters from Kief to Petrograd. The new departure speedily justified itself, and in 1911 the original company coalesced with the Marconi Company, and the reconstructed Russian Organisation, with Mr. Eisenstein as Director and Principal Technical Adviser, assumed responsibility for the development of Russian wireless. Mr. Eisenstein is still the active and responsible chief of the "Russian Company of Wireless Telegraphs and Telephones."

Erskine Murray, James, D.Sc., F.R.S.E., M.I.E.E.—Born in Edinburgh on October 24th, 1868, and after a course of six years' study under the late Lord Kelvin at Glasgow University he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a research student. From 1896 to 1898 he was assistant Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering in the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, and in 1898 he was appointed experimental assistant to Mr. Marconi. In 1900 he took up the post of lecturer and demonstrator in physics-and electrical engineering at the University College, Nottingham, and in 1905 he was appointed to the lectureship in electrical engineering at the George Coates' Technical College, Paisley. In 1905 he took up consulting work in radiotelegraphy, and front 1907 to 1911 held the post of lecturer at the Northampton Institute, London. He has contributed papers to numerous learned societies, and is the author of several works on wireless telegraphy. In 1913 he joined the firm of Clark, Forde and Taylor, consulting engineers, and the firm is now Clark, Forde, Taylor, and Erskine-Murray.

Ferrie, Lt. Colonel.—One of the French pioneers in Wireless Telegraphy, Colonel Ferrie was a member of the joint Military, Naval, and Telegraph Commission which inspected and reported to the French Government on the wireless station erected by the Marconi Company at Wimereux, in 1899, when the first cross-Channel working was achieved. He was also a member of the French Government Commission which watched the working of the Franco-Corsica communication by wireless in April, 1901. In 1904 he acted as the Official Representative of France at the International Electrical Congress at St. Louis (U.S.A.). Colonel Ferrie has. in the course of a king and brilliant career, contribute-I a large number of important articles and treatises dealing with Radio-Telegraphy which have won for him a high reputation among scientific men all over the world. At the present date he holds the Post of Technical Director of Military Wireless Telegraphy, being attached in that capacity to the Department of the French Ministry for War.

Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey.—Born at Milton, Canada, on October 6th, 1866. Educated at New York and Port Hole, Ontario. In 1886 he was appointed inspecting engineer to the Edison Company, N.Y. In 1892 he took up teaching work and conducted classes in physics and electrical engineering at Western University, and in 1893 he was appointed Professor of Electrical Engineering at Western University, Philadelphia. In too he was appointed special agent to the U.S. Weather Bureau. Since that date he has devoted much attention to the development of a system of wireless telegraphy known by his name, and he has also carried out important experiments in wireless telephony. He has contributed articles on wireless telegraphy and telephony to many technical journals.

Fleming, Dr. John Ambrose, F.R.S.—Born in Lancaster on November 29th, 1849. Educated at University College School, London; University College; the Royal School of Mines; and St. John's College, Cambridge; Hughes Gold Medallist of the Royal Society. In 1880 he was appointed demonstrator in mechanics and applied-science to the University of Cambridge, and when University College, Nottingham, was opened in 1881, Dr. Fleming was selected as first occupant of the chair of mathematics and physics. A little later on he resigned this professorship to remove to London. On the creation of the Pender Chair of Electrical Engineering in 1885, the Council of the University College, London, appointed Dr. Fleming first occupant of that chair. After the incorporation of the University College with the University of London the title of Dr. Fleming's chair was changed to that of Pender Professor in the University of London. In 1912 Dr. Fleming was appointed University Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. He has been a large contributor to scientific literature and research, and is the author of numerous well-known text-books, amongst which may be mentioned particularly his books on wireless telegraphy. He has given many courses of lectures at the Royal Society of Arts and the Royal Institution on wireless telegraphy and other subjects. His inventions and writings have assisted greatly the development of radiotelegraphy. For his scientific researches he has been twice awarded the Institution Premium of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and also a silver medal of the Royal Society of Arts.

Forberg, Olaf E.—Director of Telegraphs in Iceland, was born on November 22nd, 1871, in the Province of Finmark, in the north of Norway. At an early age he was attached to the Norwegian Telegraphic Service, first as a Telegraphic Clerk, later as the head of a station; front 1900 as the Manager of the Controlling Station 4. Violungsnes " in the Romsdal. During the years 1893 to 1904 Mr. Forberg conducted the erection of several new Telegraphic Plants in Norway. In 1905 he was designated by the Norwegian Board of Telegraphs (after having been approached by the Icelandic and Danish Governments) as qualified to superintend the erection stations and organisation of the Telegraphic system in Iceland. In the spring of 1905, Mr. Forberg went to Iceland for examination, and in 1906 he built the Telegraphic Line from Reykjavik to Seydisfjord. The following year he was appointed Director of Telegraphs in Iceland, and controls both the wired and wireless nexus of the island.

Franklin, Charles Samuel.—Born in 1879, Mr. Franklin received his engineering and scientific training at Finsbury Technical College, under Professor Sylvanus Thompson. After some time spent in electrical work, first at Manchester and afterwards with the Norwich Electricity Company, Mr. Franklin joined the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company (then known as fine "Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company") in 1899, and still remains in their service. He has during recent years been engaged (in conjunction with Mr. H. J. Round) in conducting experimental and research work on behalf of Senatore Marconi.

Frouin, M.—He is Director of the French Telegraphs and was one of his country's representatives at the International Radiotelegraphic Conference held in London in 1912.

Geoghegan, Samuel.—In 1875 he was appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer to Messrs. Arthur Guinness and Co., of Dublin, in whose service he spent thirty years. He is a member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the Midland Institution of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers, the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, and a member of the Council of the Royal Dublin Society. Director of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd.

Girardeau, Emile, Managing Director of the Societe Francaise Radio-Electrique. Born in 1882, Monsieur Girardeau received his education at the Ecole Polytechnique (after which he joined the Army and served as an officer in the Engineers). He is the author of various works, on a number of subjects relating to wireless telegraphy, and has played an important part in the creation and organisation of the Societe Francaise Radio-Electrique, of which he is at once the founder and managing director.

Glazebrook, R. T., C.B., M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.—Born at Liverpool, September 18th, 1854. Educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where, after taking his degree, he commenced a study of physics at the Cavendish Laboratories under Clerk Maxwell. In 1899 he was appointed by the Royal Society as the first Director of the National Physical Laboratory, which position he still holds. He is a member of the technical committee enquiring into the Imperial Wireless scheme.

Goldschmidt, Professor Dr. Rudolf.—Born March i9th, 1876, at Neu-Buckow, Mecklenburg, Germany. After finishing his education at Wiemar Municipal School, he studied engineering at Charlottenburg and Darmstadt Technical High School. In 1900 he was appointed engineer in the laboratory of the A.E.G. in Berlin. In 1901-2 he occupied the position of chief laboratory engineer and designer in Prague. In 1907 he became lecturer at Darmstadt Technical College. Here he practised as a consulting engineer, and also pursued the development of several inventions, chiefly occupying himself with the invention and design of high-frequency alternators for wireless telegraphy. In 1911 he established two large wireless stations at Elveison, Province of Hanover, and Tuckerton, New Jersey, U.S.A., for wireless communication between Germany and America.

Goldsmith, Prof. Alfred N., B.Sc., Ph.D.—Born in New York City. Graduated from the College of the City of New York and Columbia University. Author of "Elements of Physics," "The Transmission of Canal Rays through Thin Partitions," "Radio Engineering at the College of the City of New York," "The Engineering Measurements of Radiotelegraphy," "Radiotelephony," and other works. Research worker in radio communication, particularly radio-telephony. Director of Radio Engineering work at the College of the City of New York. Editor of the "Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers," Chairman of the Standardisation Committee of the Institute of Radio Engineers (1915), and Member of Board of Direction of the Institute. Professor Goldsmith is a Fellow of the Institute of Radio Engineers, a Member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and a member of the American Physical Society.

Gray, Andrew.—Born at Glasgow in 1873, and educated at the Glasgow University and Royal Technical College, taking the diploma of the latter in electrical engineering. On leaving college he served as assistant to the late Professor Andrew Jamieson, of the Royal Technical College. In 1893 he joined the West India and Panama Telegraph Company, Ltd., and served as assistant electrician, chief electrician, and telegraph engineer. He entered the service of the Marconi Company in 1899. He introduced the Marconi system to the Hawaiian Islands, and with the assistance of Mr. T. E. Hobbs, also a member of the Marconi service — organised the telegraph working and trained the native operators of the Inter-island Telegraph Company of Honolulu. He received the appointment of Chief of Staff to the Marconi Company under Senatore Marconi in 1901, and became Chief Engineer in 1910. He has been an Associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers since 1898.

Hammond, John Hays, Jr.—Born in San Francisco, April 13th 1888, educated at Preparatory Schools in England and the U.S.; graduated from the Yale-Sheffield Scientific School in 1910. He has been working ever since on the development of the system of radio control of torpedoes and other moving bodies, and has made application for 137 U.S. patents. The Board of Ordnance and Fortifications of the U.S: Army and the Secretary of War have recommended to Congress that these applications be purchased in their entire rights by the U.S. for the sum of $83o,000. Mr. Hammond is the originator of the system of aerocoastal patrol, comprising aeroplanes equipped with wireless, which has received the endorsement of President Wilson, the Secretary of Navy, and the Secretary of War. He has written for private circulation a four-volume treatise on the Art of Teledynamics. He has been Treasurer of the Institute of Radio Engineers, and Manager and Chairman of the Committee on Admissions. He is a member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers and Associate Delegate to the International Telegraphic Conference in London in 1912.

Hogan, John L., Jr.—Born in Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. He attended Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, specialising in physics and mathematics. He assisted Dr. Lee De Forest in his work on experimental and radiotelephony, and in the development of the grid audion in 1906 and 1907. In 1909 he joined the staff of the National Electric Signalling Company at Brant Rock, Mass., and in 1914 was appointed Chief Research Engineer of that Company. He is the author of "The Heterodyne Receiving System," "Wireless Telegraphy in Railroad Service," "Transatlantic Radiotelegraphy," and numerous other articles and papers published in the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, the Electrician (London), the Electrical World, the faltrbuch der D.T.U.T., etc. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Radio Engineers, and their Vice- President in 1916; a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and honorary member of the Radio Club of America. In 1916 he held the post of Chairman of the Standardisation Committee of the Institute of Radio Engineers. He is the holder of ten patents embodying inventions relating to radiotelegraphy.

Hope-Jones, Frank.—Chairman of the Wireless Society of London. He was born in 1867, and from 1890 to 1895 he was associated with his elder brother, Robert Hope-Jones, in some of his earliest applications of electricity to organ-building. Since then he has established the business of electric time service on a scientific basis. He is a member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, the British Horological Institution, etc., and is author of numerous contributions to technical journals and to the Proceedings of Scientific Societies.

Howe, Prof. George William Osborn, D.Sc., M.I.E.E.— Born 1875, at Charlton, Kent, he received his education at Woolwich Polytechnic and Durham University. After nine years with Siemens Bros., at Woolwich, and Siemens and Halske, at Charlottenburg, and two years as lecturer at Hull Technical School, he was appointed lecturer and later Assistant-Professor of Electrical Engineering at the City and Guilds Engineering College. He is a D.Sc. of Durham and an honorary D.Sc. of Adelaide University. He has read several papers on radiotelegraphy before the British Association, the Physical Society, etc., and in 1912 was awarded the silver medal by the Royal Society of Arts for his paper on " Some Recent Developments in Wireless Telegraphy." He is on the Council of the Physical Society, and is a member of the Radiotelegraphic Research Committee of the British Association and of the British Committee of the Inter- national Radiotelegraphic Commission.

Hoyle, Lieut. Bertram.—Is a native of Oldham and obtained his technical and practical education at the School of Technology, Manchester, of which he is now an Associate. He also entered as a student at the Victoria University, Manchester, and in 1907 obtained the Certificate of that University in Technology, in the Department of Electrical Engineering; and also the Diploma of the School. He has since acquired the degree of M.Sc. Tech. of that University and is an A.M.I.E.E. He then entered the service of Messrs. Henry Simon, Ltd., Manchester; and later on that of Messrs. S. Z. de Ferranti Ltd., Hollinwood. In 1911 Mr. Hoyle obtained a post as Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Electrical Engineering at the School of Technology, Manchester, which he still holds. Mr. Hoyle has had charge of the design and erection of the wireless station with which the School of Technology is now equipped. He enlisted in the early part of 1915 as a motor cycle despatch rider, and has served on the Western Front. In September, 1915, however, he was gazetted Lieut. R.N.V.R. He is author of a number of interesting essays and monographs, including an original paper of great interest on "The Influence of Temperature and Pressure on the Sensitivity of the Carborundum Crystal Detector."

Illingworth, Arthur Holden, J.P., M.P.—Born 1865, has represented the Heywood Division of South-East Lancashire since 1915. He is Director of Messrs. Isaac Holden et Fils (France), Ltd., of Bradford, Croix, Roubaix, and Reims. On the construction of the War Cabinet formed by Mr. Lloyd George in December, 1916, Mr. Illingworth became Postmaster-General.

Isaacs, Godfrey C.—Educated in England, France and Germany. He began life in his father's business, and at eighteen years of age he was manager of the great concern which he had entered as a lad. In 1910 he was appointed Managing Director of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd., and the Marconi International Marine Communication Co., Ltd.

Janet, Paul.—Professor of Physics at the University of Paris, Director of the Central Laboratory and of the High School of Electricity. He was born on January loth, 1863, in Paris, And studied at the Lye& Louis-le-Grand and afterwards at the High School. He is a member of the French Society of Physics, the International Society of Electricians, and the Society of Civil Engineers of France. From 1886 to 1894 he was Professor of Physics at the University of Grenoble. Professor Janet has published several important works, and from the point of view of wireless telegraphy he was the first to make a successful experiment in electric resonance by means of high- frequency currents in 1892; this is the phenomena used to-day in wavemeters.

Kennedy, Sir A. B. W., F.R.S.— Born in London, March 17th, 1847. He has had great mechanical engineering experience and has been President of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He has designed electric lighting and power stations for many corporations, and has also been engaged in railway work. He received the honour of knighthood in 1905 on account of his services to the Admiralty. He was a member of the technical Committee which was appointed by the Postmaster- General to consider the Imperial Wireless scheme. He is a civilian member of the Ordnance Board, and F member of the Munitions Inventions Panel. He is also consulting electrical engineer to the L.N.W.R. and the L.S.W.R.

Kennelly, A. E.—Born in Calaba, Bombay, December 17th, 1861. He was educated in England, Scotland, Belgium, France. and Italy. He is a Past-President of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, a member of the American Associated Illuminating Engineers; held the post of President, in 1916, of the Institute of Radio Engineers; acted as Vice-President of the International Electrical Congresses, Paris and Turin; and as General Secretary of the Congress at St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. He left school in 1875 to become a telegraph operator in the Eastern Telegraph Company. In 1881 he was Chief Electrician on Cable Ship; Senior Electrician ship staff, E.T.C., 1886. From 1886-1892 he became principal electrical assistant to Thomas A. Edison, in the laboratories at Orange, N.J.; Consulting Engineer in Philadelphia, and from 1893- 1900 worked in partnership with E. J. Houston, of the Thomson Houston Company. He was Engineer-in-Chief when the cables were laid from Vera Cruz to Campeche in 1902. Since then he has been Professor of Electrical Engineering at Harvard University and also at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, since 1914. He is a Corresponding-Fellow of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; a member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers of London, and has twice received one of its premiums for papers. He is now Director of Research Division of the Electrical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has written twenty-three books as author or collaborator, one of which is considered a standard elementary exposition of wireless telegraphy, and is author of more than 120 scientific papers. His honorary degrees include the S.D. degree of the University of Pittsburg and the A.M. degree of Harvard University. In past years he has been Chairman and Secretary of Standards Committee, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and Secretary of the American Committee of the International Electro Technical Commission. Professor Kennelly has specialised in alternating currents.

Kolster, Frederick A.— Born in Geneva, Switzerland, January 13th, 1883. He was educated in the Public Schools of Cambridge, Mass., and at Harvard University, and became assistant to John Stone Stone front 1902-1908, playing an active part in wireless engineering up to 1912. He then joined the scientific staff of the U.S. Bureau of Standards, and has since been closely associated with the radio work of the U.S. Government. He is the inventor of a direct reading decremeter and other devices, a Fellow of the Institute of Radio Engineers, and filled the position of Attaché to American delegation representing the U.S. in London International Radio Convention in 1912.

Korn, Professor Arthur.—Born at Breslau, Germany, May 20th, 1870. Dr. Korn studied at Leipzig and Paris in Mathematics and Physics. In 1903 he was appointed Professor of Physics at the University of Munich, retiring from that position in 1908. He is best known as the inventor of a system of telegraphic transmission of photographs, and in 1907 the first photograph was transmitted under his system from Munich to Berlin, a distance of 600 kilometres. Professor Korn has also invented a system of telautography. His work, entitled "Elektrische Fernphotographie und Aehnliches," appeared at Leipzig in 1904, and a larger work, entitled "Handbuch der Phototelegraphie und Telautographie," was published by him in 1911, in collaboration with Dr. Glatzel.

Latour, Marius, was born in October, 1875, and is a native of the South Western District of France. He owes his scientific and technical training to the University of Paris and to the Parisian Ecole Superieure d'Electricite. M. Latour has, for many years past, acted as Consulting Engineer to the General Electric Company of America, and is the author of numerous inventions in the world of electrodynamics. From the start, he paid special attention to the construction of high frequency machines, which he originally attempted to design in the shape of monophase or polyphase machines grouped in cascade; later on he analysed the essential features of machines based on this principle, and showed their analogy and close relationship with those of Professor Goldschinidt. As long ago as 1904 he presented an original paper to the Technical Manager of the General Electric Company at Schenectady . setting forth the principle of the reception of continuous waves by beats, and this principle of beat reception is to-day the one in general use. More recently M. Latour has specialised in the direction of constructing amplifiers of low and high frequency for wireless telegraphic 'reception, for the benefit of the French Societe Radio-Electrique, of which he is consulting engineer•.

Lodge, Sir Oliver, F.R.S.—Born at Penkhall, Staffs, on June 12th, 1851. He was educated at the Newport (Salop) Grammar School, and was intended for a business career, but being attracted to science he entered University College, London, in 1872, and graduated D.Sc. five years later. He was reader in natural philosophy at Bedford College for Women, and Assistant Professor of Physics in University College, London, for several years, then Professor of Physics in University College, Liverpool, for nineteen years, before being appointed, in 1900, the first Principal of the new Birmingham University. He was knighted in 1902. He has distinguished him- self in various spheres of thought, and his original work includes investigations on lightning, the seat of the electromotive force in the voltaic cell, the phenomena of electrolysis and the speed of the ion, the motion of the ether near the earth, and electromagnetic waves and wireless telegraphy. His patent for syntonic wireless telegraphy has been acquired by the Marconi Co. He has held the position of President of the British Association as well as that of President of the Physical Society, and of the Society for Psychical Research, and has made many important contributions to the literature of science.

Lombardi, Dr. Luigi.—Born on August 1st, 1867, at Dronero (Italy). In 1890 he obtained the diploma of civil engineering at the Royal Engineering School of Turin. He gained the diploma in electricity at the Industrial Museum of Turin in 1891 and won the Gori-Feroni prize. He has been professor of electricity at the Zurich Polytechnic School (1895-97), at the Industrial Museum of Turin (1897-1900), and since 1901 at the Royal Polytechnic School in Naples. He has published a book on the " Scientific Principles of Electricity" and a text-book on electrotechnics, besides numerous papers on kindred subjects. He is the author of a study on the employment of condensers for the transmission of electricity, which obtained for him the Kramer Prize of the Lombard Institute. He is the inventor of a special high-tension electrical condenser. He was a delegate of the Italian Government at the St. Louis International Congress of Electricity, and has been President of the International Congress held in Turin in 1911 as well as of several technical and scientific societies.

Loring, Commander F. G., R.N., M.I.E.E.—Inspector of Wireless Telegraphy at the General Post Office. He entered the Navy in 1882 (retired 1910). He was lieutenant on board H.M.S. Victoria when that vessel was rammed and sunk by H.M.S. Canterdown off Tripoli in 1893, and received the bronze medal of the Royal Humane Society for saving two lives. In charge of the Admiralty shore wireless telegraph stations front 1902-8. In 1906 he acted as delegate for the Admiralty at the Berlin International Conference on Wireless Telegraphy. In 1908 he was appointed Inspector of Wireless Telegraphy and he represented the Post Office at the International Conference on Wireless Telegraphy held in London in 1912. At the International Conference on the Safety of Life at Sea (London, January, 1914) he acted as technical adviser to the Board of Trade on all matters connected with wireless telegraphy.

McLachlan, Norman W.— Born at Long Town, Cumberland, on July 26th, 1888, Mr. McLachlan was educated first at Carlisle Grammar School and afterwards at the George Watson and at the Heriot-Watt Colleges (Edinburgh). In 1909 he started his career at Newcastle-on-Tyne as Lecturer in Engineering and Mathematics. In 1912 he graduated B.Sc. (Engineering), and in 1913 was appointed Superintendent to a Grand Technical Institute and Supervisor of Classes in Engineering Subjects in the Liverpool Branch Technical Institutes. He has recently devoted much time to research work in the Applied Electricity Laboratories of the Liverpool University, and is the author of "Practical Mathematics," besides publishing a number of papers in the Journal of the "Institution of Electrical Engineers" and the Electrician on "The Magnetic Behaviour of Iron." He recently read an important paper before the British Association on "Some Characteristic Curves of a Paulsen Arc Generator."

Maclean, Magnus.— Educated at Colbost General Assembly School and the Normal School and University of Glasgow, Professor Maclean was chief official assistant to Lord Kelvin for fifteen years. He is M.A. and D.Sc. of Glasgow University, and holds the post of Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. He has made many contributions to periodical literature besides publishing some important works on Modern Electrical Practice.

Madge, Henry Ashley, B.A., M.I.E.E.—Born February 1879, he was educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge (1898-1902), where he took honours in Mathematics and Mechanical Science (Engineering). From July, 1902, to September, 1903, he was employed by Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd., as junior engineer; from October, 1903, to January, 1904, he was at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich; from February, 1904, to March, 1905., Naval Instructor in H.M.S. Vernon; and in April, 1905, was appointed Expert in Wireless Telegraphy to the Admiralty.

Marchant, Edgar Walford, D.Sc., M.I.E.E.—David Jardine Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of Liverpool. Born in 1876; educated at the Central Technical College, he obtained Siemens's medal and was elected to a Salomon's Scholarship of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. After serving an apprenticeship he was appointed Superintendent of Lord Blythswood's Laboratories and Workshops at Renfrew, N.B., where he carried out a number of investigations, including experiments in wireless telegraphy. Subsequently he acted for a year as senior assistant to the late Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, and in 1901 was appointed Lecturer and later (1903) Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of Liverpool. He has published papers on the magnetisation of iron under the influence of a high- frequency discharge from a condenser, on the conditions affecting variations in strength of wireless signals, and on many other subjects. He was elected Chairman of the Manchester Local Section of the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1913-14, and is President of the Liverpool Engineering Society and Vice-President of the Wireless Society of London. He was one of the British delegates at the International Scientific Commission on Wireless Telegraphy, held at Brussels in April, 1914.

Marchant, W. H.—Born in London, March 22nd, 1881. Took up experimental work in connection with wireless telegraphy in 1904. From 1906-1911 he served with the Deforest Syndicate, Poulsen Company, and Lepel and Anglo-German Wireless Companies, being chiefly engaged in experimental work. Since 1911 he has devoted himself mainly to literary work and to teaching.

Marconi, Alfonso.—Born at Bologna in 1865, he is about eight years older than his distinguished brother. He was educated at Bedford Grammar School in England and later at Technical Colleges in Florence and Leghorn. He joined the board of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Co., Ltd., .in July, 1909.

Marconi, Senatore Guglielmo, G.C.V.O., LL.D., D.Sc.— Born at Bologna, in Italy, on April 25th, 1874, he is Irish on his mother's side. He was educated at Leghorn and Bologna University, and first began to interest himself in the problem of wireless telegraphy in 1895. In the following year he came to England, and took out the first patent ever granted for a practical system of wireless telegraphy by the use of electric waves. His earliest experiments in England were made at Westbourne Park. Shortly afterwards Mr. Marconi saw Sir W. H. Preece, and at his request made some experiments for him and the Post Office officials. Some further experiments were made in May, 1897, in the Bristol Channel, wire- less communication being established between Lavernock and Brean Down, a distance of nine miles. On the invitation of the Italian Government, Mr. Marconi subsequently went to Spezia, where a land station was erected, which was kept in constant communication with two Italian battleships working from a distance of twelve miles. The Italian Government conferred upon Mr. Marconi the honour of knighthood, and his system is now used extensively in Italy. On his return to England further experiments were con- ducted at Salisbury (between Salisbury and Bath, a distance of thirty-four miles). On July zoth, 1897, the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Co., Ltd.—now known as Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co., Ltd.—was established, and two permanent stations were put up. In July, 1898, the Dublin Express gave day by day a Wireless "Telegraphic report of the yacht races during Kingstown Regatta week, and proved the usefulness and facility with which the system can be applied to commercial purposes. Later Mr. Marconi established communication between Queen Victoria's residence at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, and the Royal yacht Osborne, and her late Majesty was kept apprised of the progress made by the then Prince of Wales during the process of recovery from a serious accident. In December, 1898, Mr. Marconi installed apparatus to provide communication between the South Foreland lighthouse and a lightship on the South Coast. Mr. Marconi is a member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, and read a paper on " Wireless Telegraphy " before the members in 1899. Early in 1901 telegraphic communication was established between two points more than 250 miles distant, and at the end of that year Mr. Marconi transmitted signals from Poldhu, in Cornwall, to St. John's, Newfoundland. In February, 1912, he received on board the s.s. philadeiphla, in the presence of the officers, good messages on the tape when at a distance of over 1,500 miles from the transmitting station, and signals at o9er 2,0. miles. In December, 1902, the station established at Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, under a contract with the Canadian Government, for transatlantic wireless telegraphy, was put into communication with the Cornwall station at Poldhu, and inaugural messages were transmitted to H.M. the King of England, H.M. the King of Italy, and others, and to The Times newspaper. In October, 1903, during the voyage of the R.M.S. Lucania, Mr. Marconi established communication between this ship and the Marconi stations at Glace Bay, Canada, and Poldhu, Cornwall, England, and a bulletin was published and issued daily to each passenger. A powerful station at Clifden, on the West Coast of Ireland, was opened early in 1907, for the establishment of commercial communication with the American continent (Glace Bay). Mr. Marconi's work has been recognised by many governments and seats of learning; he has been decorated by the King of Italy and the Czar of Russia, is an honorary doctor of many universities, including Oxford, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Liverpool, and Pennsylvania, besides having received the freedom of the principal Italian cities. In 5909 (in conjunction with Professor Braun) he was accorded what is perhaps the highest distinction that can be obtained by any scientist—the Nobel Prize for Physics. In 1914 he was elected a senator in the Italian Parliament, being formally introduced to the Assembly on March 27th, 1915. On July 24th, 1914, the King bestowed upon him the Honorary Knighthood of the Grand. Cross of the Victorian Order. He also holds many scientific awards granted by various societies and institutions, of which we may quote as a comparatively recent instance his presentation by the Royal Society of Arts, on April uth, 1915, with their Albert Medal, annually granted for distinguished services to science. Amongst the store important papers recently read by this eminent scientist, we may mention a lecture on " Unexplained Phenomena and Unsolved Problems in Wireless Telegraphy," delivered at Rome before a distinguished audience, presided over by the King and Queen of Italy, on November 12th, 1916. Immediately on the declaration of war by Italy, Senatore Marconi placed his services at the disposal of King Victor, and was given the rank of Lieutenant in the Italian Army. He has been employed on important military missions to England by the Italian Government, and on July 29th, 1916, was promoted to be Captain " for exceptional services." At the beginning of September in the same year he was transferred front the Italian Engineer Service to be temporary Captain in the Navy.

Marriott, Robert Henry.—Born 1879. First experimented with wireless telegraphy in 1899, while student at the Ohio State University, U.S.A. In 1901 he was employed by the American Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, at Philadelphia, for which Company he erected stations at Breille, Galilee and Barnegat, N.J. He then became Chief Engineer of the Pacific and Continental Wireless Telephone and Telegraph Company, and in 1902 installed three stations in California, at Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, and San Pedro. In 1903 he was employed with the Carstarphen Electric Company at Denver, Colorado. In 1905 he constructed stations for the American De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company, and its successor, the United Wireless Telegraph Company, in Colorado, Wyoming, and Texas. He was placed in charge of this Company's construction and maintenance in 1910. In 1911 he entered the employ of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, of America, and the following year entered the U.S. Government service as Radio Inspector. Chairman, 1916, Seattle Section Institute of Radio Engineers, member of the Committee on Standardisation, Fellow and Past-President, The Wireless Institute, 1909-1912. He is now expert radio aid, U.S. Navy.

Norman, Captain Sir Henry, M.P.—He is well known to the public as a politician, a keen traveller, and an accomolished man of letters. Sir Henry has always made the study of electricity one of his hobbies, and has followed the progress of wireless telegraphy with enthusiasm. He has a private wireless station in the grounds of " Honeyhanger," his home at Hindhead. Assistant Postmaster- General, 1910; Chairman, War Office Committee on Wireless Telegraphy, 1912; Member of Committee on Nob:anal Telegraphic Re- search, and P.O. Telegraph Organisation Committee; Member of British Association Committee of Radiotelegraphic Investigation, and of the International Committee of Radiotelegraphic Research; a Vice-President of the Wireless Society of London; Fellow of the Physical Society; Fellow of the American Institute of Radio Engineers; F.R.G.S., Asso. I.E.E.

Petit, Gaston Emile.—Bonn in Paris in 1877, Electrical Engineer in the French Postes et Telegraphes in temporary leave; Technical Director of the Compagnie Generale Radiotelegraphique and of the Compagnie Generale de Radiotelegraphie. He was Chief of the Service of Wireless Telegraphy at the French Pastes et Telegraphes . front 5905 to 1911; Member of the International Conference on Wireless Telegraphy held in Berlin in. 1906.

Paulsen, Vallemar.—Born in Copenhagen, November 23rd, 1869. After pursuing a course of study at the University of Copenhagen he entered the technical department of the Copenhagen Telephone Company in 1893, and for a number of years superintended electrical testing operations. In 1904, in a paper sent to the Electrical Congress in St. Louis, he explained a method of producing continuous electrical oscillations of a relative high frequency and of a high intensity. He has been assisted by Professor Pedersen in the development of the Poulsen System of Wireless Telegraphy, which is based on this method.

Preece, Llewellyn.— Son of the late Sir William H. Preece. He is one of the principal partners in the firm of Preece, Cardew and Snell, Consulting Engineers to the Crown Agents to the Colonies, and to the High Commissioners of New Zealand and South Africa. During the last thirteen years he has been largely responsible for the wireless telegraph work in connection with the Crown Colonies, which has been placed in the hands of his firm.

Pepin, Dr. Michael 1.—Director of Research Laboratory of Columbia University, U.S.A. Born in Hungary, October 4t15, 1858, of pure Serb ancestry. In 1874 he went to the United States, where he studied at the Columbia University, graduating in 1883. His study was continued at Cambridge, England, and at Berlin, and, returning to the United States, he became Professor of Mathematical Physics at the Columbia University in 1891. Among his first original work may be mentioned the development of electrical resonance, before the introduction of wireless telegraphy. Patents issued to him on electrical selectivity were licensed to Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in 1903. He has worked extensively in the development of his inventions in connection with telephones and telegraphs, and many of his improvements are known by his name throughout the world. For the past two years he has been engaged in the development of a new method of electrical selectivity to be used in connection with wireless telegraphy. He has also been engaged in research work in wireless telephony.

Rayleigh, The Rt. Hon. Lord.—Born on November 12th, 1842. He was educated at Torquay and at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1865 he graduated in the Mathematical Tripos as Senior Wrangler, and was awarded the first " Smith's Prize." His work in Physics has been of a varied and thorough character. He has contributed to the Royal Society some important communications on the " Propagation of Electrical Waves Round the Bend of the Earth." These, and other Memoirs, have been reprinted in 5 vols. of " Scientific Papers " (Cambridge University Press).

Redfield, William Cox.—United States Secretary of Commerce. Born at Albany, N.Y., June 18th, 1858. From 1885 to 1905 he was engaged in the manufacture of iron and steel forgings, tools, etc., at Brooklyn. From 1902-3 he acted as Commissioner of Public Works for the Borough Of Brooklyn, and in 5910 was elected to the 62nd Congress to represent the 5th New York District. As Secretary of Commerce he is closely associated with wireless telegraphy in the United States, the department of which he is the chief being responsible for the enforcement of the wireless communication laws and the International Radiotelegraphic Convention.

Right, Professor Augusta— Born at Bologna in 185o, and educated at the University there. He was Professor of Physics from 1873 to 188o at the Bologna Technical Institute; 1880 to 1885 at the Palermo University; front 1885 to 1889 at the Padua University; and since 1890 at the Bologna University. Professor Righi has published many important papers on physics, among which may be mentioned "Hertzian Waves," in !goo; "Telegraphy Without Wires" (in collaboration with B. Dessau), in 1902, etc.

Robison, Samuel S., Captain U.S. Navy and member of the Institute of Radio Engineers.--Born May loth, 1867. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1888, and from 1904-1906 was placed in personal charge of the Division of Radiotelegraphy in the Bureau of Equipment, Navy Department, and in general charge from '909- 1911. He has ever since been, very closely associated with the further development of this section of Naval Radio work. He is the author of the "Manual of Wireless Telegraphy for Naval Electricians," first issued in 1906, and revised for several subsequent editions.

Saltzman, Lieutenant-Colonel C. McK.—He is a native of the State of Iowa, and graduated at the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1896. As a Cavalry officer he took part in the battles near Santiago de Cuba of the Spanish-American War of 1898, and later on acted as Signal Officer during the Insurrection in the Philippine Islands. In 1901 he was transferred to the Signal Corps of the U.S. Army, and has since been identified with the electrical, cable and radio work of the U.S. Army. Colonel Saltzman was for a number of years in charge of the Electrical Laboratory of the Signal Corps in Washington, where radio equipment of the U.S. Army is designed and tested, and has recently been in charge of the radio work of the U.S. Army on the Panama Canal. He represented the United States at the International Radiotelegraphic Conference in London in June, 1912.

Sankey, Captain M. P. H. Riall, C.B., R.E. (ret.).—This distinguished officer was born at Nenagh, Ireland, in 1853; educated in Switzerland; at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich; and at the School of Military Engineering, Chatham. He then served in England, at Gibraltar, and as Instructor in Fortification at the Royal Military College, Kingston, Canada. On his return to this country he was posted to the Ordnance Survey, and had charge of the Trigonometrical Division, the Electrotyping Department and the Workshops. In 1889 he retired from the service to join the Board of Messrs. Willans and Robinson, Ltd., and in 19o4 he took up consulting work. Shortly afterwards he joined the Boards of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, Limited, and of the Marconi International Marine Communication Company, Limited. He is an accepted authority on thermo-dynamic problems. He is a member of the following institutions: Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, American Mechanical Engineers, Electrical Engineers, iron and Steel, Naval Architects, and Gas Engineers. He Is a member of the Governing Board of the National Physical Laboratory, and of the Wireless Telegraphy and Gaseous Explosives Committees of the British Association.

Sarnoff, David.--Was born in Russia', February, 1891, and entered the United States in July, 19oo. Mr. Sarnoff started at the bottom of the business ladder in t906, and in 1907 received an appointment as Wireless Operator at the Marconi Station located at Siasconset, Nantucket Island, Mass. Later on he served at various Ship and Shore Stations, and eventually became Manager at the Marconi Station at Sea Gate. He has held a number of responsible positions in the service of the American Marconi Company, of which he is now Commercial Manager. He was elected Secretary of the Institute of Radio Engineers for 1915 and 1916, and was re- nominated for 1917. Amongst the important articles on various subjects connected with Wireless for which he has been responsible, we may mention a paper read by him on Radio Traffic before the Institute of Radio Engineers, and a number of monographs on Wireless Telegraphy, delivered before the Maritime Exchange and the Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents in New York.

Saunders, Henry Spearman.—Born April, 1841, he is the son of the Hon. Frederick Saunders, who was Treasurer of Ceylon, to which office the latter was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Frederick Richard Saunders, K.C.M.G. Mr. Henry S. Saunders joined his parents in Ceylon at the age of eighteen, and he devoted himself with conspicuous ability and success to the public and commercial life of the colony. In 1899 Mr. Saunders joined the board of Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company, and accompanied Mr. Marconi to America on hoard the s.s. Philadelphia in i9oz.

Solari, Marquis Luigi.— Born in Turin, he was promoted officer cif the Italian Royal Navy in 1890. He obtained the diploma of Electrical Engineer at the University of Turin in 1898. In i9o0 he was in charge of the Laboratory of Wireless Telegraphy at the Royal Dockyard of Spezia. He superintended the installation of several land and ship stations. In 19o2 he was in charge of the wireless telegraph station on board the Italian warship Carlo Alberto during the historic voyages of that vessel across the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea, for the experiments on long distance wireless telegraphy, which were then conducted under the personal direction of Senatore Marconi. The Marquis Solari wrote the official report of the experiments made for the first time across the European continent between the Poldhu station (England) and the Carlo Alberto in the Mediterranean. In 1903 he was a delegate of the Italian Government at the Berlin Wireless Conference. In 1904.- 1905 he was in charge of the Wireless Telegraph Department of the Italian Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, and in the month of 'September, 19o4, as official delegate of the Italian Government at the International Congress of Electricity held at St. Louis, U.S.A., he read a paper on the Development of Wireless Telegraphy. He is joint inventor with Professor Lori, of the Padua University, of a magnetic relay. He has published several papers on wireless telegraphy in various periodicals and reviews. Since 1906 he has devoted himself to the development of the Marconi system in Italy.

Squier, Lieutenant-Colonel George Owen.—Military attaché to the American Embassy in Lonclil. He was educated at John Hopkins University, Baltimore, where he gained the degree of Doctor of Physics in 1893, and worked as a research student under the late Professor Rowland. He was working in the laboratory of the late Sir William Preece at the Post Office at the time that Mr. Marconi conducted his early demonstrations before the officials of that organisation. On June 28th, 1911, an important treatise by him, dealing with multiplex telephony and telegraphy by means of waves guided by wires, was read before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. He is the author of numerous papers on the subject of wireless telegraphy and has devoted special attention to the use of wireless telegraphy in military operations. In 1912 he was awarded the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal for his researches in multiplex telephony. In June, 1915, he presented a paper on "'Cable Telegraphy " to the Physical Society of London advocating the adaptation of Wireless Engineering methods to ocean cables.

Stone Stone, John.—Studied electricity, chemistry, physics and mathematics at Columbia University and Johns Hopkins University. From 189o-n899 he was with the American Bell Telephone Company as experimentalist in its research laboratory. In 1892 he made some investigations in wireless telephony for that Company. In 1899 he was Consulting Electrical Engineer and expert for the Ladd Wireless Telephone Syndicate, experimenting on directional signal- ling. He was retained in 1900 by the Stone Wireless Telephone Syndicate, and in 19o2 when the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company was organised. He is the author of many scientific papers on wireless. He has been granted more than TOO U.S. patents in the radio field and a correspondingly large number of foreign patents. Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Fellow American Association of Advanced Science; Fellow and Past-President, Institute of Radio Engineers; and a member or associate of the following societies: American Institute of Electrical Engineers. American Electro-Chemical Society, U.S. Navy Institute, Franklin Institute, Mathematics and Physic Club, Boston Scientific Society. His investigations have been principally directed along the lines of preventing interference in wireless telegraphy.

Swinburne, James, F.R.S.— Born at Inverness on February 28th, 1858, and educated at Clifton College. He has had a wide experience, and as far back as 1881 he was employed by Messrs. J. W. Swan and Co. to organise their lamp factory in Paris; later he went on a similar mission to America. He has practised as a consulting engineer since 1894, and has attained considerable eminence in various branches of science. As an expert on wireless telegraphy his fame has been recognised by the Government, who in 1912 appointed him a member of the Technical Committee considering the Imperial Wireless Scheme. He is also a member of various scientific societies, and is on the Council of some. In 1902-3 he was President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.

Swinton, Alan A. Campbell, F.R.S.— Born in Scotland in 1863, he commenced his career in 1882 in the famous Elswick Works, where he was apprenticed to the late Lord (then Sir William) Armstrong. In 1887 he went to London, where, since that date, he has practised as a consulting electrical engineer, and has been responsible for the carrying out of many large electrical installations. He is a director of a number of electricity supply and engineering manufacturing companies, and has been associated with the commercial development of the Parsons turbine and other important inventions. He is a member of the Institutions of Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineers, and is a Past-President of the Rontgen Society. He has devoted considerable attention to scientific research, including wireless telegraphy, and is President of the Wireless Society of London. In 1915 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

Tesla, Nikola.—Born at Smiljan, Sika, Dalmatia, in 1857. One of the foremost of the world's electricians. Quite early in life he began to take delight in arithmetic and physics. He graduated at Carlstatt in 1873, and thenceforward devoted his energy to electrical studies and investigations; he went to Gratz, where, at the Polytechnic School, he prepared for work as Professor in mathematics and physics. Whilst there he was so struck wills the objections to the use of commutators and brushes that he made up his mind to remedy that defect in dynamo-electric machines. About 1882 he proceeded to America, where he captured the attention of the whole world with his fascinating experiments on high-frequency electric currents. Since 1890 he has devoted himself almost entirely to studies of alternating currents of high frequency and very high potentials.

Tissot, Captain C.—Born at Brest in 1868, he entered the Naval School in 1884, taking up the study of science. Later he was appointed to the Chair of Physics at the Naval School. As Captain of a Frigate, he is now chief of the technical research department at the Central Naval Laboratory in Pails. He was one of the first to devote himself to the study of wireless telegraphy in France and has been largely instrumental in its technical development as well as its application to the French Navy. On the purely scientific side, Captain Tissot has carried out some valuable experiments to secure exact measurements in wireless telegraphy. He has also studied problems concerning detectors and made investigations concerning the practical applications of wireless telegraphy and telephony. It is due to Captain Tissot's initiative and to his efforts at the Bureau des Longitudes in Paris, in 1907, that the Eiffel Tosser service of time signals was established in 1910.

Todd, David Wooster, Commander, U.S. Navy.—Born at Round Valley, California, June 29th, 1874; educated in private and public schools in Michigan, Nevada, and San Francisco, California; appointed to Naval Academy, 1891, was graduated in June, 1895; has served at sea on the following vessels of the United States Navy Constellation, Monongahela, Olympia, Oregon, Wheeling, Rain- bow, Chicago, Iowa, Newark, Denver, Monterey, Concord, Galveston, Wyoming, and was last in command of the Dixie. Captain Todd has served ashore as instructor in ordnance at the Naval Academy; in charge of the Radio Division of the Bureau of Steam Engineering, Navy Department, as well as Assistant Superintendent of the Radio Service. He attended the International Radio-Telegraphic Conference in London, 1912, as a Delegate, and on August 3rd, 1916, was appointed Director Naval Communications, succeeding Captain W. H. G. Bullard, U.S. Navy, Superintendent of Naval Radio Service.

Torikata—see Wichi Torikata.

Travailleur, Maurice.—Born at Brussels in 1871 and graduated as engineer at Brussels University in 1893. At the age of twenty-six he was appointed electrical engineer to the late King of the Belgians. He was one of the founders of La Societe Anonyme de Telegraphic Sans Fil in 19o1, of which he is now managing director.

Tsiang Tsengli.—Director-General of the Chinese Telegraph Administration, is a native of the Haining District of the Chekiang Province. In 1904 he acquired the third degree of Literature at the Metropolitan Examination in Peking and was appointed as Junior Clerk of the Board of Revenues and soon afterwards transferred in the same rank to the Board of Communications (then known as Yuchuanpu) by its special recommendation for dealing with telegraph matters. The Chinese Telegraphs were then administered partly by a Commercial Company and partly by the Provincial Viceroys and Governors. Mr. Tsiang proposed that all the commercially and provincially owned telegraph lines be nationalised and placed under the direct control of the Yuchuanpu, so that the system might possibly be made uniform throughout the country. This proposal received the approval of the Government, and was put into operation. Since 1910 the Chinese Government has devoted a part of the telegraph revenues to the extension of the Telephone and Wireless telegraph services. In 1911 Mr. Tsiang, in the capacity of the Commissioner of Telegraphs of the Yuchuanpu, caused two powerful Radio stations to be established, one in Peking and the other at Nankin. Since their establishment the Wireless service has been greatly improved arid extended to such localities as Shanghai, Woosung, Foochow, and Canton, along the coasts and Kalgan and Wuchang in the interior. Both the Ministries of War and Navy have followed in the steps of the Ministry of Communications by installing Radio stations for their respective purposes. Mr. Tsiang has served over ten years in the telegraph service, holding the following important positions: 19:0-1911, the Commissioner of Telegraphs of the Yuchuanpu; 1913-1916, Chief of the Financial Department of Telegraphs, Posts and Navigation, and at present, Chief of the Telegraph Department and Director-General of Telegraphs of the Ministry of Communications, besides holding the post of Chairman of the Chinese Society of Electrical Science.

Turpain, Professor Albert.—Born at La Rochelle on December znd, 1867, he was employed in the Department of Posts and Telegraphs of France from 1884 to 1887. In 1888 he became a licentiate in physical science, and three years later a licentiate in mathematics, obtained his doctorate of science in 1889. Since 1894, when, as a tutor of physics at the Faculty of Science at Bordeaux, he succeeded in sending messages by means of wireless telegraphy from the equipment which was erected in the college buildings, he has experimented-in wireless telegraphy with successful results. He applied himself to the question of tuning and in 1899 he experimented with a means for determining the direction of electromagnetic waves; he tools up these experiments again in 1912. In 1911 he succeeded in obtaining graphic records of time signals by means of a micro-ampere-meter over a distance of 30o km. between Poitiers and Paris. He carried out successful experiments in recording photographically wireless telegraph signals which passed between Paris and Poitiers.

Vaunt, Dr. Giuseppe.—Born at Albano Laziale (Rome) in 1862. Graduated in science in 1887, and went to Strassburg in 1890, where, under Professor Kohlrausch, of the Physical Institute, he occupied himself especially with the study of electrical measurements. In 1894 he was appointed to teach physics at the Collegio Romano, Rome, where he remained till 1912, when he was nominated professor and director of the physical laboratory of the Military Radiotelegraphic Institute in Rome. In 1912 he took part in the International Radiotelegraphic Conference of London as a member of the Italian delegation, and also at the Conferences held in Paris in 1912 and 1913. His works are principally concerned with electrology, electrical engineering, and electrical waves. By means of a hydraulic microphone of his invention he made interesting experiments in wireless telephony, and his paper on the " Progress and Actual State of Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony " gained for him in 1914 the Cagnola prize of the Royal Lombard Institute of Science and Literature, in Milan.

Walter, L. H., M.A., A.M.I.E.E.—Born in London in 187o, and educated at private schools in England and at Hanover, Germany; also at Trinity College, Cambridge (1894-8), where he tools honours in Natural Sciences. He then became experimental assistant to Sir Hiram S. Maxim. In 1903 he was appointed Editor of Science Abstracts, when that publication was taken over by the Institution of Electrical Engineers, which position he still holds. He has invented several forms of detectors of electrical oscillations, and for his magnetic type of oscillation galvanometer was awarded the John Scott Medal. In 1905 he drew attention to the advantages of directive wireless telegraphy, and, associating himself with Captain Tosi and Dr. Bellini, at that time making their first experiments, he introduced the directive system, and the wireless compass, into England.

Weagant, Roy A.—Born at Morrisburg, Ontario, Canada, in 1881. Educated at Stanstead College, Stanstead, Quebec, Canada, and at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Graduated front Electrical Engineering Course, 1905. Studied physics under Sir Ernest Brotherford and first became interested in wireless through witnessing some of his experiments in Hertzian waves. Engineering experience: First with the Montreal Light, Heat, and Power Company, then the Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa., and the De Laval Steam Turbine Company. Commercial wireless work: Took this up first in 1908 with Professor R. A. Fessenden. Entered service of Marconi Company in 1912. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Radio Engineers and member of its Board of Directors and Standardisation Committee.

Wichi Torikata.- Born in Japan in 1883, Mr. Wichi Torikata is now the Chief Engineer of the Wireless Section in the Japanese Department of Communications, and holds also the same position with regard to the Electric Material Section attached to the Electro Technical Laboratory. He was trained to the profession of Electrical Engineering in the Engineering College of Tokio Imperial University, graduating at the College in 1906. Ever since these early days he has devoted himself to the close study of Radio- telegraphy and Telephony, acting at one time as Assistant Engineer to Dr. Osuke Asano, ex-Director of the Electro Technical Laboratory. Later on he received the appointment of Chief Engineer to the Wireless Section .of the Laboratory, a position which he continues to hold. More recently he undertook, in addition to his Wireless duties, to act as Chief Engineer of the Electrical Material Section at the Laboratory. A number of miscellaneous inventions stand to his credit, and amongst other devices, of which he is patentee, are included the Koseki or Mineral Detectors, and the T.Y.K. Oscillation Gap for use in Radiotelephony. The late Mikado of Japan recognised his services by awarding him the Fifth Degree of Decoration, bestowing this honour specifically for his services in connection with Wireless Detectors, whilst the Ruling Emperor has presented him with the Fourth Degree of Decoration on account of his Radiotelephonic Researches. Considerable attention was attracted by his essay on "Some Researches in Radio- telegraphy and Telephony," and the Senate of Tokio University marked their appreciation of his efforts by bestowing upon him in 1915 the title of " Dr. Engineer." In addition to the above-mentioned decorations he has received many prizes for technical work. These latter include the First Medal of the Japanese Electric Engineers' Society (established in 1888), besides the Academy Prize and Medal granted by the Japanese Imperial Academy. Mr. Torikata displays a special interest in the education of the rising generation, and holds the position of Lecturer in Raidotelegraphy and Telephony to the Electric Engineering College of Kyusliu Imperial University.

Wien, Professor Max.-Born at Konigsberg in 1866. He made a special study of the subject of physics under Helmholtz and others, and assisted Röntgen from 1891 to 1893. He has devoted considerable attention to the study of electromagnetic waves and their propagation.

Zenneck, Professor J.-Born April 15th, 1871, in Wurtemburg. The son of a clergyman, he was intended for a similar career, and studied for four years in a Theological College at Tubingen. While at Tubingen he studied mathematics and natural history, particularly zoology, from 1889 to 1894, and in the latter year he passed the State examination in these subjects; he obtained his doctorate in 1894. After a course of natural history studies in London and elsewhere he devoted himself entirely to physics, and from 1895 to 1899 he was an assistant in the Physical Institute in Strassburg. From 1899 to 1900 he was engaged in making tests with wireless telegraphy in the North Sea. Five years later he became lecturer as assistant professor of Physics in the Technical College, Dantzic, and in 1906 he was appointed professor of Physics at the Technical College, Brunswick. This position he vacated in 1909, when he joined one of the largest mechanical works in Germany, and in 1911 he returne.1 to Dantzic as professor of the Technical College.



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