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The Mysore State Railway (1879- ) was the first state-owned railway department established when the entire rail network in India was owned by private companies.
In 1879, the Madras Railway Company Constructed a railway line from Madras Royapuram to Bangalore city. At that time, Maharaja of Mysore established a separate railway organization to carryout extension from Bangalore to Mysore. This establishment came to be known as Mysore State Railway.
Mysore-Nanjangud of 25.51 km was opened for traffic in 1891.
Birur-Shimoga section of 60.74 km was opened for traffic in 1899.
Another important line was Yeshvantpur-Hindupur which was opened for traffic in 1892-93.
But in 1911-12 the Mysore Government decided the formation of the State Railway Construction Department and it was put under the control of E. A. S. Bell, Engineer in chief.
On 1 October 1919, the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway company handed over to the Mysore Durbar the metre gauge sections of Bangalore-Mysore-Nanjangud and Birur-Shimoga.
1951 April 14th. Merged with Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway to form the Southern Railway.