Grace's Guide To British Industrial History

Registered UK Charity (No. 115342)

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Rolls-Royce: Aero Engines

From Graces Guide

‎‎

December 1939.
Merlin 6. Exhibit at the Brooklands Museum.
Nene. Exhibit at the Brooklands Museum.
Tyne. Exhibit at the Brooklands Museum.
Welland. Exhibit at the Brooklands Museum.
Falcon III. Exhibit at the Shuttleworth Collection.
Merlin III. Exhibit at the Shuttleworth Collection.
Griffon Mk 58. Exhibit at the Shuttleworth Collection.
January 1952.

Note: This is a sub-section of Rolls-Royce

General

1915 The company's first aero engine was the Eagle completed in October 1915. Designed to produce 200 hp, in practice it showed 255 hp. By 918 this engine was producing 360 hp at 1,800 rpm. [1]

1915 December. Designed the Hawk engine to produce 75 hp at 1,350 rpm. By October 1918 it had been increased to 105 hp. [1]

1916 April. The Falcon engine gave 205 hp and by July 1918 was producing 285 hp. [1]

Around half the aircraft engines used by the Allies in World War I were made by Rolls-Royce.

1919 John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown fly the Atlantic in a Vickers Vimy fitted with two Eagle engines

1919 Ross Smith and his brother Keith Smith fly from England to Australia in a Rolls-Royce engined Vimy

By the late 1920s, aero engines made up most of Rolls-Royce's business.

1933 The Condor engine was produced.

1935 Henry Royce's last design was the Merlin aero engine, which came out in 1935, although he had died in 1933. This was developed after the R engine, which had powered a record-breaking Supermarine S6B seaplane to almost 400 mph in the 1931 Schneider Trophy. The Merlin was a powerful V12 engine and was fitted into many World War II aircraft: the Hawker Hurricane, Supermarine Spitfire, de Havilland Mosquito (two-engine), Avro Lancaster (four-engine), Vickers Wellington (two-engine); it also transformed the American P-51 Mustang into possibly the best fighter of its time, its Merlin engine built by Packard under licence. Over 160,000 Merlin engines were produced. The Merlin crossed over into military vehicle use as the Meteor powering the Centurion tank among others.

1937 Aero engine manufacturers. "Kestrel" Aero Engines. "Merlin" Aero Engines. [2]

1937 Rotol Airscrews was formed on 13th May 1937 by Rolls-Royce and Bristol Aeroplane Co to take over both companies' propeller developments.

In the post-World War II period Rolls-Royce made significant advances in gas turbine engine design and manufacture. The Dart and Tyne turboprop engines were particularly important, enabling airlines to cut times for shorter journeys whilst jet airliners were introduced on longer services. The Dart engine was used in Argosy, Avro 748, Friendship, Herald and Viscount aircraft, whilst the more powerful Tyne powered the Atlantic, Transall and Vanguard, and the SRN-4 hovercraft. Many of these turboprops are still in service. Amongst the jet engines of this period was the RB163 Spey, which powers the Trident, BAC 1-11, Grumman Gulfstream II and Fokker F28.

During the late 1950s and 1960s there was a significant rationalisation of all aspects of British aerospace and this included aero-engine manufacturers, culminating in the merger of Rolls-Royce and Bristol Siddeley in 1966 (Bristol Siddeley had itself resulted from the merger of Armstrong Siddeley and Bristol Aero Engines in 1959). Bristol Siddeley, with its principal factory at Filton, near Bristol, had a strong base in military engines, including the Olympus, Viper, Pegasus and Orpheus. They also manufactured the Olympus 593 Mk610 for Concorde.

1968 First test run of the RB.211 turbo-fan engine for Lockheed.

List of Engines

Gas turbine turbojet aero-engines

Gas turbine turboprop aero-engine

Gas turbine bypass turbofan aero-engine





|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| RB 211 |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The Rolls-Royce RB211 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines made by Rolls-Royce plc and capable of generating 37,400 to 60,600 pounds-force (166 to 270 kilonewtons) thrust. Originally developed for the Lockheed L-1011 (TriStar), it entered service in 1972 and was the only engine to power this aircraft type. Derivative versions were later produced for variants of the Boeing 747, 757 and 767, as well as the Russian Tupolev Tu-204 airliner. . . . More information

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| Tay |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The Rolls-Royce RB.183 Tay is a development of the RB.163 civil Spey, using the low-pressure components from the famous RB.211 to produce a version with a bypass ratio increased to 3:1. It was initially developed as the Spey Junior.

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| Turbomeca Adour |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The Adour jet engine is a two-shaft turbofan developed by Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca, a joint subsidiary of Rolls-Royce (UK) and Turbomeca (France).

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| RB.199 |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The Turbo Union RB 199 is an aircraft turbofan jet engine designed and built jointly by Rolls-Royce, MTU and FiatAvio (now Avio). It is produced in three versions.

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| Trent |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| Rolls Royce Trent is a family of high bypass turbofan engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce. All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of between 53,000 and 95,000 lbf (236 to 423 kN). . . . More Information

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top colspan=4|Gas turbine lift jet aero-engine

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| RB.108 |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The Rolls-Royce RB.108 was a jet engine designed by Rolls-Royce specifically for use as a VTOL lift engine, i.e., an engine intended primarily for providing lift rather than for horizontal propulsion.

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| RB.145 |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| -

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| RB.162 |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| -

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| Pegasus |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The Rolls Royce Pegasus is a turbofan engine originally designed by Bristol and now manufactured by Rolls-Royce. The unique Pegasus engine powers all versions of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier multi-role military aircraft. . . . More Information

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top colspan=4|Gas turbine turboshaft aero-engine

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| Gem |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The Rolls-Royce Gem is a turboshaft engine developed specifically for the Westland Lynx helicopter in the 1970's. The design started off at de Havilland (hence the name starting with "G") and was passed to Bristol-Siddeley as the BS.360. When Rolls-Royce bought-out the latter, it became the RS.360.

|- |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| RTM322 |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| 1992 |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top align=right| - |bgcolor=#F0F0F0 valign=top| The RTM322 is a turboshaft engine produced by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Ltd., a joint venture between Rolls-Royce plc and Turbomeca. The engine was designed to suit a wide-range of military and commercial helicopter designs. The RTM322 can also be employed in maritime and industrial applications.

Sources of Information