Grace's Guide To British Industrial History

Registered UK Charity (No. 115342)

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 163,469 pages of information and 245,911 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

1932 London, Midland and Scottish Railway

From Graces Guide

Note: This is a sub-section of 1932 Railway Year Book and the London, Midland and Scottish Railway

Note: Parts are missing from original in the text below. Check the images or PDF for a full transcript


DIRECTORS. (Authorised—16-28.)
SIR JOSIAH CHARLES STAMP, G.B.E. (Chairman), “Tantallon,” Park Hill Road, Shortlands, Kent.
EDWARD B. EIELDEN, M.P. (Deputy Chairman). Dobroyd Castle, Todmorden, Lancs., and 19, Great College Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 1.
SIR ALAN GARRETT ANDERSON, K.B.E., 5, Fenchurch Avenue, London, E.C. 3.
SIR JOHN FIELD BEALE, K.B.E., 66, Cannon Street, London, E.C. 4.
CHARLES BOOTH, Elmhurst, Aigburth, Liverpool.
MAJOR R. G. C. GLYN, M.C., M.P., 22, Manchester Square, London, W.l.
SIR W. GUY GRANET, G.B.E., 80, Lombard Street, London, E.C. 3.
WILLIAM LIONEL HICHENS, 3, Central Buildings, Westminster, London, S.W. 1.
J. BRUCE ISMAY, 15, Hill Street, Mayfair, London, W. I.
CHARLES KER, LL.D., C.A., 120, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow.
RT. HON. VISCOUNT KNUTSFORD, Munden, near Watford, Herts.
JAMBS WHITBFORD MURRAY, 27, West George Street, Glasgow.
FREDERIC J. RAMSDEN, Abbots Wood, Furness Abbey.
SIR THOMAS ROYDEN, Bart., C.H., Cunard Building, Liverpool.
SIR EDWIN FORSYTH STOCKTON, Lloyds Bank Buildings, 53, King Street, Manchester.
GEORGE REGINALD THOMAS TAYLOR, Allerton Hill, Windlesham, Surrey.
DOUGLAS VICKERS, Vickers House, Broadway, Westminster, London, S.W. 1.
ALFRED HAROLD WIGGIN, Bordesley Hall, Alvechurch, near Birmingham.
SIR THOMAS WILLIAMS, ^‘Oakdene,” St. Margaret’s, Middlesex.

FREDERIC DITCHFIELD MORRIS, Spencer House, South Place, London, E.C.2.
SIR NICHOLAS EDWIN WATERHOUSE, K.B.E., 3, Frederick’s Place, Old Jewry, London, E.C. 2.
Manchester and County Bank, Ltd. Midland Bank, Ltd.
National Bank of Scotland, Ltd. National Provincial Bank, Ltd. Royal Bank of Ireland, Ltd. Royal Bank of Scotland.
Union Bank of Scotland, Ltd. Westminster Bank Ltd.
Williams Deacon’s Bank, Ltd. Guaranty Trust Company of New York.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. {Unless otherwise stated the addresses of the Officers are at Euston Station as above.)
SIR J. C. STAMP, G.B.E., D.Sc.
E. J. H. LEMON, O.B.B., M I.Mech.E., M.Inst.T., Railway Traffic, Operating and

Commercial Section.
W. V. WOOD, M.Inst.T., Finance and Service Departments.
SIR H. HARTLEY, C.B.E., P.R.S., Works and Ancillary Undertakings (excluding Hotel Department).
Secretary of the Company and Assistant to President.
Chief Legal Adviser.
Secretary to Executive Committee—O. GLYNNE ROBERTS, O.B.E., M.Inst.T.
The above Officers form the Executive Committee.
Assistant to Vice-President for Works (Research and Development)—SIR HENRY FOWLER, K.B.E., LLD., D.Sc., M.Inst.C.E., M.l.Mech.E.
Secretary—O. GLYNNE ROBERTS, O.B.E., M.Inst.T.
Assistant Secretary—G. R. SMITH.
Assistant (Central Office)—H. DAVIS.
Assistant (Central Office), (Passes etc.)—A. C. HARRIS.
Registrar—G. MOTTASHAW.
Chief Cashier—G. KICK.
Secretary, Savings Bank—A. V. STRANGE.
Chief Legal Adviser—H. L. THORNHILL, M.Inst.T. Solicitor—A. EDDY.

(Scotland). J. WILSON, Glasgow.
Parliamentary Agents—Messrs. BEALE & CO., 16, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W.l.
Divisional Solicitors (Birmingham), Messrs. BEALE ifc GO., Birmingham.
Chief Officer for Labour and Establishment—G. L. DARBYSHIRE.
Assistant Chief Officer for Labour and Establishment—W. E. C. LAZENBY.
Assistant for Wages Staff-S. J. MARCHANT.
Assistant for Salaried Staff—H. J. COMBER.
Assistant for Funds—R. O. GRIFFITHS.
Welfare Assistant—A. C. HARRIS.
Chief Executive Officer for New Works and Parliamentary Business—H. V. MOSLEY.

Assistant to Vice-President (Finance and Service Departments)—T. CLIFTON.

General Executive Assistant—F. A. POPE.

Managerial Representative for Scotland—T. H. MOFFAT, Glasgow.

Chief General Superintendent— C. R. BYROM, O.B.B., M.Inst.T., Buston.
Assistant Chief General Superintendent - J. MURRAY, O.B.E., Derby.
Outdoor Assistant— S. B. CARTER, O.B.E., M.Inst.T.
Organisation and Staff Assistant— L. F. ROWLANDSON.
Operating Assistant— S. H. FISHER., O.B.B.
Train Diagrams, etc., Assistant— W. A. SARGENT., M.B.E.
Indoor Assistant— J. BALMER, Euston.
Superintendent of Motive Power—J. E. ANDERSON, C.B.E,, Derby.
Assistant Superintendent of Motive Power— G. S. BELLAMY.
Divisional Superintendents of Motive Power— F. W. ATTOCK, Manchester. J. G. BARR, Glasgow. W. LAND, Crewe.
H. RUDGARD, Derby.
Divisional Superintendents of Operation—L. D. FORD, Crewe.
E. D. GRASETT, Derby.
T. W. ROYLB, M.B.E., M.Inst.T. Manchester.
Passenger Manager—ASHTON DAVIES, M.B.E., M.Inst.T., Derby.
Assistant Passenger Manager—H. E. HORNE.
Road Transport Assistant—W. P. BRADBURY, Euston.
Rates and Charges Assistant—E. JOHNSTONE, Derby.

District Passenger Managers—J. A. MILLIGAN, M.B.E., Euston.
J. F. BROOK, Birmingham.
F. H. COWELL, Manchester.
J. H. ROBINSON, Liverpool.

Divisional Passenger Manager—W. CROZIER, Glasgow.
General Superintendent (Northern Division)—R. KILLIN, C.B.E., M.Inst.T.. Glasgow.
Assistant General Superintendent (Northern Division)—J. N. PHILLIPPS.
Chief Goods Manager—J. BALLANTYNE, M.Inst.T., Euston.

Assistant Chief Goods Manager—T. E. ARGILE.

Goods Manager (Northern Division)—W. YBAMAN, Glasgow.

Assistant to Goods Manager (Northern Division)—G. S. PATERSON, Glasgow.
Overseas and Continental Traffic Manager—A. W. BARRETT, Euston.
Assistant Overseas and Continental Traffic Manager (Passenger)—K. R. N. SPBIR. Do. Do. (Goods)—H. W. PHILLIPS.

Steamship Manager (East Coast)—E. G. GARSTANG, Goole.
General Goods and Passenger Agent for Prance—D. W. GRANBT, 12, Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris, 9eme.
Freight Traffic Manager, America—T. A. MOPPET, 1, Broadway, New York, U.S.A. Passenger Traffic Manager, America—T. R. DESTER, 200, Fifth Avenue, New York, U.S.A.
Mineral Manager—E. WHARTON, M.Inst.T., Derby. Assistant Mineral Manager—C. MANSFIELD.
Chief Engineer—A. NEWLANDS, C.B.E., M.Inst.C.B , Euston.

Assistant Engineer—A. W. DON ALDSON, M.Inst.C.E.

Indoor Assistant—F. E. W. COX, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.

Assistant (Permanent Way)—J. W. MELVILLE.

Dock and Harbour Assistant—P. J. PAICB, Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.

Staff Assistant—W. P. WHITEHEAD.

Divisional Engineers—
W. E. THORNHILL, A.M.Inst.C.E., Crewe.
E. H. d’E. DARBY, B.A., Derby.
S. O. COTTON, Manchester.
A. H. McMURDO, Glasgow.

Signal and Telegraph Engineer—A. F. BOUND, M.I.Mech.E., M.Insfc.T., M.I.R.S.E., Derby.
Principal Assistant to Signal and Telegraph Engineer—P. D. MICHOD, Derby.
Outdoor Assistant to Signal and Telegraph Engineer—H. W. MOORE, Derby.
Divisional Signal and Electrical Engineer (Scotland)—A. S. HAMPTON, M.I.B.E. M.Inst.T., M.I.R.S.B., Glasgow.

Signal Superintendent (Scotland)—L. P. LEWIS, Glasgow.

Chief Mechanical Engineer (Locomotives, Carriages and Wagons)— W. A. STANIER, M.I.Mech.E., Euston.
Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer— H. P. M. BEAMES, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., Derby.
Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (Carriages and Wagons)— J. PURVES, Derby.
Personal Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer—S. J. SYMES, O.B.E., Euston.
Chief Technical Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer—T. HORNBUCKLE, M.B.E., Euston.

Chief Outdoor Assistant (Carriages and Wagons)—P. S. BARNES, Derby.
Chief Outdoor Assistant (Outdoor Machinery Services)—W. C. GOODCHILD, Derby.
Chief of Central Materials Inspection Bureau—K. L. (ISBORNE, Derby.

Mechanical Engineer (Locomotives)— G. N. SHAWCROSS, M.B.E., Horwich.
Divisional Mechanical Engineer (Locomotives, Carriages and Wagons)— D. C. URIE, M.Inst.C.E., St. Rollox, Glasgow.
Works Superintendent (Locomotives, Carriages and Wagons)— D. WILLIAMSON, St. Rollox, Glasgow.

Works Superintendent (Locomotives)— F. A. LEMON, Crewe.
Works Superintendent (Locomotives)— H. G. IVATT. Derby.
Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons)— E. PUGSON. Derby.
Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons)— E. F. MERRETT. Wolverton.
Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons)— C. O. D. ANDERSON, Newton Heath.
Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons)— W. ANTHONY, Earlestown.
Electrical Engineer— F. A. C. LEIGH, T.D., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., M.I.E.E., F.R.G.S.
Assistant Electrical Engineer— J. DALZIEL, Buston.
Chief Accountant—E. TAYLOR. Euston.

Assistant Accountant—G. MORTON.

Assistants to Chief Accountant (General)—F. ROBERTS.
(Scotland)—VERNON GEE.
Land and Estate Agent—W. H. C. CLAY, Euston.
Assistant Land and Estate Agent—W. H. ROBERTS. Development Assistant—J. R. WORRALL, Euston.

Divisional Land and Estate Agent (Scotland)—A. P. J. BALL, Glasgow.
Chief Stores Superintendent—W. K. WALLACE, 20, Euston Square, N.W. 1. General Assistant—P. R. HICKMAN.
Coal Purchasing Agent (England and Wales)—T. WINBY, 20, Euston Square, N.W.1. Assistants (Purchasing)—A. W. NORMAN.

Controller and Assistant Purchasing Agent (Scotland)—G. M. COPLAND, Glasgow.
Rating Agent—H. J. BURCHAM, Euston.

Divisional Rating Agent—J. M. McKINLAY, Glasgow.
Controller, Hotel Services—A. E. TOWLE, C.B.B., St. Pancras Station.

Controller’s Assistant—MRS. M. MUGGERIDGE, St. Pancras Station.

Controller’s Assistant (Outdoor)—G. A. TOWLE, Liverpool.
Assistant Controller (Dining Cars)—F. G. COOLING, 11, Euston Square, N.W. 1. Assistant Controller (Scottish Area)—R. W. TURIBR, Central Hotel, Glasgow.
Advertising and Publicity Officer—G. H. L. ALLEN, Euston.
Chief of Police—T. W. DUNN, Euston.
Chief Marine Superintendent—CAPTAIN J. W. HARRIS, R.N.R., Euston. Superintendent Marine Engineer —A. T. COTTON, Euston.

Assistant to Chief Marine Superintendent—F. B. HALLWELL, Euston.

Marine superintendent and Harbour Master (Holyhead)— CAPTAIN W. I. ROBERTS, M.B.E., Holyhead.
Marine Superintendent (Goole)— COMMANDER W. B.CLEMENTSON, R.N.R.,Goole. Marine Engineer and Superintendent (Heysham)—D. J. HARRIS, Heysham.
Steamship Superintendent (Scotland), and Manager, Caledonian Steam Packet Company— C. A. BREMNER, Gourock.
Roal Motor Engineer—J. SHEARMAN, M.I.Mech.E., Euston.
Consulting Surgeon.
V. WARREN LOW, C.B., M.D., etc., 76, Harley Street, London, W. 1.
Consulting Actuary.
L. E. CLINTON, F.I.A., 216, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.2.
Northern Counties Committee (Ireland).
{See also separate article later,}
Manager and Secretary—M. S. SPEIR, M.C., J.P., Belfast.
Locomotive Superintendent and Permanent Way Engineer—
H. P. STEWART, Belfast.
Operating Superintendent—WILLIAM GETTY, Belfast.
Accountant—F. L. SMITH, Belfast.
Solicitor—JOHN BRISTOW, Belfast.
Stores Superintendent—F. J. MARTIN, Belfast.
Hotels and Refreshment Department—Manager—N. TAYLOR, Belfast.
Birmingham Canal Navigation.
Clerk and Manager—P. NADIN, Birmingham.
Engineer—A. MUIR WHITE, Birmingham.

District Electrical Engineers,

Crewe—A. Taylor. | Derby—E. W. Porter.
Liverpool—W. Handy.
District Estate Agents.
Manchester—J. H. Openshaw. Liverpool—H. C. Hannon. Leeds—H. Clegg.
Preston—G. N. Walker.
Telegraphic Addresses and Telephone Numbers of Principal
I.—Officers at Euston Station.
Telephone No. : Museum 2900.
Telegraphic Addresses as below.

{For details see particulars given above.) Milligan, Euston, London Ballantyne, Euston, London Argile, Euston, London. Barrett, Euston, London. Newlands, Fusion, Lonaon Donaldson, Euston, London. Stanier, Euston, London. Leigh, Euston, London. Taylor, Euston, London. Clay, Euston, London. Wallace, Euston, London. Dunn, Euston, London. Quiggin, Euston, London, Hairis, Euston, London. Shearman, Euston, London,

Divisional Superintendent of Operation, Crewe

Passenger Manager
District Passenger Manager, Birmingham ...
District Passenger Manager, Manchester
District Passenger Manager, Liverpool Divisional Passenger Commercial Superintendent, Glasgow

Superintendent of Motive

Divisional Superintendent of
Power, Manchester

Divisional Superintendent of
Power, Glasgow ...
Divisional Superintendent of Motive Power, Crewe ...
Divisional Superintendent of Motive Power, Derby

General Superintendent (Northern
Goods Manager (Northern Division}... Irish Traffic Manager
Mineral Manager...
Divisional Engineer, Crewe Divisional Engineer, Derby ... Divisional Engineer, Manchester
Divisional Engineer, Glasgow...
Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer (Carriages and Wagons) ...

Personal Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer Technical Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer ...
Outdoor Assistant (Carriages and Wagems)
Outdoor Assistant (Outdoor Machinery Services)
Chief of Central Materials Inspection Bureau

Mechanical Engineer (Locomotives)
Divisional Mechanical Engineer (Locomotives, Carriages and Wagons) Works Superintendent (Locomotives, Carriages and Wagons)
Works Superintendent (Locomotives) Works Superintendent (Locomotives) Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons) ...
Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons)
Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons) ...
Works Superintendent (Carriages and Wagons) ...

Signal and Telegraph Engineer

Divisional Signal and Electrical

Engineer, (Scotland) ...
Divisional Rating Agent, Glasgow ...
Controller, Hotel Services
Assistant Controller (Dining Cars) ... Controller’s Assistant (Outdoor)
Assistant Controller, Ilotels, Scotland Marine Superintendent and Harbour Master, Holyhead
Marine Superintendent, Goole
Marine Engineer and Superintendent,

Steamship Superintendent (Scotland)

and Manager Caledonian Steam

Packet Company
Steamship Superintendent
III.— District Goods and Passenger Managers. Abergavenny Tait Railioay, Brecon Road, B arr 0 w-in-F ur n e s s Abergavenny Abergavenny 162. ... Freights, Railway, Barrow- in-Furness ... Barrow-in-Furness 405. Bristol ... ... ... Traffic, Bristol Bristol 23401. Chester Superintendent, Freights, Chester Chester 1090. Leicester ... ... ... ... Traffic, Leicester Central 5542. Northampton ... Freights, Railway, North Stoke-on-Trent ... ampton Northampton 930. ... ... ... Freights, Railway, Stoke-on- Trent ... Hanley 4121. Swansea ... ... Roberts, Victoria Station, Swansea Swansea 2161. Perth ... ... ... Barrie, Railway, Perth Perth 795. Aberdeen .. .. ... ... Smith, Railway, Aberdeen Central 4305. Edinburgh ... Marshall, Princes Street Station, Edinburgh Central 30131. Inverness... ... Railway, Inverness ... Inverness 157 and 220. Carlisle ... Bell, Railway, Carlisle

IV.—District Goods Managers. Carlisle 1214. Broad Street (London) ... Lonorives, Ave., London Bishopsgate 5441. Birmingham .. ... ... Curzonian, Birmingham Central 3001 Wolverhampton ... ... ... Roberts, Queens Buildings,
Wolverhampton Manchester Wolverhampton 1461. ... ... ... Humphreys, Huntsbank, Man chester City 9660. Liverpool .. ... ... Besline, Liverpool ... Central 4360. Warrington .. ... ... Railway Freights,Warrington Warrington 974. Sheffield Transit, Sheffield .. .. ... Besline, Leeds Central 24305/6. Leeds Leeds 20676. Bolton .. ... ... Humphreys, Railway, Bolton Bolton 2930. Derby .. ... ... Roberts, Besline, Derby

V. - Goods Superintendents. Derby 1100. Hull ... ... Promptitude, Hull Central 1516. Goole ... ... Besline, Goole ...

VI.—Docks Superintendents. 221 and 222. Garston ... ... Topham, Freights, Garston, Lancs 765. Fleetwood > Docks Superintendent, Fleet- Wyre Dock f wood 280. Granet., c/o Bestline., Paris ...
Opera 01-64, 01-68.

The London Midland and Scottish Ry. resulted from the amalgamation of the North Western, Midland and West Scottish group of companies as specified by the Railways Act of 1921. The L. & Y. Ry. was actually amalgamated with the L. & N. W. Ry. as from 1st January, 1922, so that it did not figure independently in the further amalgamation procedure, though separate particulars in regard to it are given below, as a “ constituent ” company. The group commenced to operate as a single concern under the new title on 1st January, 1923, with a collective though interim organisation, covering the whole of the combined system, notwithstanding that the Caledonian and North Staffordshire Companies had not completed amalgamation arrangements, while the final stages of procedure necessarily had to follow. Certain of the “ subsidiary” companies, also, remained to be dealt with, though, operatively, they were taken over. The following particulars (for further details see RAILWAY YEAR BOOK 1922, and previous editions) cover the “ constituent ” companies : —

London and North Western Railway. The London and North Western Ry. Company was formed in 1846 by the amalgamation of the London and Birmingham, Grand Junction, and Manchester and Birmingham Rys. These systems were themselves amalgamations. The Grand Junction included the Bolton and Leigh, opened 1st August. 1828; Liverpool and Manchester, the “oldest-established firm in the railway passenger business,” opened 15th September, 1830; Kenyon and Leigh, opened 13tli June, 1831; Warrington and Newton, opened 1833; the Grand Junction proper, opened throughout on 4th July, 1837; and the Chester and Crewe, opened 1st October, 1841. The London and Birmingham, the first main line from London opened for traffic, was brought into use between Boxmoor and Tring in October,. 1834, from Euston to Boxmoor, 20th July, 1837, and in sections from each end until the completion of Kilsby tunnel enabled the railway to be operated throughout, 20th September, 1838. The Manchester and Birmingham Railway was opened to Crewe, 10th August, 1842, and the Macclesfield branch in 1845. Many other companies, to some of which these original companies had subscribed, were taken over at various dates. The North Union Ry. in 1846 became joint with the L. & Y. Ry., the later L. & N. W. Ry. and L. & Y. Ry. joint arrangements for these lines, which centred upon Preston, dating from 1888. The Lancaster and Preston Ry. was opened 2Gth June, 1840, amalgamated 1859 ; Crewe Works were opened 1843 ; the Lancaster and Carlisle Ry., amalgamated 1879, was opened to Oxenholme and to Kendal on 22nd September, 1846, to Carlisle 17th December, 1846, and to Windermere 21st April, 1847. The joint station at Carlisle was opened 1st September, 1847 ; in the same year the Trent Valley line was opened, 1st December; the Shropshire Union Rys. and Canals, and the Huddersfield and Manchester, and the Leeds, Dewsbury and Manchester Rys. taken over. The Chester and Holyhead R^. (amalgamated 1858) was opened throughout in 1850, though sections had been in use pending the completion of the Britannia Bridge. In 1852 the Birmingham, Wolverhampton and Stour Valley Ry. (amalgamated 1867) was opened, and the South Staffordshire Ry. was taken over in 1867. The Central Wales line was completed in 1865. As regards more modern developments, may be mentioned the Wilmslow and Levenshulme line, opened 1st May, 1909. In December, 1908, an agreement was made between the London and North Western and the North London Rys. whereby the working of the latter came under the supervision of officers of the L. & N.W. Ry., The West Coast association with ’the Caledonian Ry. dates from 1847. In December, 1921, amalgamation of the L. & N. W. and L. & Y. Ry. Companies was ratified by meetings of shareholders of the respective companies and by the Railways Amalgamation Tribunal of the Ministry of Transport, and from 1st January, 1922, the combined system was operated as one under the title of “L. & N. W. Ry.”

Statistics (1921) as before amalgamation with Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway,

Mileage.—Owned, 1,805 miles 55 chains ; share of joint lines, 207 miles 10 chains ; lines leased or worked, 47 miles 35 chains ; share of lines leased or worked jointly, 4 miles 72 chains ; total route mileages, 2,066 miles 12 chains.

Rolling Stock.—3,336 locomotives; 7 steam rail motor cars; 73 electric motor cars; 112 electric trailer cars ; 9,551 coaching vehicles ; 75,674 freight vehicles; 7,057 service vehicles. Also joint owners of 36 motor cars, 36 electric trailers on Elephant and Castle and Watford service.
Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. As is the ease with all the principal railway companies of Great Britain, the Lancashire and Yorkshire was composed of a large number of smaller lines, including the Manchester and Bolton. Manchester and Leeds, Huddersfield and Sheffield. Wakefield, Pontefract and Goole, West Riding Union, East Lancashire, West Lancashire, and other railways. Of these schemes the earliest was promoted by the proprietors of the Manchester, Bury and Bolton Canal, the Directors of which undertaking determined to convert their waterway into a railway, and an Act of Parliament was obtained in 1831 to stop up the canal from Manchester to Bolton and construct a railway on either side of the waterway. In 1832 the directors of the canal changed their minds and obtained an Act to alter the original scheme in order that a railway might be constructed by the side of the canal throughout its course. Three years later an alteration was made and a more direct route taken from Clifton to Bolton, and on 29th May, 1838, the line was opened for traffic. The Manchester and Leeds Ry. was first publicly suggested in 1825. In October 1830, the project was again brought forward, but owing to strenuous opposition the project was allowed to drop. Five years later it was again resuscitated, and in 1836 plans were deposited for a line running from Oldham Road, Manchester, in a north-easterly direction towards Rochdale, to Littleborough, and through Wakefield to Leeds, The line from Manchester to Littleborough and through Wakefield was opened on 4th July, 1839, and from Summit to Normanton in 1840, and the portion between Littleborough and Summit, including Summit Tunnel, was completed and the line opened throughout in 1841. In 1816 the Manchester and Bolton Ry. was amalgamated with the Manchester and Leeds Ry., and in the same year the Liverpool and Bury Ry., incorporated in 1845, was also amalgamated with the Manchester and Leeds Ry. In August, 1846, the West Riding Union Ry. was incorporated, and by the same Act the whole scheme was transferred to the Manchester and Leeds Ry. The East Lancashire Ry., which ultimately became part of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry., originated in 1844 under the name of the Manchester, Bury, and Rossendale Ry. The line was to commence at Clifton, a junction with the Manchester and Bolton Ry., and terminate at Rawtenstall, and in 1846 authority was given for an extension to Accrington, and by an Act of 1845 for diverging lines to Blackburn and Colne with a branch at Burnley, and in the same year the name was changed to the East Lancashire Ry., and in 1846 authority was given for extensions to Accrington and Bacup. In 1846 the Blackburn and Preston Ry., incorporated in 1844, was amalgamated with the East Lancashire Ry., and in the same year the Liverpool, Ormskirk and Preston Ry. was authorised to provide a line commencing at Walton, near Liverpool, and passing through Aintree, Ormskirk, Leyland and Farington, connecting up with the Blackburn and Preston Ry. By the same Act the Skelmersdale branch from Ormskirk was sanctioned. About the same period various other smaller extensions were authorised, and in 1847 the Manchester and Leeds Ry. assumed the title of Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. The following lines were constructed under Acts prior to 1848:—Preston and Wyre Railway Act, 1835, vested in L. & Y. and L. & N. W. Rys., 1849; Bolton and Preston, 1837; Ashton branch, 1844; Blackburn, Darwen and Bolton, 1845; Blackburn to Chatburn, 1846 ; Barnsley branch, 1846 ; Liverpool, Crosby and South port, 1847; Wigan and Southport, 1847. The following sections were constructed under Acts of later dates than 1847:—Mumps to Rochdale, 1859; Salford to Victoria (Manchester), 1861; Fleetwood Docks Act, 1871; Manchester (Victoria) to Radcliffe and Bradly Fold Junction, 1872; Hindley and Pendleton line, 1883; connecting lines, Hindley and Pendleton section, to Blackrod, 1884 ; Pemberton and Hindley line, 1885 ; Ship Canal line, 1890 ; Collyhurst connecting lines, 1904.

Statistics (1921) as before amalgamation with London and North Western Railway.

Mileage.—Owned, 533 miles; share of joint lines, 68 miles 28 chains; total route mileage, 601 miles 28 chains.

Rolling Stock.—1,650 locomotives ; 18 steam rail motor cars ; 119 electric motor cars ; 122 electric trailer cars; 4,310 coaching vehicles; 34,670 freight vehicles; 2,716 service vehicles; 1 electric shunting locomotive.

Midland Railway. Incorporated 10th May, 1844, by the amalgamation of the North Midland, the Midland Counties, and the Birmingham and Derby Junction Rys., the Midland Ry., by a systematic process of amalgamation and construction of new lines, came to be one of the largest in the Kingdom. Among the earlier companies amalgamated may be mentioned the Leicester and Swannington, the Sheffield and Rotherham, the Bristol and Gloucester, the Birmingham and Gloucester, and the “Little” North Western. In 1903 the Belfast and Northern Counties Ry. (incorporated 1845) became an Irish section (see Northern Counties Committee). In 1912 the London, Tilbury and Southend Ry. was amalgamated, and was uierged for all purposes in the general undertaking of the Company on and from 1st October, 1920. The Midland was a party to several joint lines (see also special articles elsewhere), including the County Donegal Joint Committee, formed when the Donegal Ry. was taken over in 1906, jointly with the G. N. Ry. (I.); the M. and G. N. Joint Ry., including the old Eastern and Midlands, taken over jointly with the G. N. Ry. 1893; the Somerset and Dorset Joint Ry., jointly owned with the L. (fc S. W. Ry., taken over 1875 ; the Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint (Cal.,G. and S. W., L. and N. W. and Midland Rys.) taken over in 1885 ; the Cheshire Lines Committee, joint with the G. C. and G. N. Rys., constituted 1867, besides numerous other joint lines which are not operated on a semiindependent basis. Special events associated with Midland history include the opening of the London Extension, 13th July, 1868; conveyance of third-class passengers by all trains from 1st April, 1872; introduction of Pullman cars in 1874 (the Midland A^as the first to introduce them into England); abolition of the second-class, 1st January, 1875; the opening of the Settle and Carlisle line on 1st May. 1876 ; and the opening of the Nottingham, Melton, Kettering and Manton lines, March, 1880. The opening of the Tottenham and Forest Gate Ry. in 1894 gave a valuable connection with the L. T. & S. Ry. and indirectly led to the amalgamation of that company.

The following summary includes the dates of opening of various sections having principal interest:—Leicester and Swannington, 14th July, 1832; Sheffield and Rotherham, 31st October, 1838; Midland Counties, Nottingham to Derby, 4th June, 1839 ; Trent Junction to Leicester, 5th May, 1840; Leicester to Rugby, 1st July, 1840; North Midland, Derby to Masborough, 11th May, 1840; to Leeds, 30th June, 1840; Birmingham and Derby Junction, Derby to Hampton, 12th August, 1839 ; Whitacre to Birmingham, 10th February, 1842 ; Birmingham to Gloucester, 17th December, 1840; Bristol to Gloucester, 6th July, 1844; Leeds to Bradford, 1st July, 1846 ; Nottingham and Lincoln, 4th August, 1846 ; Syston and Peterborough, 1846-48 ; Trent to Pinxton, 6th September, 1847 ; Shipley to Skipton, 1847 ; Lancaster to Morecambe, 12th June, 1848; Nottingham to Kirkby, 1848; Leicester and Burton, 1st August, 1849; Ambergate to Rowsley, 4th June, 1849; Kirkby and Mansfield, October, 1849 ; Skipton to Lancaster, 1st June, 1850 ; Leicester and Hitchin, 8th May, 1857 ; Pye Bridge to Clay Cross, 1st May, 1862 (through trains to King’s Cross inaugurated 1st February, 1858); Kettering, Thrapston and Huntingdon, 1st March, 1866 ; Rowsley to Miller’s Dale, 1862-63; Miller’s Dale to New Mills and commenced running into Manchester (London Road station), 1867 ; Bedford to Moorgate Street, 13th July, 1868; St. Pancras station opened, 1st October, 1868; Chesterfield and Sheffield, 1st February, 1870 ; Bedford and Northampton, 10th June, 1872; Radford and Trowell, 1st May, 1875 ; Midland commenced running to Liverpool, 1875; Hemel Hempstead Branch, 16th July, 1877; Walsall to Wolverhampton, 1st August, 1876; Water Orton and Walsall, 1st July, 1879; Swinton and Knottingley (joint with N. E. Ry.), 1st July, 1879; Manchester South District line, 1st January, 1880; Midland trains commenced to use Manchester Central instead of London Road, 2nd August, 1880; Dore and Chinley, 1893; New Mills and Heaton Mersey lines, 1st July, 1902 ; Heysham Harbour and Branch, 1st September, 1904.

The London, Tilbury and Southend Ry. was promoted by the Eastern Counties and London and Blackwall Ry. Companies and incorporated a separate company in 1862. The line was opened in 1854. and was leased for 21 years thereafter to Messrs. Peto, Brassey & Betts, contractors, at 6 per cent, per annum on the share capital, and payment of debenture interest. From the terminalion of the lease in 1875 the L. T. & S. Ry. itself worked the line. Various sections were opened as follows—Forest Gate Junction to Tilbury with a Ferry service between Tilbury and Gravesend, 1854; Thames Haven branch, 1855; Barking to Gas Factory Junction, with access to Penchurch Street Station over the London and Blackwall Ry., 1858; Southend to Shoeburyness, 1884; Barking to Pitsea, via Upminster, 1885-6-8; Commercial Road, Whitechapel, Goods Station Branch, 1886; Ockendon Branch, 1892; Romford Branch, 1893; East Ham Loop, 1894; L, T. & S. Line vested in the Midland Ry. Company, 1st January, 1912. Perpetual running powers are exercised over the London and Blackwall Ry. between Gas Factory Junction and Fenchurch Street, including the use of the latter station. The Tottenham and Forest Gate Ry., connecting the London, Tilbury and Southend Ry. with the Midland system, was opened for traffic in July, 1894. The Whitechapel and Bow Ry., connecting the London, Tilbury and Southend Ry. with the Metropolitan District Ry., was opened for traffic on 2nd June, 1902.
Statistics (1922) immediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage.—Owned, 1,794 miles 6 chains ; share of joint lines, 278 miles 17 chains ; lines leased or worked, 16 miles 49 chains; share of lines leased or worked jointly 80 miles 28 chains; total route mileage, 2,169 miles 20 chains.

Rolling Stock.—3,019 locomotives; 48 electric motor cars; 49 electric trailer cars; 1 electric locomotive; 20 electric tramcars; 6,019 coaching vehicles; 107,617 freight vehicles; 8,098 service vehicles.

North Staffordshire Railway. In 1846 powers were obtained for constructing three railways, the “Potteries” line, the Churnet Valley, and the Harecastle and Sandbach ; the next year they were consolidated and formed the North Staffordshire Ry. Subsequently several branches were constructed. In 1865 Parliament sanctioned the construction of a loop line from Hanley to Kidsgrove which was opened throughout in December, 1875. In December, 1874. a resolution was adopted that it was desirable to negotiate for a sale or lease of the railway to some of the neighbouring railways, but nothing came of the suggestion. The following lines were amalgamated with the N. S. Ry.:—Potteries, Biddulph, and Congleton, incorporated 24th July, 1854; opened 3rd August, 1859. Newcastle and Silverdale Ry., 31st August, 1860; Sneyds Ry., 31st August, 1860; Adderley Green and Bucknail Ry., July, 1894; Cheadle Ry., January, 1907. The N. S. Ry. was joint owner with the Great Central Ry. of the Marple and Bollington Ry., incorporated 14th July, 1864; length, 11 miles. The N. S. Ry. worked the Leek and Manifold Ry. (2 ft. 6 in. gauge), 8 miles in length, opened 24th June, 1904.
Statistics (1922) immediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage.—Owned, 206 miles 25 chains; share of joint lines, 5 miles 79 chains; lines leased or worked, 8 miles 21 chains; total route mileage, 220 miles 45 chains.
Rolling Stock.—192 locomotives; 3 steam rail motor cars; 531 coaching vehicles ; 6,248 freight vehicles; 364 service vehicles.

Furness Railway. This old and at one time highly lucrative railway dated back to 1844 for its incorporation. The first portion was opened on the 11th August, 1846. The line, as originally laid, was principally for mineral traffic, and extended from Barrow and Piel Pier to the Dalton Mines and Kirkby Quarries. In December, 1846, the railway commenced to convey passenger traffic, and subsequently extensions were made to Whitehaven, Carnforth, Lake Side (Windermere), and Coniston. The Furness Ry. formed an important link in railway communication with the Lake District, whilst the port of Barrow, with its excellent and capacious docks, consisting of 278 acres, was served solely by the Company. The Furness Ry. was in close alliance with the Midland and L. and N. W. Rys. Under the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Act, 1865, powers were obtained to construct a viaduct across the Duddon Estuary. This, however, was abandoned ; but for all that, the Company carried out its obligation by conveying oassengers a distance of nine miles and only charging for four, the latter being the distance by the proposed viaduct. Originally the Furness main line did not run through Barrow. There was, of course, a station in Barrow, but passengers were brought back to Furness Abbey, thence over the loop line to Askam, and on to Millom and Whitehaven. In the year 1882 the Central station. Barrow, was built, and the line carried through the town. This necessarily increased the distance by 71 miles, but the Company did not increase their fares. The Furness Ry. was joint owner with the Midland Ry. of the Carnforth and Wennington line, worked by Midland Ry.; also worked the Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont line jointly with L. & N. W. Ry.; and worked the Cleator and Workington Junction line between Cleator Moor Junction and Siddick Junction, Calva Junction and Linefoot Junction, the Lonsdale Dock Branch, and the Workington Bridge Curve. Steam yachts were run by the Company on Lake Windermere, commencing in 1871, and on Lake Coniston in 1859, thus inaugurating services which are still in great favour.
Statistics (1922) immediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage.—Owned, 115 miles 2 chains; share of joint lines, 23 miles 62 chains; lines leased or worked, 19 miles 37 chains; total route mileage, 158 miles 21 chains.
Rolling Stock.—136 locomotives ; 361 coaching vehicles ; 7,365 freight vehicles ; 374 service vehicles.

Caledonian Railway. Incorporated in 1845, after a fierce and protracted Parliamentary struggle costing over £70,000, the original Caledonian Ry. was opened from Carlisle to Beattock on 10th September, 1847, and to Glasgow on 15th February, 1848, together with branches from Carstairs to Edinburgh, and from near Gartsherrie to Castleoary to join the Scottish Central Ry. at Greenhill. For many years it remained the largest individual railway in Scotland, while amalgamation therewith of the Scottish Central Ry. in 1865, and the Scottish North Eastern Ry. in 1866, raised it virtually to its present importance as the Northern partner in the West Coast alliance. The original system utilised two very old railways—the Glasgow, Garnkirk and Coatbridge (authorised 1826, opened 1831 and purchased 1846), and the Wishaw and Coltness (opened 1841, taken over 1849)—to reach the first passenger station at St. Rollox. The Scottish Central Ry. was opened from Greenhill to Perth, 22nd May, 1848. The Scottish North Eastern Ry., incorporating the Scottish Midland Junction and Aberdeen Companies, completed the roite through Ferryhill, near Aberdeen, on 1st April, 1850, and to Aberdeen on 2nd August, 1854. The Scottish Central was incorporated in 1845 for a line from the Edinburgh and Glasgow Ry. at Falkirk and from the Caledonian at Castlecary to Perth, and before it was taken over by the Caledonian Company it had also acquired the Dundee, Perth and Aberdeen Junction and Dundee and Newtyle Rys., the latter having been authorised in 1826 and opened in 1831. With it were also associated the Crieff Junction and the Dunblane, Doune and Callander Rys. The Callander and Oban Ry. was first promoted as a distinct company in association with the Scottish Central, though the first portion to be opened, from Callander to Killin, on 1st June, 1870, belonged to the period after amalgamation. The Scottish North Eastern Ry. included the Scottish Midland from Perth to Forfar, the Arbroath and Forfar Ry. (incorporated 1845), the latter being leased by Act of 1846; and the Aberdeen Ry. (incorporated 1845) from Guthrie to Aberdeen, with branches to Brechin and Montrose, together with various other lines, most of which were, however, not constructed until after amalgamation with the Caledonian Ry. The Denburn Valley line, joint with the G. N. of S. Ry., was authorised in 1864, and completed, with the first joint station at Aberdeen, in 1867. In consequence of the opening of the line from Crieft to Balquhidder in 1905 a new route was formed, giving improved facilities from Perth and the east of Scotland to Oban and the West Coast.
At various dates a large number of branch and local railways were taken over by the Caledonian Company, the list being too extensive to set forth here, but some of the more important may be briefly mentioned. The Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock Ry., opened 1841, was amalgamated in 1847. The Cleland and Midcalder line, opened in 1869, provided a direct and shorter route between Edinburgh and Glasgow. The Carlisle Citadel Station Joint Committee (Caledonian and L. & N. W. Rys., and arrangements with Mid., G. tfe S. W. and M. & C. Rys.) was set up by Act of 1861. The Glasgow and Kilmarnock Joint line, connecting with the Glasgow and Paisley Joint line, was built in conjunction with G. & S. W. Ry. under Acts of 1865 and later. The Forth and Clyde Navigation was vested in the Caledonian Company by Act of 20th June, 1867, together with Grangemouth Docks. The Wemyss Bay line and pier was opened in 1864, providing the shortest route between Glasgow and places on the lower reaches of the Firth of Clyde. The extension from Greenock to Gourock was opened 1st June, 1889. The Lanarkshire and Ayrshire Ry. to Ardrossan Pier (worked by the C. R.) was completed in May, 1890. The Glasgow Central Ry., opened in sections between 1894 and 1896, is chiefly underground, and extends from Dalmarnock to Maryhill and Dawsholm, giving access to Queen’s Dock. The Lanarkshire and Dumbartonshire Ry. was opened 1st October, 1896. The Callander and Oban Ry. was completed to Oban 1st July, 1880, and the Ballachulish Extension in August, 1903. The Alloa Bridge was opened for traffic 1st October, 1885. The first station in Glasgow was at St. Rollox, but Buchanan Street station was opened in 1849, which thus accommodated south as well as north traffic until the first Central station, reached by an extension from Gushet- faulds and a bridge across the Clyde, was completed and opened for traffic in 1879. In 1890 the line was widened between Eglinton Street and Clyde Place, and Greenock and Wemyss Bay trains worked into Bridge Street. In 1905 the Central station was extended. The Caledonian and L. & N. W. Rys. formed the West Coast Royal Mail route between England and Scotland, over which the King and Queen usually travel when passing between England and Balmoral, whilst the mails are also conveyed by this route.
Statistics (1922) immediately prior to amalgamation.

Mileage.—Owned, 896 miles 38 chains; share of joint lines, 60 miles 78 chains; line leased or worked, 152 miles 70 chains; share of lines leased or worked jointly, 4 miles 21 chains ; total route mileage, 1,114 miles 47 chains.

Rolling Stock.—1,070 locomotives; 3,040 coaching vehicles; 51,536 freight vehicles; 1,786 service vehicles.

Glasgow and South Western Railway. Opened Glasgow to Ayr, 1840, as the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock and Ayr Ry.; ten years later, on the completion of the line between Kilmarnock and Gretna, and amalgamation with the Glasgow, Dumfries and Carlisle Ry., the above title was assumed. The first railway opened in Scotland still forms a part of the G. & S. W. system, and is the line between Kilmarnock and Troon. It was opened in 1811, and operated by horse haulage, but in 1817 an attempt was made to work it with a locomotive. Horse haulage had to be reverted to for a time, but ultimately wooden wheels were substituted for iron, and the locomotive again introduced. The line from Dairy to Kilmarnock was inaugurated on 4th April, 1843; from Kilmarnock to Galston, and from Kilmarnock to Muirkirk on 9th August, 1848; from Dumfries to Gretna Junction on 23rd August, 1848; from Closeburn to Dumfries on 15th October, 1849; from Auchinleck to New Cumnock on 20th May, 1850 ; and from New Cumnock to Closeburn on 28th October, 1850, the last-mentioned section completing the railway from Glasgow to Carlisle. The Ardrossan Ry., which had been formed in connection with the Glasgow, Paisley and Johnstone Canal, was connected to the Ayr line at Kilwinning. In 1885 the Glasgow, Paisley and Johnstone Canal was filled in, and a railway, known as the Canal line, constructed in its place. Ardrossan has since greatly developed as a shipping port, regular services being given to and from the Island of Arran, various Irish ports, and in summer to the Isle of Man, and there is also a general shipping trade to all parts of the world. The Ardrossan branch was subsequently continued to Pairlie, where a pier was built and steamboat communication established to and from the coast towns in Bute, Cumbrae, Arran and Kintyre, and latterly the line was carried to Largs, a favourite watering resort. The Ayr main line was extended to Maybole in 1857, to Girvan in 1860, and to Chailoch Junction in 1877, joining with the Portpatrick Ry. from Castle Douglas to Stranraer, connecting at Castle Douglas with the Dumfries and Kirkcudbright branch of the G. S. W. Ry. Into Stranraer from the Dumfries end the railway was opened in March, 1861, and from the Girvan end in October, 1877. The railway to Greenock was opened in 1869, forming the Princes Pier route to Clyde Coast places. A direct railway projected from Glasgow to Kilmarnock was abandoned in favour of an arrangement with the Caledonian Ry. Company to acquire jointly with them the Glasgow, Barrhead and Kilmarnock line, opened throughout to Kilmarnock on 26th June, 1873. The connection between the N. B. and G. & S. W. systems at Glasgow was formed in August, 1875. St. Enoch Station was first used in 1876. St. Enoch Hotel was opened in 1879. The Catrine branch and the Renfrew and District Ry. were opened in 1903. The Cairn Valley line was opened on 1st March, 1905, the Maidens and Dunure Light Ry. following in May, 1906. The Stranraer and Larne Steamboat Company, formed in 1871, established what is known as the ‘‘ Short Sea Route ” between Great Britain and Ireland.
Statistics (1922) Immediately prior to amalgamation.

Mileage.—Owned, 448 miles 56 chains share of joint lines, 44 miles 36 chains ; share of lines leased or worked jointly, 24 chains ; total route mileage, 493 miles 36 chains.

Rolling Stock.—528 locomotives; 1,604 coaching vehicles; 19,252 freight vehicles; 1,349 service 5/ehicles.

Highland Railway. The Highland Ry. originated with the Inverness and Nairn Ry., 15 miles in length. The first train was run on 5th November, 1855. A railway from Nairn to Keith was opened on 25th August, 1858, and amalgamated with the former, under the name of the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction Ry., three years later. The Inverness and Perth Junction Ry., diverging from the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction Ry. at Forres, and joining the Perth and Dunkeld Ry. at Dunkeld, was opened on 9th September, 1863. The Perth and Dunkeld Ry. (Stanley to Dunkeld),which was opened on 7th April, 1856, was acquired and amalgamated under the powers of the Inverness and Perth Junction and Perth and Dunkeld Rys. Amalgamations Act, 1863. All the above lines were united under the designation of “ The Highland Ry.” in 1865. Meanwhile the lines were being pushed northwards. The Ross-shire Ry., Inverness to Invergordon, was opened in March, 1863, and extended to Bonar Bridge in 1864. The Sutherland Ry., from Bonar Bridge to Golspie, was opened in April, 1868, and the Dingwall and Skye Ry., from Dingwall to Stronie Ferry, was opened throughout in August, 1870. The Duke of Sutherland constructed a railway from Golspie to Helmsdale and opened it in June, 1871, and the final stage in this direction was reached when the Sutherland and Caithness Ry., from Helmsdale to Wick and Thurso, was opened in July, 1874 All these were merged in the Highland Ry. in 1884. Later developments include the extension of the original Dingwall and Skye Ry. from Strome Ferry to Kyle of Lochalsh, opened in 1897, and the construction of a direct line, from Aviemore to Inverness, a distance of 34 miles. The latter was opened on 1st November, 1898.
Statistics (1922) immediately prior to amalgamation.

Mileage.—Owned, 484 miles 64 chains; lines worked, 21 miles 15 chains; total route mileage,. 505 miles 79 chains.

Rolling Stock.—173 locomotives ; 789 coaching vehicles ; 2,718 freight vehicles ; 114 service vehicles.

Subsidiary Companies.
Arbroath and Forfar.—Opened 3rd January, 1839. Length, 15J miles.

Brechin and Edzell District.—Opened 8th June, 1896. Length, 5’52 miles.

Callander and Oban.—Opened throughout 1st July, 1880. Length, 72 miles. Balluchulish. Extension (27| miles) opened 24th August, 1903.

Cathcart District.—Partially opened 25th May, 1886 ; remainder, 2nd April, 1894. Length 6^ miles.

Charnioood Forest.—Opened 16th April, 1883. Length, lOj miles.

Cleator and Workington Junction.— Incorporated 1876. Opened 1st October, 1879. Length, 30J miles. Six locomotives; 248 freight vehicles.

Cockermouth Keswick^ and Penrith.—Incorporated 1st August, 1861. Under an Act of 1863, the L. & N. W. and Stockton and Darlington (later N. E. Ky.) Rys. were permitted to subscribe £25,000 each to the undertaking, and to enter into working agreements, the terms of which, when subsequently fixed, provided for the working of the traffic in perpetuity, in consideration of 33J per cent, of the receipts for passengers and goods (the percentage on coaching traffic being increased to 35 per cent, from 1st January, 1889), and 35 per cent, for minerals. These two railways were represented on the Board of the Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Ry. by two directors each. Traffic was inaugurated 2nd January, 1865. Rolling stock was supplied by the working companies—L. & N. W. and N. E. Rys. The line serves one of the most interesting parts of Cumberland, and passes along almost the whole length of the western shore of Lake Bassenthwaite. The line between Troutbeck and Threlkeld stations was doubled in the year 1894, and between Redhills Junction and Blencow station and between Penruddock and Troutbeck stations in the year 1902. Length, 30 miles, 65 chains.

Dearne Valley.—Length, 21 miles.

Dornoch Light.—Opened 2nd June, 1902. Length, 7i miles.

Dundee and Neivtyle.—Opened 16th December, 1831. Length, 14| miles.

Harborne.—Opened 10th August, 1874. Length, 2^ miles.

Killin.—Opened 1st April, 1886. Length, miles.

Knott End.—Opened December, 1870. Length. 11J miles. Four locomotives, 10 coaching vehicles, 50 goods vehicles.

Lanarkshire and Ayrshire.—Opened September, 1888. Length, 211 miles. Extension (15 miles) opened 1st May, 1903.

Leek and Manifold Valley Light.—2 ft. 6 in. gauge. Opened 24th June, 1904. Length, 8J miles. Two locomotives, four coaching vehicles, seven freight vehicles.

Maryport and Carlisle.—Incorporated by Act 1 Vic. cap. III., in 1837, for the construction of a single line of railway between the towns named. George Stephenson was the engineer of the undertaking, and in his report he pointed out that the railway could be constructed at an extremely low price, consequent upon the level nature of the country through which it would pass, and the absence of tunnels and other expensive engineering works. Contrary to the usual experience, the revenue from the first opening of the line (a section on 15th July, 1840, and throughout on 10th February, 1845) almost equalled the estimate. On the whole the Maryport and Carlisle Ry. has been successful. The main line, 28 miles in length, has been doubled, almost entirely out of revenue. In 1862 powers were obtained for the construction of branches to Bolton and Wigton, and this additional mileage of 7| miles was opened for traffic on 2nd April, 1866. In 1865 an Act was obtained for the construction of a line, 6 miles in length, from Bullgill to Brigham, and a through communication between the Maryport and Carlisle Ry. and the Cockermouth, Workington and Whitehaven line was thus brought into operation when this branch was opened on 12th April, 1867. Length, 42 miles and 63 chains. Rolling stock : 33 locomotives ; 71 coaching vehicles ; 1,404 freight vehicles ; 69 service vehicles.
Mold and Denbigh Junction.—Opened 12th September, 1869. Length, 15 miles.

North and South Western Junction.—Opened 1st August, 1853. Length, 5| miles.
North London.—Incorporated 1846 as the Bast and West India Docks and Birmingham Junction Ry., for constructing a railway from the L. & N. W. at Camden Goods station (Chalk Farm) to the West India Docks at Poplar. In 1850 an Act was obtained for effecting junctions with the Blackwall and Eastern Counties Rys. at Bow. By means of the former the N. L. obtained access to Fenchurch Street station, and their trains commenced to run to that station in 1851. The service continued until December. 1868, when it was withdrawn. Previously the extension to the City from Kingsland to Broad Street had been opened on 31st October, 1865, having been authorised by the N. L. Ry. Act of 1861. One-half of Broad Street station was the property of the L. & K. W. Ry. Co. Up to November, 1875, the N. L. Ry. only carried first and second class passengers. The N. L. Ry. provided a service of steam passenger trains between Broad Street and Kew Bridge and Broad Screet and Richmond, via the N. & S.W. Junction Ry., up to 30th September, 1916. After this date the steam trains working this service were replaced by electric trains. The N. L. Ry. worked a service of steam passenger trains to and from Broad Street and various suburban stations on the G. N. Ry., the connecting line from Canonbury (N. L.) to Finsbury Park (G. N.) being the property of the G. N. Ry. Co. The service commenced on 18th January, 1875. A service of steam passenger trains was also run between Broad Street and Poplar. In December, 1908. an agreement was entered into between the N. L. and L. & N. W. Ry. Companies to the effect that the N. L. Ry. would continue to exist as a separate corporation, but the officers would be provided by the L. & N. W. Ry. Co. The agreement, which also related to the supply of equipment at a reasonable price, etc., was for 21 years, with the proviso thar the N. L. Co. could determine it, at any time after first 12 months, on giving six months’ notice. The agreement also set forth the terms of remuneration. Mileage: Owned, 14 miles 20 chains; total, 16 miles 5 chains. Rolling stock : 99 locomotives ; 373 coaching vehicles; 297 freight vehicles ; 224 service vehicles.

Shropshire Union Rys. and Canal,—Opened, Stafford to Wellington, 1st June, 1849, Leased from 1847 to L. & N. W. Ry. Length, 18| miles. Opened, Wellington to Shrewsbury. 1st June, 1849. Leased to L. & N. W. and G. W. Rys. Length, 10| miles.

Solway Junction,—Opened Sth August, 1870. Length, 12J miles (excluding 4 miles between Abbey Junction and Kirkbride Junction and the Solway Viaduct).

Stratford-upon-Avon and Midland Junction,—This system, known as the “Shakespeare Route,” was formed by the amalgamation, in 1908, of the Fast and West Junction (incorporated 1864), Evesham, Redditch and Stratford-upon-Avon Junction (incorporated 1873), and Stratford-upon-Avon, Towcester and Midland Junction (incorporated 1879), and the purchase, sanctioned by Act of Parliament, 1910, of the Northampton and Banbury Junction Railway (incorporated 1863). The line was originally designed to develop the large iron-ore traffic and furnish a shorter route for it from Northamptonshire into South Wales. A large output of iron ore is obtained from mines at Blisworth, Towcester, Byfield and Burton Dassett. This railway forms an important link in the rail communication between London and the West of England, connecting in the East with the Midland Ry. at Ravenstone Wood Junction and again joining the same railway in the west at Broom Junction. The Stratford-upon-Avon and Midland Junction Ry. was thus enabled to afford an expeditious transit for goods, cattle, and other traffic between Bristol and London. Extending from Olney to Broom (via Towcester and Stratford-on-Avon), the S. M. J. Ry. connected the London, Bedford and Northampton, and Birmingham and Bristol Lines of the Midland Ry. ; it also connected with the G. C. Ry. at Woodford and Hinton ; the L. & N. W. Ry. at Blisworth and Cockley Brake; and the G. W. Ry. at Stratford-on-Avon and Fenny Compton. Length, 67 miles 46 chains. Rollingstock: 13 locomotives, 28 coaching vehicles ; 130 freight vehicles, 36 service vehicles.

Tottenham and Forest Gate.—Opened 1891. Length, 6 mile^. Promoted by M. and L.'T. & S. Rys. jointly. Worked by M. Ry. until the L. T. S. Ry. was absorbed, when the Midland became virtually sole owner.

Wick and Lybster Light.—-Opened 1st July, 1903. Length, 13| miles.

Wirral.—Inception of this Railway dates back to 1863, when the Hoy lake Ry. Co. was incorporated, with powers to make railways from Birkenhead and Poulton-cum- Seacombe to Hoylake, and in 1865-66 was further authorised to make extensions to New Brighton and to Parkgate, in the county of Chester, the full powers, however, not being then exercised. In 1872 the Hoylake and Birkenhead Rail and Tramways Co. was incorporated, and by the Act of that year acquired the railways of the Hoylake Co. and in the following year obtained powers to extend from Hoy lake to West Kirby, and to make a connection from the terminus at Docks Station, Birkenhead, with the Dock Rys. of the Mersey Dock and Harbour Board. Powers were obtained in 1881 to make an extension to Seacombe and to change the name of the Company to the Seacombe, Hoylake, and DeesideRy. Co., and a further extension to New Brighton was made by powers obtained in 1882. The Wirral Ry. Co. was incorporated in 1883 by a certificate of the Board of Trade under the powers conferred upon them by the Railways Construction Facilities Act, 1864, and by such certificate and by subsequent Acts passed in 1884, 1885, and 1888, the Wirral Ry. was authorised to construct railways in the hundred of Wirral, in the county of Chester, communicating with the Mersey Ry., the Seacombe, Hoylake, and Deeside Ry., and the Chester and Connah’s Quay extension of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire (Great Central) Ry. The completed portion of the extension to Chester was transferred by the Act of 1889 to the joint ownership of the G. C. and W. M. and C. Q. Ry. Cos. The G. C. from 1st January, 1905, became owners of the transferred railway upon their absorption of the W. M. and C. Q. Ry. By the Wirral Railway Act of 1891 the undertakings of the Seacombe, Hoylake, and Deeside Ry. Co. and the Wirral Ry. Co. were amalgamated under the name of the Wirral " ~
13 miles. Rolling stock: 17 locomotives; 71 coaching vehicles; 80 17 service vehicles.

Yorkshire Dales {Skipton to Grassington),—Opened 29th July, 1902.
Joint Railways.
(For further particulars see ‘‘Joint Railway” section.)
A.—Now comprised wholly in London Midland and Scottish Railway.

Ashby and Nuneaton, 26 miles; Carlisle Citadel Station and Goods Traffic Joint Committees; Enderby, 2^ miles; Furness and Midland, 9| miles ; Glasgow, Barrhead and Kilmarnock Joint, 30J miles ; Glasgow and Paisley, 16 miles ; Lancashire Union, 12| miles ; Whitehaven, Cleator and Egremont, 35 miles; North Union, 6^ miles; Preston and Long- ridge, 8 miles ; Preston and Wyre, 46 miles.

Portpatrlck and Wigtownshire Joint.—The first portion of the PortpatricJc Ry., from Castle Douglas to Stranraer, was opened in 1861, and extended to Portpatrick, 1862. Newton- Stewart to Whithorn line, formerly the Wigtownshire Ry.^ opened 1875-77. Line worked between Castle Douglas and Stranraer by Caledonian Ry. till August, 1885. Purchased by L. & N. W., Midland, Caledonian and G. & S. W. Rys. jointly, 1885. The system consists of 82i miles of railway, nearly all single line, worked on the Tablet system. The branch line from Millisle to Garlieston was closed for passenger traffic on 28th February, 1903. Engines and rolling stock were provided by the owning companies on a mileage basis. Maintenance, etc., were undertaken by the Caledonian and Glasgow & South Western Rys. for alternate periods. The P. P. & W. Joint Rys. owned four-fifths of the Larne and Stranraer Steamship Joint Committee’s vessels, which trade between Stranraer and Larne, the remaining fifth share being owned by the Northern Counties Committee of the Midland Ry.
a.—Joint with London and North Eastern Railway.

Axholme Joint, 27f miles; Cheshire Lines Committee, 143J miles (see also article later); Dumbarton and Balloch (including Loch Lomond steamers), 7^ miles ; Dundee and Arbroath (including Carmyllie Light Railway), 23 miles; G. C. and M. Joint, 39^ miles; G. C., Hull and Barnsley and M. Joint (one-third share), 5 miles; G. C. and North Staffordshire, 11 miles ; G. N. and L. & N. W., 45 miles ; Halifax and Ovenden, 2^ miles ; Halifax High Level, 3 miles; Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham, 9^ miles; Methley, 6 miles; M. and G. N. Joint, 183^ miles (see also article, later); Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Committee, 22^ miles; Oldham, Ashton and Guide Bridge, 6J miles ; Otley and Ilkley, 6| miles; Prince’s Dock, Glasgow, 1| miles; Rothesay Dock Joint Railway, 17 chains; South Yorkshire Joint, 29 miles 69 chains (two-fifths share) ; Swinton and Knottingley, 18| miles ; and Tottenham and Hampstead, 4J miles, joint lines. Also joint stations at Aberdeen, Bradford ( Exchange), Halifax, Hawes, Knottingley, Leeds (New), Normanton, Perth, Staly- bridge, Tebay and Wakefield (Kirkgate) and lines at Newark, Wath, Carlisle, Hawes, Beighton, etc., and certain colliery branches.
C. —Joint lolth Great Western Railway.

Chester and Birkenhead, 62 miles ; Brecon and Merthyr, and L. & N. W. Joint, 6 miles ; Brynmawr and Western Valleys, IJ miles ; Clee Hill, 6 miles ; Clifton Extension, 7i miles; Halesowen, 6 miles ; Nantybwch and Rhymney, 3 miles ; Severn andWye, 41miles; Shrewsbury and Hereford, etc., 82J miles ; Tenbury, 5 miles; Vale of Towy, 11 miles, owned by L. & N.W., but leased jointly; West London, 2J miles; Wrexham and Minera, 5J miles; also joint stations and lines at Bristol, Worcester, Churehdown, etc.
D. —Joint with Southern Railway.

Somerset and Dorset, owned 96J miles; worked 8J miles (see also article, later).
E. —Joint with Great Western and Southern Railway.

West London Extension, 5J miles.
F. —Joint with Metropolitan District Railway.

Whitechapel and Bow, 2 miles.
G. —Joint with Mersey Railway.

Birkenhead Park Station.
H.—Irish Lines.

Joint Midland and Great Northern of Ireland (Co. Donegal lines), 91 miles. Leased or worked, Strabane and Letterkenny, 19J miles.

Shortest Routes as compared with other Railways.—From London to Glasgow, 401^ miles ; Liverpool (Lime Street), 193| miles; Manchester, 183 miles; Carlisle, 299 miles ; Chester, 179 J miles ; Birkenhead, 194J miles ; Holy head, 263| miles ; Kingstown, 323| miles ; Dublin (North Wail), 333J miles ; Greenore, 343| miles; Belfast, via Heysham, 377^ miles; Leicester, 99 miles; Nottingham, 123| miles; Sheffield, 158^ miles; Southend, 35| miles. From Glasgow to Aberdeen, Inverness, Edinburgh, Perth, Ilundee, Forfar, Arbroath, Montrose, Carlisle, Greenock, Rothesay, Peebles, Hamilton, Dumbarton and Balloch. Including
through services the London Midland and Scottish Ry. has the shortest routes from Glasgow to London, Liverpool, Birmingham, Bristol, Bath, Plymouth, Manchester, Preston, Newcastle, etc. The shortest route to all stations on the Highland section north of Perth is via Dunkeld, the distance to Inverness by this route from Euston being 567| miles. By virtue of the amalgamation, the Company are able to offer to passengers alternative routes as between England and Scotland, thus enabling passengers to travel outward by one route and return by another.

Important Towns Served.—Aberdeen, Accrington, Arbroath, Ardrossan, Ayr, Barrow, Bath, Bedford, Birkenhead, Birmingham, Blackburn, Blackpool, Blairgowrie, Bolton, Bournemouth, Bradford, Brechin, Bristol, Burnley, Burton-on-Trent, Cambridge, Cardiff, Carlisle, Cheltenham, Chester, Chesterfield, Coatbridge, Coventry, Crewe, Crieff, Derby, Dudley, Dumfries, Dundee, Edinburgh, Elgin, Ellesmere Port, Falkirk, Fleetwood, Forfar, Glasgow, Gloucester, Goole, Grangemouth, Greenock, Halifax, Hamilton, Holyhead, Huddersfield, Hull, Inverness, Kilmarnock, King’s Lynn, Lancaster, Leeds, Leicester, Lincoln, Liverpool, London, Longton, Luton, Manchester, Montrose, Motherwell, Newport, Northampton, Norwi Nottingham, Oban, Oldham, Oxford, Paisley, Perth, Peterborough, Plymouth, Preston, Rochdale, Rotherham, Sheffield, Southampton, Southend-on-Sea, Southport, Stafford, Stirling, Stockport, Stoke-on-Trent, Stranraer, Stratford-on-Avon, Swansea, Thurso, Wakefield, Walsall, Wick, Wigan, Wolverhampton, Worcester, Yarmouth, York.

Principal Through Services.—London (Euston) to Birmingham and Wolverhampton and the “Black Country” generally; to Liverpool and Manchester and Lancashire and Yorkshire towns ; to North Wales and Cheshire ; to Central Wales and Welsh Coast resorts, and Lake District, Westmorland and Cumberland; to Belfast and Northern Ireland via Heysham and Belfast, and via Stranraer and Larne ; and to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Oban, Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen, Inverness and North of Scotland, most towns in south-western Scotland, as well as all parts of England. London (St. Pancras) to Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, the Peak District, Manchester, Liverpool, and to Carlisle and Scotland. Bristol, Gloucester, Birmingham, Wolverhampton, etc., to Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, etc., and Scotland. Liverpool and Manchester to Scotland, North Wales, etc. Edinburgh and Glasgow and from Edinburgh and Glasgow to Aberdeen, Dundee, Perth, Oban, Inverness, England; from Glasgow to Greenock, Ayr, Ardrossan, Largs, Kilmarnock and Dumfries, and between numerous Scottish towns also to the Clyde coast resorts, etc. Anglo-Irish services via Holy head, Heysham, Stranraer, Ayr, Ardrossan. Also through services, in conjunction with other railways, from Plymouth, Torquay, etc., to Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford and Scotland; Liverpool and Manchester, Bristol and Birmingham, etc., to Leeds, Hull, York, Scarborough, Stockton, Middlesbrough and Newcastle; Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, etc., to Margate, Ramsgate, Brighton, Eastbourne. Southampton, Bournemouth, and other south-coast towns; and to Cromer, Norwich, Yarmouth, etc.; also Nottingham, Derby and Birmingham to Sidmouth, Exmouth, etc.

Named Expresses. —During 1927 names were adopted for a number of principal expresses, and others were added later. The full list to date is as follows -.— The Royal Scot — 10.0 a.m., London (Euston) to Glasgow (Central) and Edinburgh (Princes Street), and 10.0 a.m., Glasgow (Central) and Edinburgh (Princes Street) to London (Euston). Restaurant Cars. Mid-Day Scot,—1.30 p.m., London (Euston) to Glasgow (Central) and Edinburgh (Princes Street), and 1.30 p.m., Glasgow (Central) and Edinburgh (Princes Street) to London (Euston). Restaurant Cars. Night Scot—\2,^^o a.m., London (Euston) to Glasgow (Central) and 10.30 p.m., Glasgow (Central) to London (Euston). First
and Third Class Sleeping Accommodation. The Royal Highlander.—1 p.m.. London
(Euston) to Inverness. Leaves Euston at 7.20 p.m. (July 18th to September 23rd.) First and Third Class Sleeping Accommodation. The Thames-Clyde Express.—9.50 a.m., London (St. Pancras) to Glasgow (St. Enoch), and 9.20 a.m., Glasgow (St. Enoch) to London (St. Pancras). Restaurant Cars. The Thames-Forth Express—9.0 a.m., London (St. Pancras) to Edinburgh (Waverley), and 10.3 a.m., Edinburgh (Waverley) to London (St. Pancras). Restaurant Cars. The Irish Mail.—^.^(^ a.m. and 8.45 p.m. London (Euston) to Holyhead, and 12.13 a.m. and 12.18 p.m.. Holyhead to London (Euston), Restaurant Cars on day services; First and Third Class Sleeping Accommodation on night services. The Ulster Express,— 6.10 p.m. (Saturdaysexcepted), 6.40p.m., (Saturdaysonly), 6.5 p.m. (Sundays), London (Euston) to Heysham (for Belfast) and 5.48 a.m., 7.43 a.m. (Sundays), Heysham to London (Euston). Restaurant Cars. The Welshman.—11.10 a.m., London (Euston) to North Wales Sats, only commences June 4th. Restaurant Cars. (N.B.—This train runs Mondays, Fridays and Saturdays during the Summer months.) The Lakes Express.—
11.35 a.m., London (Euston) to Windermere and Keswick. Restaurant Cars, (N.B.—This train runs during the Summer months only.) The Sunny South Express—
10.35 a.m., Liverpool (Lime Street), and 10.40 a.m., Manchester (London Road) to Brighton and Eastbourne and Ramsgate, and 11.45 a.m. from Eastbourne. 12.35 p.m. from Brighton and 10.50 a.m. from Ramsgate to Liverpool (Lime Street) and Manchester (London Road) Restaurant Cars. These trains run daily during the summer months; at other times to the South Coast on Saturdays and from the South Coast on Mondays. The Pines Express.— 10.0 a m.. Manchester (London Road), and 9.40 a.m., Liverpool (Lime Street) to Bournemouth (West) and 10.20 a.m., Bournemouth (West) to Manchester (London Road) and Liverpool (Lime Street). Restaurant Car. Through Carriages between Liverpool (Lime Street)and Southampton. The Devonian—10.12 a.m. Bradford (Forster Square) to West of England, and 12.55 p.m., Bristol (Temple Meads) to Bradford (Forster Square). Restaurant Car. The Yorkshireman.—9.10 a.m. Bradford (Exchange) to London (St. Pancras) (Saturdays excepted), and 4.55 p.m., London (St. Pancras) to Bradford (Exchange) (Saturdays excepted). Restaurant Car. 77ic Mancunian.—9.45 a.m., Manchester (London Road) to London (Euston) and 4.0 p.m. London (Euston) to Manchester (London Road). Restaurant Cars. The Merseyside Express.—10.0 a.m., Liverpool (Lime Street) to London (Euston) and 5.55 p.m., London (Euston) to Liverpool (Lime Street). Restaurant Cars. The Lancastrian.—12.5 p.m., Manchester (London Road) to London (Euston) and 6.5 p.m., London (Euston) to Manchester (London Road). The Manxman.—2.0 p.m., from Liverpool (Lime Street) to Euston and 10.40 a.m., Saturdays only, commencing June 4th. (Runs daily during the Summer months.) London (Euston) to Liverpool (Lime Street).

Cartage.—The company have developed motor cartage to a large extent. In addition to their extensive fleet of motor vehicles, they have also a large stud of horses engaged on collection and delivery work. A new feature in this connection is the inauguration of a cartage service in respect of non-railborne traffic. The company are thus enabled to provide promptly the haulage power necessary for the conveyance of traffic generally. Collection and Delivery Services for Merchandise in Country Districts have been organised in various parts of the system, operating over a radius up to 16 or 12 miles from the Railway Station. By this means manufacturers, millers, etc., can despatch traffic in bulk to railheads and distribute locally by L.M.S motors. With the passing of the Road Powers Act, 1928, the Company are now able to take merchandise direct by road from Senders to Consignees when such circumstances are warranted.

Sacks.—L.M.S. sacks can be hired at cheap rates for the conveyance by rail of wheat barley, oats and other grain. Seven days are allowed free for filling and placing on rail.

Longest Runs Without Stop.—See pages 22-26.

Fastest Runs,—See pages 21-26.

Restaurant and Pullman Cars on principal routes.—See page 27. On all Anglo-Scottish day services restaurant cars are attached, and on certain sleeping-car trains to serve Dinner and Breakfast. Pullman restaurant cars are run between Glasgow and Edinburgh, Carlisle, Ayr, Oban, Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen, and Aviemore, and an observation car, at supplementary fares, between Glasgow and Oban (June to September).

Sleeping Cars.—First Class Sleeping Accommodation included in all the night express trains betweenLondon and Stranraer, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen, Oban and Inverness, and between London and Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Holyhead, etc., and between Glasgow (Central) and Liverpool (Lime Street) and Manchester (Exchange) and between Glasgow (Buchanan Street)—Glasgow (Central) on Sundays — and Inverness. Third Class Sleeping Accommodation is also provided on certain of the Night Express trains between London and Manchester, Liverpool, Holyhead, Stranraer, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen and Inverness between Glasgow (Central) and Liverpool (Lime Street) and Manchester (Exchange) and between Glasgow (Central) and Inverness on Sundays. See page 28.

Royal Mail Route.—The Euston-Holyhead and Scotland main lines constitute the principal Royal Mail Route, special Mail and Parcels trains being operated to suit Post Office requirements, in addition to Mail vans, etc., attached to ordinary trains.

Running Powers are exercised over sections of the L. & N. E., G. W., Southern, Metropolitan, Metropolitan District, and other lines. Also Bristol Corporation, Gloucester, Swansea Harbour Trust (now G. W. Ry.) and other dock lines, joint lines, etc.

Electric Traction.—The line between Liverpool, Southport and Crossons was electrified and opened for electric trains 5th April, 1904. In 1906 the lines between Liverpool and Aintree, via Linaore Road and via Walton Junction, were also electrified, the former route being opened in July and the latter in December of that year. This has resulted in a very great development of the district for residential purposes, and since the latter date the electric system has again been extended, from Southport to Meols Cop in 1909 and from Aintree to Ormskirk, April, 1913. The line between Bury (Bolton Street) and Holcombe Brook was electrified and opened for electric trains in July, 1913, whilst 17th April, 1916, saw the introduction of electric traction on the line Manchester (Victoria) to Bury (Bolton St.) via Prestwich, thus giving electric services to the residential districts of North Manchester. On 10th July, 1922, the “ Chalk Farm alterations ” being completed, electric traction was inaugurated between Euston and Broad Street and Watford. In October, 1922, the Croxley Green branch was also electrified. The Branch line between Watford and Rickmansworth is electrified, and electric service commenced in September, 1927. Other sections of the London district electrification were already in operation. A connection with the London Electric Ry. (Baker Street & Waterloo seotion) at Queen’s Park was brought into use in May, 1915. Electric traction was inaugurated between Willesden Junction and Earl’s Court in May, 1914, and from Broad Street to Richmond and Kew Bridge, 1st October, 1916, and on 15th April, 1917, between Broad Street and Watford, and through trains run between Watford and Elephant and Castle. The section between Lancaster, Moreoambe and Heysham is electrically equipped on the high-tension, single-phase system. The London, Tilbury and Southend section from Campbell Road Junction to Barking is fitted for direct current electric traction, and through electric trains run between the Metropolitan District Ry. and Barking. By the Wirral Railway Act, 1900, powers were obtained to raise the necessary capital for electrification.

The electrification of the Manchester South Junction and Altrincham line (which is jointly owned by th© L.M.S. Railway and L.N.E. Railway), was inaugurated on 11th May, 1931. (See pages 17—20).

Train Control.— A system of Control by telephone of traffic operations is in force throughout the whole of the system, except one or two outlying districts, such as Central Wales and the North of Scotland. The supervision of all passenger and freight train working, together with the distribution of stock, is vested in a central co-ordinating authority, i.e. the Chief General Superintendent’s Department at Derby. Directly responsible to Headquarters at Derby are four Divisional Control Offices, situated at Derby (old Midland Ry. and subsidiary lines), Crewe (old L. & N.W. and subsidiary railways), Manchester (old L. & Y. Ry.), and Glasgow (Caledonian. G. & S.W., etc., lines).

In the Derby Divisional Control Area there are District Control Offices at Sxipton, Leeds, Cudworth, Masboro’, Staveley Westhouses, Toton, Chaddesden, Rowsley, Gowhole Kirkby, Nottingham, Melton, Leicester, Peterborough, Wellingborough, Kentish Town, Plaistow, Burton, Birmingham, Gloucester and Bath. In the Crewe Divisional Area there are District Controls at Willesden, Bletchley, Rugby, Nuneaton, Birmingham, Stafford, Stoke, Crewe (Basford Hall), Warrington, Springs Branch, Preston, Carnforth, Heaton Norris, Patricroft, Liverpool, Chester, Barrow, Workington and Abergavenny. In the Manchester Divisional Control area there are District Control Offices at Huddersfield and Wakefield, whilst for the remainder of the L. & Y. Sections the Control arrangements at present are centralised in the Manchester Divisional Control Office. The Glasgow Divisional Control embraces District Control Offices at Polmadie, Kilmarnock, Motherwell, St. Rollox, Edinburgh and Carlisle.

The general telephone arrangements are as follows :—

Each District Control Office has facilities for speaking to all the marshalling depots, stations, signal boxes, loco, and guards’ depots in its area. Each Divisional Control has trunk telephone facilities for prompt communication with all the District Controls in its division. The Chief General Superintendent’s Headquarters at Derby have facilities for prompt communication with all the Divisional Controls, and through them with the District Controls as necessary. The Divisional Controls are in a position to communicate with each other by telephone, and the District Control Offices have facilities for telephonic communication with neighbouring Control Offices, i.e. where there is affinity in regard to working.

Largest Stations.— Western Division: Euston, 15 platforms, varying from 400 to 1,030 ft. long. Shttion premises cover an area of 18 acres. Victoria Station, Manchester, covers an area of 14| acres, and has 17 platforms, one of which (No. 11 platform) is 2,194 ft. long. Amongst other large stations may be noted Lime Street, Liverpool; New Street, Birmingham; Rugby; Crewe; Manchester (London Road and Exchange); Preston; Holyhead; Chester (Joint); Liverpool (Exchange); Southport (Chapel St.); Blackpool (Central and Talbot Road); Stoke-on-Trent.

Midland Division: St. Pancras, London, with the Hotel designed by the late Sir Gilbert Scott, is by far the most striking of the London railway stations, the station itself being the largest in the kingdom under a single span roof. It contains 7 platforms. 800 ft. in length, and 10 sets of rails. Other large principal passenger stations are Bedford. Leicester, Derby, Nottingham, Burton-on-Trent. Cheltenham. Gloucester, Bristol, Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, Keighley. Skipton. Manchester (Central). Liverpool (Central), Luton, Morecambe. Buxton. Heysham Harbour, Tilbury and Southend.

Northern Division: Glasgow Central (17 platforms, high and low level); St. Enoch, Glasgow (12 platforms and 14 roads; it covers over 13| acres of ground); Inverness (8 platforms and 9 roads). Other large stations are Carlisle, Edinburgh (Princes Street), Glasgow (Buchanan Street), Aberdeen, Perth, Gleneagles, Dundee (West), Oban, Stirling. Larbert, Hamilton. Motherwell, Carstairs, Ardrossan, Greenock, Gourock, Wemyss Bay. Egiinton Street, Paisley. Elderslie, Greenock (Princes Pier). Dairy, Kilmarnock, Dumfries, Kilwinning, Ayr, Girvan, Stranraer, Largs, Aviemore, Dingwall, and Forres.

Total Length of Platform Paces at which trains can come alongside of the largest stations.—Crewe, 11,394 ft. (No. 1 down platform is 1,510ft. in length); Buston, 10,776 ft.; Citadel Station, Carlisle, 6,987 feet; Willesden (Low Level), 6,234 ft.; and Rugby, 5,478 ft. (the up main platform is 1,415 ft. long); Manchester (Victoria), 13,947 ft., longest platform 2,194 ft.; Southport (Chapel Street), general platforms, 7,221ft.; excursion platforms, 2,078 ft.; Liverpool (Exchange), 6,406 ft.; Blackpool (Talbot Road), excursion plat
forms, 6,295 ft.; general platforms, 3^605 ft.; Rochdale, 6,126 ft. ; Blackburn, 6,080 ft.; Blackpool (Central), excursion platforms, 5,032 ft.; general platforms, 3,998 ft.; Bradford, 4,742 ft.; Bolton, 4,205 ft.; Halifax 3,153 ft.; Wakefield, 2,100 ft.; St. Pancras, 5,092 ft.; Derby, 5,862 ft.; Nottingham, 5,720 ft.; Sheffield, 7,880 ft.; Leicester, 3,760 ft.; Glasgow (Central), 8,840 ft.; Edinburgh (Princes Street), 4,140 ft.; Perth General, 7,700 ft.; Aberdeen (Joint), 11,340 ft.; Barking, 5,470 ft.; Broad St., 4,545 ft.; Southend, 4,325 ft.; Tilbury, 3,800 ft.; St. Enoch (Glasgow), 9,561ft.; Inverness, 5,600 ft. ; Chester (Joint), 7,307 ft.; longest platform, down main, 1,340 ft.; Longsight, Manchester, excursion platform for Belle Vue Gardens, 1,750 ft. long; Preston, 10,102 ft. up platform. No. 6 is 1,253 ft. long. For further particulars of largest stations, see page 35.

Important Bridges, Viaducts and Engineering Works.— Britannia Bridge, Menai Straits, tubular girders, with two spans of 460 ft. each and two spans of 230 ft. each, clear height from high-water level of spring tides to the underside of the tubes being 103 ft. 9 ins. Runcorn Bridge, over the Mersey, consisting of open lattice girders, with three spans of 305 ft. each, clear height above high-water being 75 ft.; this bridge is approached on each side by viaducts, having a total length of about half a mile. The roof over Lime Street station, Liverpool, varying spans of from 219 ft. to 166 ft,, and an average length of about 620 ft. The roof over New Street station, Birmingham, span 209 ft. and average length about 840 ft. Lockwood, Denby Dale, Wyke, Conisbrough, Kent, Leven, Duddon, and Eskmeals viaducts. Clyde Biidges, Glasgow ; Bridge over Forth near Alloa; Bridge over Forth at Stirling ; Bridge over Tay near Cargill; Bridge over Tay at Perth; Viaduct over North Bsk at Marykirk ; Dee Viaduct, Aberdeen ; Broomhill Viaduct, Larkhall (the highest viaduct in Scotland) ; Camp Viaduct, Motherwell; Braidhurst Viaduct, Motherwell; Nethan Viaduct, Tillietudlem ; Connel Ferry Bridge over Loch Etive (Balla- chulish Branch) ; Avon Viaduct, Stonehouse ; Ballochmyle Viaduct, Stone Arch 180 ft. span 90 ft. rise, Mauchline. Lochans Viaduct, between Stranraer and Colfin; Big Fleet and Little Fleet Viaducts, between Gatehouse and Lochskerrow ; Loch Ken Viaduct between New Galloway and Parton ; Harringworth Viaduct and Grey hound Viaduct (Lancaster) ; Fetteresso Viaduct; Glenury Viaduct; Creagan Bridge, etc.

There are several large and important viaducts on the Highland section, over the Rivers Tay, Tummel, Garry, Spey, Findhorn, Nairn, Ness, Beauly, Conon, etc., but the principal are those on the direct line from Aviemore to Inverness. On that section the valley of the River Nairn is spanned by a magnificent structure of old red sandstone, composed of 28 arches of 50 ft. span, and one grand semi-circular arch of 100 ft. span ; the total length of viaduct is 600 yards, and the height from river bed to parapet is 135 ft. Twelve miles farther south the line is carried over the valley of the River Findhorn, at a height of 145 ft. above water level, by a handsome viaduct, a quarter of a mile long, composed of 9 spans of steel girders each 130 ft. clear, resting on piers of granite built in cement mortar. At Invershin the railway crosses the Kyle of Sutherland by a handsome viaduct consisting of 5 masonry arches of 30 ft. span and 1 wrought-iron multiple lattice deck span of 230 ft. clear. The level of the rails is 65 ft, above low-water level. There is also a viaduct over the River Spey between Orton and Mulben, consisting of 5 masonry arches of 29 ft. span, 1 of 27 ft., 1 of 15 ft., and 1 steel Linville truss through span of 230 ft. clear. The top of the main girders is 78 ft. above the bed of the river.

Longest Tunnels.—Western Section: Two at Primrose Hill, each for two lines of rails, and 1,182 and 1,154 yards long ; two additional single line tunnels have been constructed for electric trains, 1,483 and 1,290 yards long respectively. Kilsby tunnel, 2,426 yards long. At Liverpool (Edge Hill) is a long tunnel for two lines of rails to the Waterloo goods station, in two parts 2,706 and 852 yards long, and another to Wapping, 2,100 yards in length. At Standedge, in Yorkshire, four tunnels side by side, two single line, one double line, one for canal, the length of each being about 5,340 yards. At Festiniog, in North Wales, a single line tunnel, 3,726 yards long. Morley, 3,369 yards. Halton, 1,920 yards. Summit tunnel between Littleborough and Walsden (2,886 yards). Gildersome, 2,331 yards. Sough, between Entwistle and Spring Vale (2,015 yds). Woolley, between Crigglestone and Haigh (1,745 yds.), Bowling, between Low Moor and Bradford (1,648 yards). Watford, New, 1,989 yards ; Old, 1,817 yards. Thurstonland, between Brockholes and Stocksmoor (1,631 yards). Wyke, between Wyke and Low Moor (1,365 yards). Whitehaven (1,322 yds.) Beacon Hill, between Halifax and Hipperholme (1,105 yards). Upholland, between Orrell and Upholland (959 yards). Cumberworth, between Shepley and Denby Dale (906 yards). Melling, 1,230 yards. At Harecastle, there are three tunnels running parallel to each other under Harecastle Hill. The first was built about 1770 for the Trent and Mersey Canal and is only 8 ft. 6 in. in width and was originally 5 ft. 10 in. above the water line. The boats were worked through this tunnel by what is called “ legging ”—that is, the boatmen lay on their backs on the boats and pushed against the roof of the tunnel with their feet. This tunnel is now no longer in use. The second tunnel was built about 1825, and there is a towing-path, and boats were horsed through in the ordinary way. A system of haulage by a boat driven by electricity was brought into use on the 1st December, 1914, and owing to subsidence due to mining, the towingpath is no longer used for horses. The third tunnel for the railway is about seven yards above the level of the other two, and was constructed in 1848. The tunnel at Goldenhill, on the North Staffordshire loop line, is 37 ft. wide, being for three lines of rails.

Midland Section: Totley (between Dore and Totley and Grindleford), 6,230 yards; Disley (between Bugsworth and Hazel Grove), 3,866 yards ; Cowburn (between Edale and Chinley), 3,702 yards ; Dove Holes (between Peak Forest and Chapel-en-le-Frith), 2,984 yards ; Bleamoor (between Ribblehead and Dent), 2,629 yards; Bradway (between Dronfield and Dore and Totley), 2,027 yards ; Corby (between Gretton and Corby), 1,920 )/ards; Sharnbrook (between Sharnbrook and Irchester), 1,860 yards; Glaston (between Manton and Harring- worth), 1,842 yards; Belsize (two tunnels) (between Kentish Town and Finchley Road), 1,734 and 1,822 yards respectively; Glenfield (between Glenfield and West Bridge), 1,796 yards (single line); Clay Cross (between Stretton and Clay Cross), 1,784 yards.

North London Section: Hampstead Tunnel, between Finchley Hoad and Hampstead Heath, 1350 yards.

Scottish Division: Between Greenock and Gourock (2,110J yards long); Moncrieffe tunnel, Perth (1,214 yards); Drumlanrig (1,397 yards) ; Mossgiel Tunnel (684 yards); Fairlie Tunnel (976 yards); Greenock, two tunnels, Old G. and S. W., and Old Caledonian, (1,260 and 2,112 yards respectively).

Largest Signal Boxes.—Glasgow, St.Enoch, 512 levers (points manual, signals electric); Glasgow, Central, 374 levers (electro-pneumatic); Euston, 288 levers; Crewe, North, 266 levers (electric); Crewe, South, 247 levers (electric.)

Water Troughs are situated between the following stations:—Hatch End for Pinner and Bushey ; Wolverton and Castlethorpe ; Rugby and Brinklow ; Rugby and Brandon and Wolston ; Tam worth and Lichfield ; Whitmore and Mad’eley; Preston Brook and Moore ; Brock and Garstang and Catterall; Hest-Bank and Bolton-le-Sands ; Low Gill and Tebay ; Waverton and Chester ; Connah’s Quay and Flint; Prestatyn and Rhyl; Llanfairfechan and Aber; Diggle and Marsden ; Eccles and Weaste ; Halebankand Ditton ; Horbury Junction and Wakefield ; Hoscar and Burscough Bridge ; Kirkby and Fazakerley ; Lea Road and Sal wick ; Lostock Junction and Bolton ; Ruff ord and Burseough Junction ; Rochdale and Smithy Bridge ; Sowerby Bridge and Luddendenfoot; Moorside and Wardley and Walkden; and Knottingley and Whitley Bridge; Oakley and Sharnbrook ; Loughborough and Hathern ; Melton Mowbray and Sax by ; Tamworth and Elford; Hawes Junction and Dent; Floriston and Gretna ; Thankerton and Carstairs ; New Cummock and Kirkconnel.

Steepest Gradients.—Oldham incline, 1 in 27 for | mile for both goods and passenger trains; Shawforth Branch, 1 in 34 to 1 in 40 for 2 miles ; Lickey incline, 2 miles at 1 in 37 ; Accrington incline, 1 in 40 for If miles; Padiham Branch, 1 in 40 for 1J miles ; 1 in 30, for 72 chains, between Atherton and Chequerbent; 1 in 34 for 32 chains at Leyoett, falling towards Halmerend ; 1 in 49 for 27 chains, on the Coniston branch, falling towards Broughton ; 1 in 40 on the Bonnybridge branch, falling towards Bonnybridge for a distance of 42 chains ; 1 in 55 at Girvan, falling towards Girvan for 3J miles; 1 in 50, at Raven’s Rock, near Achterneed station, falling towards Dingwall, for a distance of 4 miles ; 1 in 56J, at Colfin, falling towards Portpatrick for a distance of three miles; 1 in 32 on Granton Breakwater Branch, falling towards the Western Breakwater, Granton, for a distance of 22| chains ; Leadhills Rly, 1 in 40, falling towards Elvanfoot for a distance of 58 chains. The steepest gradient on a goods or mineral line is 1 in 8| for a distance of 770 yards at the Middleton incline, and 1 in 8 for 550 yards and 1 in 9 for half mile at the Sheep Pasture incline, both on the Cromford and Parsley Hay branch; these inclines are worked by stationary engines. Hopton Incline 1 in 14 for 500 yards, worked by locos.

Summit Levels.— Shap, between Tebay Junction and Clifton and Lowther, 915 ft. above sea level. Between Shawforth and Britannia, 965 ft. above sea level. In the Buxton district, Hindlow station is 1,192 ft. above sea level, and near the Dowlow Lime Company’s works, 1,268 ft. above sea level; between Hawes Junction and Kirkby Stephen, 1,167 ft. above sea level; between Troutbeck and Penruddock, 889 ft. above sea level; Summit signal box between Elvanfoot and Beattock, 1,014 ft. above sea level. On the Leadhills Light Railway, Leadhills station is 1,405 ft. and Wanlockhead station 1,402 ft, above sea level; between Leadhills and Wanlockhead, 1,498 ft. above sea level, the highest on any railway in Great Britain. Glenoglehead, between Balquhidder and Killin Junction, 941 ft.; between Tyndrum and Dalmally, 840 ft.; between Old Cumnock and New Cumnock, 616 ft. above sea level: Druimuachdair between Dalwhiniaie and Dalnaspidal stations, 1,484 ft. above sea level, the highest on any mainline in Great Britain. Waenavon station, 1.400 ft., highest in England and Wales, except Snowdon Summit. Dalnaspidal station, 1,405 ft.; Slochd, between Carrbridge and Tomatin, 1,315 ft.; Dava, between Grantown-on-Spey and Dava, 1,052 ft.; between Forsinard and Altnabreac, 708 ft.; Luib, between Achnasheen and Achnashellach, 646 ft.

Longest Continuous Stretch of Track.—London to Lybster, 742J miles,

Permanent Way.—See RAILWAY YEAR BOOK, 1922, and previous editions, in regard to component railways. 95-R.B.S. and 85-R.B.S. 60 ft. bull-headed rails, are now standard.

Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Works.—Crewe, covering 160 acres, 52J of which are covered in, and employing about 5,600 men. Crewe works forms probably the largest and most celebrated railway establishment in the world. The steel rails forming the standard permanent way of the company are rolled in these shops. Horwich, erected 1886-87, covering 116 acres, 17 of which are covered in, and employing 2,712 hands. Derby Locomotive Works, occupying 80 acres, 18 of which are covered in, and employing 3,303 men. Derby Carriage and Wagon Works, occupying 128 acres, of which 38 are covered in, and employing 3,640 men. Carriage works at Wolverton, employing 3,520 hands. Wagon works at Barlestown, where 1,090 people find employment. Newton Heath Carriage and Wagon works, where 1,580 men are employed. Bow Locomotive Repair Shop (employing 166 men) ; Glasgow (St. Rollox), Kilmarnock and Inverness Locomotive works (employing 2,538 men); and carriage and wagon repair shops at Barassie (employing 520 men); Inverness (employing 106 men).

Principal Locomotive Depots.—Western Division: (late L. & N. W. section): Engines carry a label above the footplate, which bears the number of the shed to which they are allocated, as follows: 1, Camden; 2,Willesden ; 3, Bletchley; 4, Nuneaton; 5, Northampton; 6, Bescot; 7, Netherfield and Col wick; 8, Rugby; 9, Walsall; 10, Aston (Birmingham); 11, Warwick; 12, Burton; 13, Bushbury; 14, Stafford; 15, Crewe. (North and South); 16, Longsight; 17, Farnley Junction; 18, Birkenhead; 19, Chester; 20, Huddersfield; 21, Bangor; 22, Holyhead; 23, Warrington; 24, Sutton Oak ; 25, Springs Branch, Wigan; 26, Edge Hill; 27, Preston; 28, Tebay; 29, Carlisle; 30, Salop; 31, Abergavenny; 32, Workington; 33, Swansea (Victoria station); 34, Patricroft; 35, Speke Junction; 36 (blank); 37, Mold Junction; 38, Llandudno Junction. Late L. & Y. section: Number of the depot to which an engine is allocated is shown by a small number plate attached to the centre of the engine cab, as follows: (1) Newton Heath; (2) Low Moor; (5) Mirfield ; (6) Wakefield; (lO)Goole; (13) Agecroft; (14) Bolton; (16) Wigan; (18) Bank Hall ; (19) Aintree; (20) Bury; (21) Bacup; (22) Accrington; (25) Lower Darwen ; (27) Lostock Hall; (30) Fleetwood; (32) Blackpool (Central). Omitted numbers apply to smaller and local depots.

Midland Division: (1) Derby; (2) Burton; (3) Birmingham; (4) Woreester; (5) Brecon; (6) Upper Bank; (7) Gloucester; (8) Bristol; (9) Peterborough; (10) Leicester; (11) Wigston; (12) Kettering; (13) Wellingborough; (14) Bedford; (15) Cricklewood; (16) •' • ' ’• ' ?
(21) Manchester;

(26) Normanton; (27) York; (28) Leeds; (29) Bradford; (30) Skipton; (31) Carnforth; (32) Lancaster ; (33) Carlisle, and other smaller depo*ts.

Northern Division : Aberdeen, Beattock, Carlisle, Carstairs, Dundee, Edinburgh, Forfar, Glasgow (Balornock, Polmadie and Dawsholm), Greenock, Hamilton, Motherwell, Oban, Perth, Stirling, Corkerhill and St, Enoch (Glasgow), Kilmarnock, Dumfries, Stranraer, Ayr, Ardrossan, Inverness, Aviemore, Helmsdale, Wick, etc. These depots do not, however, bear any distinguishing number, neither is the home station indicated on individual locomotives.

Brake.—Automatic Vacuum standard throughout almost the whole of the Western and Midland divisions, except the London, Tilbury and Southend section of the late Midland, on which the Westinghouse brake is used. There are, however, a certain number of vacuum brake fitted trains also working on this section.
Train Heating and Train Lighting.
Passenger and Guard Communication.
Colours of Tickets.

Dimensions of Rolling Stock.
Driver’s Position on Footplate. Mile Posts and Gradient Boards.
Colours of Locomotives and Rolling Stock.—Important passenger locomotives crimson lake ; other passenger locomotives, black lined in red. All freight locomotives plain black. Passenger rolling stock, crimson lake.

Lantern Slides.—Slides lent free of cost on the understanding that every care will be taken of them, and that they will be returned directly they are finished with. Apply to the District Passenger Manager at London (Euston), Birmingham (New Street), Manchester (Hunt’s Bank), and Liverpool (Lime Street), or to the Divisional Passenger Manager, Glasgow (Central Station).

Grravitation or Hump Sidings. — Aintree, Bamfarlong, Bescot, Bushbury, Chaddesden, Copley Hill, Crofton Junction, Edge Hill, Healey Mills, Lostock Sidings, Moston, Mytholmroyd, Northampton, Norton Junction, Nuneaton, Bobroyston East and West, Rose Grove, Ross, Rugby, Stetchford, Three Spires, Toton, Warrington, Washwood Heath, Wellingborough, and Willesden.

Sites for Works.—The Company’s District Goods Managers will, on application, supply particulars of sites adjacent to the railway suitable for the erection of factories and works of all descriptions; and also of vacant premises, which are, in many instances, connected, or capable of being connected, to rail by private siding.

Railhead Storage and Distribution.—The arrangements inaugurated by the Company under the head of “ Railhead Storage and Distribution” have proved a material factor in the development of trade throughout the extensive area covered by their system. Under this scheme the Company undertake to :—

(1) Convey goods ex factory (or port) in bulk.
(2) Warehouse the goods in area of consumption.
(3) Deliver thence by motor transport within a radius of ten miles as and when ordered by firms’ customers.
(4) Advise principals of stocks held and orders executed.

The Company own 350 excellent warehouses (including wet and dry bonds), situated at strategic points throughout Great Britain, and are from time to time adding new buildings to the chain of L.M.S. warehouses, which cover practically the whole of the United Kingdom Within these buildings self-contained spaces can be provided at low rentals, and adapted to the storage of every kind of commodity. Ample uncovered wharfage alongside rail is also available throughout th® Company’s system, either for the storage of traffic not requiring to be covered, or for the erection of firms’ own structures. The arrangement of tenancies covering road repairing depots and plants for the manufacture of road repairing materials is a speciality.

Containers.—The Company has introduced road-rail trucks, or “containers,” for the conveyance of traffic in full-load quantities. By this means traffic can safely be accepted for rail transport with the minimum of packing, with a negligible risk of damage or loss. This means of transport is proving particularly attractive to shippers of such commodities as furniture, earthenware, confectionery, bicycles, drapery, etc. Further, containers are used for the conveyance of household furniture and effects, “overall” prices being quoted by the Company, which include dismantling, packing, re-housing, etc., services by experienced men. The L.M.S. has also introduced to Britisjh railways the insulated container, designed especially for the conveyance of chilled and frozen meat, without intermediate handling, from ship’s side or cold store to market—a marked further improvement in the transportation of meat. The containers, which are insulated by slab cork and varnished inside to facilitate cleansing, are fitted with doors at two sides and one end, and, though primarily designed for meat, are suitable equally for other refrigerated produce.

Road Motor Services.—For arrangements with Omnibus Undertakings see pages 30-31.

Railway Museam.—Several interesting objects connected with early history are preserved at Derby. At Barrow-in-Furness, the Bury locomotive “ Coppernob ” is placed on a pedestal in the yard of Barrow Central station. Trevithick’s 8 ft. 6 in. single, Cornwall^ built 1847, after continuing in regular service until 1905, is now at Crewe. Queen Adelaide’s State Carriage is preserved at Wolverton.

Education of Employees.—The scheme for the education of employees is of a comprehensive and exhaustive character. Instruction is provided as under at all the principal stations and depots on the Company’s system, and, as will be seen, all grades of the service and staff of all ages are catered for.

Classes for junior clerks who are preparing for their efficiency examination.

Classes for junior and senior clerical staff who desire to improve and increase their knowledge of Goods and Passenger station clerical work.

Lectures and discussions on railway subjects; open to all staff, irrespective of age or grade.

Commercial and Technical courses of instruction, open to all staff, at the Company’s various Mechanics’ Institutes, and by arrangement with Local Education Authorities.

Courses of lectures on Railway subjects at. the City of Birmingham Commercial, College, Paragon Station, Hull, Leeds University, London School of Economics, Victoria University, Manchester, University College, Nottingham, Sheffield University, Marischal College, Aberdeen, University College, Dundee, Edinburgh University, and Glasgow and West of Scotland Commercial College.

Classes in Block Telegraph Regulations and Signalling arrangements are held at a large number of stations, also at the School of Signalling, Manchester, which is equipped
G 2

with a very fine miniature electrically worked model railway. Locomotivemen’s Mutual Improvement Classes are organised and successfully carried on at various centres. The instructors and lecturers at the Company’s classes are in all cases members of the Company’s staff possessing a wide practical experience of the subject concerned. The classes and lectures are open without charge to the whole of the staff, and free travelling is given within reasonable limits. At the close of each session students are examined on the subjects dealt with at certain of these classes, and prizes and certificates awarded. Scholarships are periodically offered for competition by employees in certain technical branches of the service and are tenable at the Universities of Manchester and Liverpool.

A library, membership of which is free, is in existence at Victoria Station, Manchester, at which is assembled a valuable collection of more than 2,000 books on subjects useful to the railway student. These are issued to clerical and supervisory staff free of charge, and at present approximately 2,600 staff avail themselves of the privileges.

Ambulance.—The Ambulance movement is generously supported by the Directors and Officers throughout the system. There are centres at all principal stations, and classes are held regularly. Competitions take place at regular intervals, prizes being awarded to teams and individual competitors. Facilities for men qualifying are given on a generous basis.

Clubs, Institutions, etc., supported by the Company.—Superannuation Fund and Widows’ and Orphans’ Pension Society (L. & N. W. Section) for the salaried staff; Accident Insurance Society and Provident and Pension Fund for the wages staff; Savings Bank, Dining Clubs, Libraries, Literary, Engineering and other Societies, Athletic and Rifle Clubs, etc., at principal centres. The London Midland Scottish Magazine., published monthlv, records the social and recreative doings of the staff. There are Mechanics’ Institutes at Crewe, Derby, Horwich, Wolverton and Earlestown, and Recreational Institutes managed by the staff are in existence at nearly all the important centres, while at many of the smaller stations the use of the Company’s premises is freely given for Club purposes at nominal rentals. Athletic grounds are established at several centres.

Hotels.—London (St. Pancras), Midland Grand: London (Euston), Buston; Birmingham (New Street Station), Queen’s ; Manchester, Midland; Liverpool (Central Station), Adelphi; Liverpool (Lime Street Station), North Western; Liverpool (Exchange Station), Exchange; Leeds, Queen’s; Bradford, Midland; Derby, Midland; Morecambe, Midland; Crewe, Crewe Arms; Furness Abbey, Furness Abbey; Preston, Park; Stratford-upon-Avon, Welcombe ; Holyhead, Station; Glasgow (Central Station), Central; Glasgow (St. Enoch), St. Enoch; Edinburgh (Princes Street Station), Caledonian; Gleneagles, Gleneagles Hotels Perth, Station; Ayr, Station; Dumfries, Station; Turnberry, Turnberry; Inverness, Station; Dornoch, Dornoch; Kyle of Lochalsh, Station; Strathpeffer, Highland; Greenore, Greenore; Belfast, Midland Station; Portrush, Northern Counties; Larne, Laharna.

Canals.—The various canal undertakings owned by the Company and those in which they have a joint interest aggregate 549 miles, representing by far the largest canal mileage under one management in Great Britain. The principal waterways are Shropshire Union, 200 miles; Trent and Mersey, 117 miles; Lancaster (North End), 59 miles; Forth and Clyde, 39 miles; the smaller canals embrace the Monkland, Lancaster (South End), Coalport, St. Helen’s, Huddersfield, Manchester, Bolton and Bury, Cromford, Ashby and Ulverston. The Company also have a controlling interest in the Birmingham Canals Navigations, 159 miles, and, jointly with other companies, owns the Kensington Canal.
Docks, Harbours, Etc.

The Company’s dock, etc., undertakings, 29 in number, are as under:—

England and Wales.—Garston Docks, Widnes Dock, Fleetwood Harbour and Wyre Docks, Heysham and Morecambe Harbours, Barrow-in-Furness Harbour and Docks, Poplar (London) Docks, Holyhead Harbour and Graving Dock (leased), Deganwy Quay, Foryd Wharf, and, jointly with other companies, Chelsea Basin (London), and Lydney-on-Severn Harbour and Docks.

Scotland.—West Coast: Stranraer Harbour and Bast Pier, Ayr Harbour and Docks, Troon Harbour and Docks, Fairlie Pier, Largs Harbour, Gourock Harbour, Wemyss Bay Pier, Renfrew Wharf, Bowling Harbour and Docks, Oban Harbour and Pier, Kentallen Pier, Kyle of Lochalsh Pier, Strome Ferry. East Coast: Grangemouth Harbour and Docks South Alloa Harbour and Jetties.

Ireland,—Greenore Harbour and Greencastle Wharf.

The Company have also warehouses, wharves, shipping appliances, coal hoists, etc., at other ports and docks and shipping places as follows : Goole, Maryport, Swansea, Bristol and Avonmouth, Glassou, Tilbury, Gravesend, Thames Haven, Victoria Docks, London, Bow and Bromley wharves, Sharpness and Liverpool.

Of the Company’s own dock, etc., undertakings, the following are the most important:—

Garston.—Four miles south of Liverpool on the same side of the River Mersey. Three docks, via.—“Stalbridge,” ‘‘North” and “Old”; water area, 28^ acres. Each dock has a separate entrance from the river with inter-communication, enabling vessels to be passed from one dock to the other as required.

Stadbrldge Dock.—Opened 1909, 14^ acres water space. Entrance from river by gates ft. wide and lock 276 ft. long. Vessels up to 500 ft. in length and 10,000 tons burden can be accommodated. Berthing space, 3,170 ft. Quays equipped with 17 movable electric luffing and hydraulic cranes af 50 cwt. to 7 tons capacity ; four movable hydraulic coal hoists, each of 30 tons capacity, capable of loading at any height up to 45 ft. from quay level, and so arranged as to admit, if necessary, of all four loading simultaneously at one vessel.

North Dock,—Eight acres ; width of river entrance, 55 ft.; depth, ordinary spring tides, 21 ft. 6 ins.; ordinary neap tides, 15 ft.; highest springs, 22 ft. 6 ins.; lowest neaps, 13 ft. Berthing space, 2,400 ft. Vessels can be accommodated up to 290 ft. in length. Warehouses and open-fronted sheds alongside quays for reception of “general cargoes.” Fourteen movable hydraulic cranes, 30 to 50 cwt. capacity; sheer-legs 40 tons capacity. Two movable hydraulic coal tips each 30 tons capacity ; four fixed high-level coal tips of 20 tons capacity.

Old Dock.—Six acres; width of entrance 50 ft.; depth, ordinary spring tides, 18 ft.; ordinary neap tides, 13 ft.; highest springs, 21ft.; lowest neaps, 11 ft. Berthing space, 2,160 ft. Vessels can be accommodated up to 250 ft. in length. Fourteen movable hydraulic cranes, 30 to 60 cwt. capacity; one hand crane, 8 tons capacity. Three fixed high-level coal tips, of 20 tons capacity.

The port of Garston has 70 miles of sidings, of which eight are alongside the quays. The Company control the entire working of the port and supply all labour. There is extensive , shed and warehouse accommodation, also over 80 acres of storage ground for pit props, mining timber, deals and other wood goods, and specially levelled berths for storage of upwards of 100,000 tons of minerals. The annual volume of traffic through Garston is some 3,000,000 tons.

Holyhead Harbour.—The business of this port is at present largely confined to the Company’s own shipping plying day and night to and from Kingstown, North Wall (Dublin) and Greenore. The Kingstown route is the main mail route to Ireland, and is served by the Company’s own mail turbine steamers, which are of considerable tonnage and speed. In addition to the commodious platforms and accommodation to enable the heavy passenger traffic to join the steamers, entirely under cover, the Company have provided large sheds and warehouses with lifting and other appliances for the speedy transhipment of produce and miscellaneous goods traffic to and from Ireland. Motor cars are specially catered for. Modern steamers run between North Wall (Dublin), Greenore and Holyhead, for the conveyance of livestock, for which there is up-to-date accommodation in the extensive lairages with modern conveniences. During the Jersey potato season there is a regular service to and from the Channel Islands, and express freight trains run in connection with these steamers to enable the traffic to obtain the earliest markets.

Flsetwood Harbour and Wyre Docks.— Fleetwood is firmly established as the premier fishing port on the West Coast of Great Britain. The port is in an excellent geographical position, and its harbour is a natural and commodious one, well sheltered, and the great advantages of its situation in relation to the fishing grounds, and also as a distributing centre to all parts of the country, are fully recognised.

The trawling industry, however, does not by any means exhaust the possibilities of Fleetwood as a port, ample facilities being also available for the general cargo trade, and particularly that requiring immediate rail despatch.

The Fleetwood Harbour and Wyre Dock Quays are well equipped with cranes, transit and storage sheds, etc.; whilst there are sidings adjoining which afford direct rail, Bommunication with the interior.

The sheds along the quays serve admirably for the storage of china clay, cement and other similar commodities ; whilst cargoes requiring direct transfer between ship and wagon, or vice versa, can be expeditiously handled. A timber pond is available for wet storage of logs.

Heysham Harbour.—A modern port well adapted for handling general cargoes and is fitted with electric travelling cranes and other facilities to ensure speedy discharge and loading

Steamships (Over 250 Tons Wet).
Name. Date built. Builders. Engined by ?Type. Aire 1931 Cammell Laird & Co. Ltd. Cammell Laird & Co. Ltd. Screw. Alt 1911 W. Dobson & Co. .. Wallsend Slipway Co. Screw. Anglia 1920 W. Dennv & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Blyth .. .. 1930 Cammell Laird & Co. Ltd, Cammell Laird & Co. Ltd Screw. Cambria 1921 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Duke of Abercorn .. 1919 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Dearne 1924 Vickers Ltd. Vickers Ltd. Screw. Don ..
Douglas 1924 Vickers Ltd. Vickers Ltd. Screw. 1907 Clyde S. & E. Co Clyde S. & E. Co Screw. Duke of Argyll 1928 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros... T.S.T. Duke of Connaught.. 1902 J. Brown & Co. J. Brown & Co. T.S. Duke of Lancaster .. 1928 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Duke of Rothesay .. 1928 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros... T.S.T. GlenSannox.. 1924 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T. Hebble 1924 W. Beardmore & Co W. Beardmore & Co. Screw. Hibernia 1920 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Hodder 1910 W. Dobson & Co. .. Wallsend Slipway Co. Screw. Irwell.. 1906 Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Screw. Mellifont .. 1903 Vickers, Sons & Maxim .. Vickers, Sons & Maxim .. T.S. Mersey 1906 Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Screw. Nidd.. 1900 W. Dobson & Co. .. Wallsend Slipway Co. Screw. Ouse .. 1911 W. Dobson & Co. .. Wallsend Slipway Co. .. Screw. Princess Margaret .. 1931 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Princess Victoria 1912 W. Denny & Bros. Denny & Co. T.S.T. River Ribble 1891 W. B. Thompson & Co. .. W. B. Thompson & Co. .. Screw. Rother 1914 Clyde S. A E. Co Clyde S. & E. Co Screw. Rye 1924 W. Beardmore & Co. W. Beardmore & Co. Screw. Scotia 1921 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Slieve Bawn.. 1905 Harland & Wolff, Ltd. .. Harland & Wolff, Ltd. .. T.S. Slieve Bloom .. 1930 W. Denny & Bros. W. Denny & Bros. T.S.T. Slieve Donard 1921 Vickers, Ltd. Vickers, Ltd. T.S. Slieve Gallion 1907 Vickers, Sons & Maxim .. Vickers, Sons & Maxim .. T.S. Snowdon 1902 Laird Bros... Laird Bros... T.S. South Stack.. 1900 Laird Bros... Laird Bros... T.S. Spen .. 1908 W. Dobson & Co. .. Wallsend Slipway Co. Screw. Wharfe 1890 W. Dobson & Co. .. Wallsend Slipway Co. Screw. Slievemore .. t W. Denny & Bros. W. Denney & Bros. T.S.T. * T.S., Twin Screw ; T.S.T., Twin Screw Turbines ; T., Turbine ; t Building.

Tradlng between
Goole and Continental Ports .. Goole and Continental Ports
Goole and Continental Ports .. Holyhead and Kingstown..
Heysham & Belfast
Goole and Continental Ports Goole and Continental Ports Goole and Continental Ports Heysham and Belfast
Hull& Zeebrugge (Summer mos.)
Heysham and Belfast
Heysham and Belfast
Clyde Services
Goole and Continental Ports Holyhead and Kingstown
Goole and Continental Ports Goole and Continental Ports
Holyhead and Greenore ..
Goole and Continental Ports
Goole and Continental Ports Goole and Continental Ports Larne and Stranraer
Larne and Stranraer
Goole and Continental Ports Goole and Continental Ports Goole and ConUnental Ports Holyhead i ' “

Holyhead Holyhead

Holyhead Wall)
Holyhead Wall)

Goole and
Goole and
Holyhead Wall)*
and Kii^stown and
(N.W.) (North
(North (North (North
Continental Ports Continental Ports
and Dublin (North
Length. : Breadth. Depth. " Gross Connage. Pt. Ft. Pt. 1,108 240.6 34.1 16.5 246.0 34.1 16.4 1,004 395.0 45.0 18.6 34.60 240.6 34.1 docks are entered from Morecambe Bay, via Walney Channel, through an entrance 3 in. wide into Ramsden Dock Basin.

Ramsden Basin and Dock.—Basin area, 8 acres, dock area, 60 acres. Depth of 31 ft. 6 ins. high-water ordinary spring tides ; 24 ft. high-water ordinary neap tides.

Bucclenuch Dock.—Entered from Ramsden Dock by entrance 100 feet wide. Area 31

Devonshire Dock.—Approached through Buccleuch Dock by entrance 80 feet wide. 32j acres.

Cavendish Dock.—This extensive dock of 150 acres is available for commercial develop ment so soon as sufficient indications of, growth of trade justify this course.

Ayr Harbour and Docks and Troon Harbour.—In close proximity to the Ayrshire coalfields and are equipped with steam coaling cranes capable of shipping 5,000 tons of coal per day. The ports are also well adapted for handling general cargoes. Four modern electric coal conveyors with requisite additional siding accommodation have been authorised—three at Ayr and one at Troon—and work has been commenced on the first conveyor at Ayr.

Grangemouth Harbour and Docks.—On the south side of the Firth of Forth, some 10 miles above the Forth Bridge, commands within a radius of 30 miles the greater part of industrial Scotland, including the commercial centres of Glasgow and Edinbuigh and their surroundings, Lanarkshire and Stirling with their coalfields, iron foundries, steel works, etc. Four wet docks, viz., “Grange,” “Carron,” “Junction” and “Old,” quayage approximately three miles. Water area, 58 acres. The total water area of all the docks and basins within the inner gates, exclusive of timber basins, is 121 acres. Depth, at high-water ordinary spring tides, 26 ft. over the cill at entrance to Grange Dock, and 30 ft. on the cill of the sea lock, giving entrance to all the docks. Impounding pumps lately installed maintain the water level at Grange Dock, 26 ft., Carron Dock, 23 ft.. Old Dock, 19 ft., and Junction Dock, 17 ft. Equipped with modern appliances, including hydraulic coal hoists, hydraulic and electric cranes and capstans. The hoists lift up to 40 and 50 ft., and are capable of shipping 50 wagons of coal each per hour : two or three hoists can be used at one vessel simultaneously. Two modern electric coal conveyors with requisite additional siding accommodation have been authorised and work has been commenced on the first conveyor. The cranes, hydraulic and electric, number 58 in all, and include one r2-ton hydraulic, one 12-ton steam one 35-ton electric, and two electric level luffing 7-ton cranes for grab working. Commodious shed accommodation is provided and the storage area for timber, minerals and merchandise not requiring cover exceeds that available at any other port in Scotland. There are timber ponds (22 acres in extent) for wet storage of timber. All quay, warehouse, and storage berths are rail connected and there is direct communication with the Forth and Clyde Canal, giving through access by water to Glasgow and the Clyde. Volume of traffic annually approximately 4,000,000 tons.

Apart from the above-mentioned dock, etc., facilities, the Company, by its own rails and steamers, or by running powers, also gives direct access to most of the principal ports of Great Britain and Ireland, including London, Tilbury, Bristol and Avonmouth, Cardiff, Newport (Mon.), Swansea, Gloucester, Sharpness, Liverpool, Birkenhead, Manchester, Preston, Whitehaven, Workington, Maryport, Irvine, Girvan, Ardrossan, Greenock, Glasgow, Inverness, Invergorden, Burghead, Aberdeen, Arbroath, Dundee, Perth, Leith, Hull, Goole, Kings Lynn, Dublin, Kingstown, Belfast, Larne and Londonderry and many Continental ports via Goole.

Steamship Services.—The Company is the largest steamship-owning railway company in the British Isles. For particulars see following pages. Regular services are maintained between Holyhead and Kingstown (Royal Mail route), Holyhead and Dublin (North Wall), Holyhead and Greenore, Heysham and Belfast, Larne and Stranraer, and between Goole and Continental Ports. Regular services are in operation between Goole and Amsterdam, Antwerp, Copenhagen, Dunkirk, Ghent, Hamburg, and Rotterdam. A passenger service is maintained between Hull and Zeebrugge during the summer months. In the summer season there is a service of steamers on week-days between Fleetwood and Douglas and Heysham and Douglas, maintained by the steamers of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.

A large fleet of steamers is operated to serve places on the Firth of Clyde, while the vessels on Loch Lomond are jointly owned with the London and North Eastern Ry. Many privately owned vessels connect with railway services, particularly on the Scottish lochs. Ferry services are operated between Tilbury and Gravesend. Lake steamers are operated in the Lake District, and on Loch Awe and Loch Tay. There is also a motor ferry service between the mainland and the Isle of Skye at Kyle of Lochalsh.
“Leasedand Worked Railways,” “Cheshire Joint Railway,” “ Somerset Committee,” and “ County
(1) Western and Midland Divisions.

NAME. Type. +-3 bD C 0? J *3


SH M a

Q bo ® § o fl S-I o OH •i 8 ?
fl 'fl fl fl Passenger or Goods, Trading between Wyvern Twin Sc’’ew feet.
116*6 feet.
22*0 feet.
12*1 tons.
215 700 knots.
Ill Passenger Heysham and Edith .. >» 131*6 28'5 8*4 283 250 9 Pas. & Goods Fleet wood.
Tilbury and Gertrude 125*0 26*7 8*5 255 250 9 i

Passenger Gravesend. Catherine 124-5 24*7 7'9 259 250 9 Rose .. 124*7 24 7 7*7 258 250 9 Tessa.. 140'5 30 11-6 371 42C 9 Pas. & Goods Miniio a 150.0 39.1 11.25 464 380 9 tf
(2) Northern Division.

bo fl fl i-q ?u 'fl fl fl w -M & fl fl cn ZU
fl £

O (V 5^ oa fl 'fl fl fl fl.
CZ2 S-(
<1^ K* c -t- fl fl oo fl fl.
CL, o “‘Duchess of Montrose Turbine ft.
260 ft.
32 ft.
10 7 806 4,200 knots.

20i 1,961 ?Duchess of Rothesay Paddle 225 6 26*1 9*62 337*65 1,700 1,382 ?Duchess of Fife 210*35 25*05 9*7 336*42 1,350 16 1,206 •Marchioness of Breadalbane 200*4 22*15 7'27 246*22 1.100 1,101 ?Caledonia 200*4 22*05 7'27 244*3 800 2b 1,093 •Duchess of Argyll .. Turbine 250*0 30*15 11*13 593 3,600 21 1,713 tAtalanta 219*4 30*1 11*08 486 1,700 16 1,405 fGlen Rosa Paddle 209 25 9*59 306*45 1,550 16J 1,035 ?j-Juno n 253*8 29*1 10-58 592 2,600 19 1,497 t Jupiter ,5 238*4 28*1 10*08 394*33 2,350 18i 1,406 *tMercury it 229 26 9*75 378 1,700 Di 1,267 tTroon .. Tug 100 19*1 10*62 130 350 10 Tug

  • The Caledonian Steam Packet Co., Ltd., plying between Gourock, Wemyss Bay and Ardrossan to the watering-places on the Firth of Clyde and the islands of Bute and Arran.

t Glasgow and South Western Section.

(3) Lake Steamers {Summer Service').

“ Lady of the Lake” Coniston Lake 376 “ Gondola ” 99 99 ••• 225 “Swan” Windermere Lake 442 “Cygnet” ,, ,, 326 “ Tern ” 55 ••• ••• 633 “Swift” 99 99 • • • • • • 781 “ Queen of the Lake ” Loch Tay 500 “ Countess of Breadalbane ” . Loch Awe 200 Loch Lomond Steamers {Dumbarton and Balloch Joint Line Committee). Number of Passengers.
Where stationed.

Jointly owned by London Midland and Scottish Ry. as successors to the Caledonian Ry. and by the London and North Eastern Ry. as successors to the North British Ry. The steamers ply from Balloch Pier to Ardlui at the head of the Loch, the distance being 48 knots for the double journey, including calls at the intermediate piers, viz.:—Balmaha. Luss, Rowardennan, Tarbet, and Inversnaid.

U) a © iJ .a
4-J 'O
O i-i W ,£3 -t-j a © Q © co 60 pg 5 § 'Xi

C PH nd © © a cc .
P ©
to a c3 PHO Service. ft. in. ft. in. ft. in. knots. Prince Edward Paddle 175 0 22 1 8 0 303-76 900 15 958 Regular booked runs. Prince George 55 165 6 21 0 6 0 256-48 700 14i 871 Princess May 55 165 6 21 0 6 0 256-48 700 871 Excursion runs Empress 55 165 0 20 1 6 4 228-53 700 13 699 Princess Patricia .. *5 130 4 18 6 6 7 127-23 275 10 400 Short trips and pleasure cruises.
STATISTICS.—Year Ending December 31st, 1931.

Capital Issued (including nominal additions or deductions)—

4 per Cent. Guaranteed Stock

4 per Cent. Preference Stock ..

5 per Cent. Redeemable Preference Stock (to be redeemed at par on
June 30th, 1955)
4 per Cent. Preference Stock (1923) .. Ordinary Stock..

Loans and Debenture Stock ..

Capital Expenditure—Year ending December 31st, 1931
Total to December 31st, 1931 ..

Revenue Receipts and Expenditure of the Whole Undertaking—
Gross Receipts. £63,223,399 274,649 1.487,054 128,729 797,744
Transport Road Vehicles
Canals ..
Docks, Harbours and Wharves
Hotels, Refreshment Rooms and Restaurant Cars
Collection and Delivery of Parcels and Goods Limestone Quarry
Expenditure. Net Receipts. £51,367,818




28,625 159,362 Dr. 14,549 Dr. 80,245
Add—Jointly Owned and Jointly Leased Lines Miscellaneous Receipts (Net) ..
Deduct—Miscellaneous Charges
Net Revenue
Gross Receipts (Railway)—
Passenger Train Traffic Goods Train Traffic Miscellaneous ..
Dr. 475,776
(Company’s Proportion)
80,733 2,496,068


Expenditure (Railway)—
Maintenance and Renewal, Way and Works ,, ,, Rolling Stock ..

Locomotive Running Expenses

Traffic Expenses

General Charges, etc. . .

Rates and Taxes

Railway Freight Rebates Fund—Rate Relief

,, ,, ,, (Anticipation) Fund—Deficiency

National Health and Unemployment Insurance Acts

Running Powers (balance)
Mileage, Demurrage and Wagon Hire (balance) Miscellaneous ..

Jointly Owned and Jointly Leased Lines.—Cheshire Lines ; Great Central and Midland Joint; Great Central and North Staffordshire Joint; Great Central, Hull and Barnsley and Midland Joint; Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway ; Methley Joint; Midland and Great Northern Joint; Oldham, Ashton and Guide Bridge Junction ; Severn and Wye and Severn Bridge Joint ; Somerset Joint; South Yorkshire Joint; and Whitechapel and Bow.

Passenger Train Traffic Goods Train Traffic Miscellaneous ..
Expenditure. Net Receipts
Docks, Harbours and Wharves
Collection and Delivery of Parcels and Goods
Dr. 478 Dr. 11,739
Miscellaneous Receipts (Net) ..
Deduct—Miscellaneous Charges
Net Revenue ..
Net Revenue—Company’s Proportion
Electric Power and Light Account (119,396,379 units)

Dividend.—Ordinary Stock, interim. Nil; final, £{ per cent. ; £| per cent, for Carried forward, Nil.
the whole year

Mileage (other than Joint Lines, etc., sei; out above).—Owned, 6,779 miles 62 chains ; share of joint lines, 179 miles 62 chains ; leased or worked, 3 miles 25 chains ; total mileage, first track, 6,962 miles 69 chains ; second track, 4,677 miles 48 chains; third track, 791 miles 70 chains; fourth track, 674 miles 9 chains ; over four tracks (reduced to single track), 312 miles 70 chains ; total length of single track, including sidings, 19,429 miles 4 chains ; constructed but not open for traffic, 3 miles 65 chains and 4 miles 43 chains for joint lines other than those set out above. Mileage run over bj-\ Company’s engines : Owned, 6,779 miles 62 chains (including 45 miles 67 chains not worked); partly owned, 550 miles 29 chains ; leased or worked, 3 miles 9 chains ; leased or worked jointly, 58 miles 9 chains ; continuous running powers, 590 miles 7 chains ; total, 7,935 miles 49 chains ; occasional running powers, 405 miles 44 chains ; total, 8,341 miles 13 chains.

Rolling Stock (Rail).—Locomotives (steam) : tender, 3,088 (0-6-0), 1,004 (4-4-0), 856 (4-6-0); 830 (0-8-0), 251 (2-6-0), 89 (2-4-0), 26 (2-8-0), 11 (4-4-2), 2 (0-4-2), 1 (4-2-2), 1 (0-10-0), total, 6,159 ; tank : 1,184 (0-6-0), 410 (2-4-2), 326 (0-6-2), 299 (0-4-4), 151 (4-4-2), 87 (0-4-0), 77 (2-6-4), 64 (0-6-4), 60 (2-6-2), 59 (4-6-2), 30 (0-8-4), 30 (0-8-2), 24 (4-6-4), 12 (4-4-0), 12 (0-4-2), 9 (2-4-0), 6 (0-8-0); “ Garratt ” 33 (2-6-0-0-6-2), total, 2,873 ; total locomotives, 9,032 ; tenders, 6,159 ; 27 steam rail motor cars ; 293 electric motor coaches ; 397 trailer coaches ; 13,408 carriages of uniform class ; 4,533 composite carriages ; 178 restaurant cars ; 223 sleeping cars ; 89 post office vans ; 6,659 other coaching vehicles, making a total of 25,487 coaching vehicles ; 158,169 open wagons ; 41,009.covered wagons, 67,498 mineral wagons, 1,701 special wagons, 7,732 cattle trucks, 7,201 rail and timber trucks, 5,671 brake vans, total, 288,981 ; 18,499 service vehicles, 37 departmental locomotives.

Road Traffic Equipment.—118 passenger motor vehicles ; 1,895 goods and parcels motor vehicles; 17,076 horse wagons and carts ; 234 Miscellaneous; 8,398 horses for road vehicles ; 204 horses for shunting.

Houses and Dwellings Owned.—1,940 labouring-class dwellings ; 12,067 houses and cottages railway servants ; 11,341 other houses and cottages. Traffic— Total Of which originated Carried. on System. Nos. of Passengers— 1st Class .. 3,939,516 3,695,327 2nd Class 9,814 5,027 3rd Class.. 195,132,167 183,061,675 Workmen 80,721,287 77,870,245 Total 279,802,784 264,632,274 Nos. of Season Tickets- —1st Class.. 25,927 23,709 2nd Class 478 12 3rd Class... 195,512 186,574 Total 221,917 210,295 Goods Tonnage— Merchandise (excluding Classes 1-6) 26,630,059 17,185,912 Minerals and Merchandise (Classes 1-6) 23,917,463 19,085,412
60,912,677 Coal, Coke and Patent Fuel .. 74,929,209 Total 125,476,731 97,184,001 Head of Live Stock— 7,902,774 5,975,336 Canals.—537 miles 22 chains.
electric traction, 6,391,614 ; steam

Train Mileage.—Traffic : coaching, steam train, 84,936,631 ;
rail motor cars, 498,812 ; goods: 55,410,315; total, 147,238,008. Shunting miles : coaching, 7,602,548 goods, 38,174,420 ; assisting, light, etc., 23,107,647. Total engine miles, 216,122,623.

See Also


Sources of Information