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After years of opposition from powerful landowners, it was decided a railway to Perth from Dundee was necessary due to growing populations and industry pressures and The Dundee and Perth Railway received its authorising Act of Parliament on 31 July 1845.
The line ran from Dundee to Perth via Invergowrie and opened in 1847. It was the first railway in Perth.
From 1846 the company leased the Dundee and Newtyle Railway.
A one and a half mile (2 km) branch was built from Inchture station to the Turnpike crossroads (referred to as Crossgates Tramroad station) at Inchture. It opened on 1 February 1848.
The leased Dundee and Newtyle line went with the Dundee and Perth Railway to the SCR. The SCR too had not long to remain independent. In 1865 the Caledonian Railway absorbed both the Scottish Midland Junction Railway and the Scottish Central Railway.
Following World War I the government determined that the main line railways of Great Britain should be "grouped" into one of four large companies, and it enacted the Railways Act 1921; the Caledonian Railway was a constituent of the new London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS), which was formed on 1 January 1923 (although formalities were not legally finalised until July in the case of the Caledonian).
After World War II, the Government nationalised the railways, so on 1 January 1948 the LMS and the other main line railways passed into state ownership: the Scottish section of the LMS and of the rival LNER became part of British Railways Scottish Region. A regular service from Dundee West to Edinburgh Princes Street via Perth continued, a remnant of the Caledonian Railway.