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1816 William Wager crossed the North Sea from Margate to Rotterdam in his steamboat Defiance. The Defiance had the new feature of a permanent awning structure abaft the funnel to provide sheltered deck space at the stern for the passengers, an improvement introduced by Watt's son James on his steamboat PS Caledonia, (1815).
King Willem welcomed and honoured Wager, but refused to grant him the concession to operate four steamboats on the Dutch inland waterways, largely in response to the objections of the city councils of Rotterdam and Amsterdam. They feared the effect this fast and comfortable transport would have on established stagecoach and horse-drawn passenger-boat services