Grace's Guide

British Industrial History

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 136,379 pages of information and 219,138 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

PS Defiance

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1816 William Wager crossed the North Sea from Margate to Rotterdam in his steamboat Defiance. The Defiance had the new feature of a permanent awning structure abaft the funnel to provide sheltered deck space at the stern for the passengers, an improvement introduced by Watt's son James on his steamboat PS Caledonia, (1815).

King Willem welcomed and honoured Wager, but refused to grant him the concession to operate four steamboats on the Dutch inland waterways, largely in response to the objections of the city councils of Rotterdam and Amsterdam. They feared the effect this fast and comfortable transport would have on established stagecoach and horse-drawn passenger-boat services

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