Grace's Guide To British Industrial History

Registered UK Charity (No. 115342)

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 163,469 pages of information and 245,911 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 147,919 pages of information and 233,587 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.

1932 London and North Eastern Railway

From Graces Guide
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Note: This is a sub-section of 1932 Railway Year Book and the London and North Eastern Railway

Note: Parts are missing from original in the text below. Check the images or PDF for a full transcript

HEAD OFFICES.
MARYLEBONE STATION, LONDON N.W. 1.

DIRECTORS. (Authorised Total—28.)
WM. WHITELAW (Chairman), Hatton House, Kirknewton, Midlothian.
THE RIGHT HON. LORD PARINGDON, C.H. (Deputy Chairman), 18, Arlington Street, London, S.W. 1.
HUBERT T. BAILEY, 29, Princes Gate Court, S.W.7.
SIR CHARLES C. BARRIE, M.P., K.B.E., 50, Parliament Street, Whitehall, S.W.l
SIR CHARLES A. BATHO, BART., Summit House, Frinton-on-Sea, Essex.
THE HON. RUPERT EVELYN BECKETT, 34, Grosvenor Street, London, W. 1. A. H. BIBBY, D.S.O., 26, Chapel Street, Liverpool.
OLIVER ROBERT HAWKE BURY, 43, Threadneedle Street, London. E.C. 2.
THE HON. BRIC B. BUTLER-HENDERSON, Winwick Manor, Rugby.
MAJOR W. H. CARVER, M.P., The Croft, North Cave, East Yorkshire.
WALTER BURGH GAIR, Kestrel Grove, Bushey Heath, Herts.
A. REITH GRAY, Upper Quay, Aberdeen.
THE RIGHT HON. VISCOUNT GREY OP FALLODON, K.G., Fallodon, Christon Bank, Northumberland.
RONALD W. MATTHEWS, Aston Hall, near Sheffield.
ANDREW KIRKWOOD McCOSH, Rochsoles, Airdrie.
LT.-COL. HON. ARTHUR CECIL MURRAY, C.M.G., D.S.O., Elibank, Walkerburn Peeblesshire.
SIR CHRISTOPHER THOMAS NEEDHAM, Fairoak, West Didsbury, Lancs.
SIR JOHN H. B. NOBLE, Bart., Ardkinglas, Cairndow, Argyllshire, Scotland. CLARENCE D. SMITH, Loughbrow, Hexham, Northumberland.
FREDERICK LIDDELL STEEL, Ranton Abbey, Stafford.
WALTER KENNEDY WHIGHAM, 8, Crosby Square, London, E.C. 3.
SIR MURROUGH JOHN WILSON, K.B.E., Cliffe Hall, via Piercebridge S.O. Co. Durham.

AUDIT COMMITTEE,
ROBERT H. TENNANT (Chairman), Highfields, Barley Abbey, Derby.
THOMAS COWAN, LL.D., 10, Henderland Road, Edinburgh.
SIR CHARLES E. ELLIS, G.B.B., K.C.B., Rotherfield Hall, Jarvis Brook, Sussex.
THE MOST HON. THE MARQUESS OF LANSDOWNE, D.S.O., M.V.O., 20, Mansfield Street, W. 1.
THOMAS M. WORMALD, Field Head, Mirfield.
HARRY G. YOUNGER, Kittoes, Bishopsteignton, S. Devon.

AUDITORS.
SIR G. P. GARNSBY, K.B.E., F.C.A., 3, Frederick’s Place, Old Jewry, E.C. 2,
SIR W. HARRY PEAT, K.B.B., P.C.A., 11, Ironmonger Lane, B.C.2.

Bank of England.
Bank of Scotland.
Barclays Bank, Ltd.
British Linen Bank, Edinburgh. Commercial Bank of Scotland, Ltd. Glyn, Mills & Co.
Lloyds Bank, Ltd.
Lloyds and National Provincial
Bank, Ltd., Antwerp.

OFFICERS.
(Assistant Officers at the same addresses as the Chief Departmental Officers, unless otherwise stated.}
Chief General Manager—SIR RALPH L. WEDGWOOD, C.B., C.M.G., M.Inst.T., King’s Cross Station, N. 1.
Assistant General Manager—R. BELL, C.B.E., M.Inst.T.
Assistant General Manager (Staff)—K. KERR, O.B.E.
Assistant to Chief General Manager and Industrial Agent—O. H. CORBLE.
Secretary—J. MCLAREN. Marylebone Station, N.W. 1.
Assistant Secretary—P. J. DOWSETT, M.Inst.T.
Registrar—G. C. RING, Liverpool Street Station, E.C. 2. Cashiers:—
Southern Area—H. S. BUTTERWORTH, Liverpool Street Station, E.C. 2.
North Eastern Area—H. WIGHT (Chief Cashier), Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Scottish Area—R. A. GORDON, Edinburgh.
Chief Legal Adviser and Solicitor—I. B. PRITCHARD, King’s Cross Station, N.I.
Chief Assistant Solicitor—H. R. CRIPPS, M.Inst.T., 4, Cowley Street, London, S.W.l.
Solicitor and Rating Agent (Scotland)—T. B. MAITLAND, S.S.C., 23, Waterloo Place, Edinburgh.
Assistant Solicitors:—
Parliamentary—R. O. J. DALLMEYER, 4, Cowley Street, London, S.W.l.
Common Law—W. R. MOLE. 4 King’s Cross Station, General—W. H. HANSCOMBE. J N.I.
Conveyancing—V. ST. LAWRENCE, York.

Chief Accountant—C. H. NEWTON. King's Cross Station, N. 1.
Assistant Accountant—G. SUTHERLAND.
Assistant to Chief Accountant—R. BROWN.
Divisional Accountant (Southern Area)—W. A. WOODING, Rossmore Road, Marylebone, N.W. 1.
Divisional Accountant (North Eastern Area)—H. LAIRD, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Divisional Accountant (Scottish Area)—W PHILIP, 23. Waterloo Place, Edinburgh. Locomotive Accountant (Southern Area)—D. SAYER, Stratford.
Locomotive Accountant (North Eastern Area)—T. R. GRENSIDE, Darlington. Locomotive Accountant (Scottish Area)—J. INGLIS, Cowlairs Station. Glasgow. Hotels Accountant (Southern and North Eastern Areas) — H. BATCHBLLBR, Liverpool Street Station, E.C. 2.

Chief Mechanical Engineer— H. N. GRESLEY, C.B.E., M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E., M.Inst.T., King’s Cross Station, N. 1.
Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer— A. C. STAMER, C.B.E., Darlington.
Assistant Mechanical Engineer (Darlington)— R. A. COPPERTHWAITE, Darlington.
Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer— O. BULLEID, King’s Cross Station, N. 1.
Mechanical Engineer (Doncaster)— R. A. THOM, O.B.E., M.Inst.T., Doncaster.
Mechanical Engineer (Stratford)— E. THOMPSON, Stratford.
Mechanical Engineer, Scotland— T. E. HEYWOOD, Cowlairs.
Electrical Engineer— H. W. H. RICHARDS, M.I.E.B., M.Inst.T., King’s Cross Station, N.I.
Chief Chemist and Metallurgist— T. H. TURNER. Doncaster.
Chief Stores Superintendent—A. P. ROSS, M.Inst.C.E., King’s Cross Station, N. 1.
Assistant Stores Superintendent—C. H. JEUNE.
Divisional Stores Superintendent (Southern Area)—^H. A. BUTLER, Doncaster.
Divisional Stores Superintendent (North Eastern Area)—G. P. BENZIE, Gateshead.
Divisional Stores Superintendent (Scottish Area):—A. McISAAC, Cowlairs.
Freight Rolling Stock Controller-C. M. JENKIN JONES, York.
Advertising Manager—C. G. G. DANDRIDGE, Marylebone Station, N.W. 1.
Assistant Advertising Manager—F. GOODRICKE.
Commercial Advertising Agent—H. F. SANDERSON.


Continental Traffic Manager (South)—A. L. GIBSON, Liverpool Street Station, E.C. 2. Steamship Manager (Grimsby Services)—C APT. J. M AN,C.M.G.. O.B.B.,R.N..Grimsby Docks. Marine Superintendent (Southern Scottish Area)—JAS. A. RODGER, M.Inst.N.A., M.I.Mech.E., Glasgow.
Consulting Medical Officer.- DR. J. G. McBRIDE, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S.(Edin.).
Telegraphic Addresses and Telephone Numbers of Principal
Departments.
Wedgwood c'o Northeastern Rail, London Secretary cjo Eastfern Rail, London Wight, Railway, Neivcastle-on-Tyne
Chief General Manager
Secretary
Cashier, N.E. Area ...
Cashier, Southern Area
Cashier, Scottish Area
Chief Legal Adviser
Solicitor
and
Gordon^ Biitisli Bailrcay., Edinburgh
North 4200.
Paddington 6800.
Newcastle 2845.
Bishopsgate 7600. Edinburgh 23081.
Chief Legal Adviser (4, Cow
ley St., Westminster, S.W.)
Chief Accountant
Divisional Accountant, Mary-
lebone...
Divisional Accountant, Newcastle-on-Tyne
Divisional Accountant, Edin
burgh
Chief Mechanical Engineer
Assistant Chief Mechanical
Engineer
Mechanical
caster)
Mechanical
ford) ...
Mechanical
land) ...
Legal cjo Northeastern Eall^ London
Lonorlegal, Pari, London ...
Ac' ountant cf Northeastern, Rad, London
Acco ntant cjo Eastfern., Rail, London ...
North 4200.
Victoria 4663.
North 4200.
Paddington 6800.
Engineer (Don-
Engineer (Strat-
Engineer (Scot-
Laird, Central, Newcastle-on-Tyne
Philip, British Railway, Edinburgh Mechanical cjo Noitheastern, Rail, London
Locomotive, Phone, Darlington
Locomotive, Northeastern Doncaster
Eastden, Rail, London
Throttle, Glasgow ...
Chief Chemist and Metallur
gist (Doncaster)
Electrical Engineer (King’s
Cross)...
Chief Stores Superintendent
(King’s Cross)
Divisional Stores Superintendent (Doncaster) ...
Divisional Stores Superinten
dent (Gateshead) ...
Divisional Stores Superinten
dent (Cowlairs)
Registrar
Advertising Manager
Continental Traffic Manager
(North) (Hull)
Steamship Manager (Grimsby
Chemist, Doncaster 9S0
Electrical c!o Northeastern, Rail, London
Stores cfo Northeastern, Rail, London ...
Stores, Northeastern, Doncaster .
Benzie, Railway, Gateshead
Mclsaac, Cowlairs Station. Glasgow Registrar c/o Eastlin, London Advertising cf Eastfern Rail, London
Continental, Railway, Hull
Services) ... ... ... Shipping, Phone, Grimsby
Port Master ) '^5”’ Grimsby
I Man, Immingham Dock
Continental Traffic Manager
(Liverpool St.) ~ • , , _
Marine Superintendent
(Parkeston Quay) ...
Marine Supt. (Glasgow)
Freight Rolling Stock Con
troller ... ... ... Wagons, Railway York
. Continental cfo EastUn, London ,,,
Eastern, Parkeston Quay Station Rodger, British Railway, Glasgow
Newcastle 21579.
Edinburgh 23081.
North 4'200.
Darlington 2680.
Doncaster 44.
Maryland 1000.
Glasgow Bell 1135.
Doncaster 930.
North 4200.
North 4200.
Doncaster 45.
. Gateshead 219.
Glasgow Bell 1129.
Bishopsgate 7600.
Paddington 6800.
Hull Central 5120.
Gmsby6669 (t»lines).
Gnisby 6669(2 lines).
Immingham 45 cfc 46.
Bishopsgate 7600.
Harwich 30-13.
Glsgw.Douglas 2820
... York 2001 k 2002.
SOUTHERN AREA.
(G. C., G. E., and G. N. Sections)
Divisional General Manager—G. F. THURSTON, M.Inst. T., Liverpool Street Station. Assistant Divisional Manager—A. OLDHAM, O.B.E.

Superintendent (Eastern Section)—H. H. MAULDIN, M.Inst.T., Liverpool Street Station. Assistant Superintendent (Eastern Section)—R. GARDINER.
Superintendent (Western Section) — V. M. BARRINGTON-WARD, D.S.O., M.Inst.T. Liverpool Street Station.
Assistant Superintendent (Western Section)—J. LEES.
Goo Is Manager—G. MARSHALL, M.Inst.T., Liverpool Street Station.
Assistant Goods Manager— W. M. GRACIE, M.B.E., M.Inst.T., Liverpool Street Station.
Assistant Goods Manager—4. E. SEWELL, King’s Cross Station.
Cartage Manager—A. R. WILSON, Liverpool Street Station.
Saek Superintendent—E. H. OWEN, Lincoln.
Passenger Manager—C. J. SELWAY, C.B.E., M.Inst.T., Liverpool Street Station.
Assistant Passenger Manager—W. J. PEPPER.
Assistant to Passenger Manager—J. W. ODDY.
Locomotive Running Superintendent—I. S. W. GROOM, Liverpool Street Station.
Assistants to Locomotive Running Superintendent—C. H. M. ELWELL, B.Sc. (London),
S. A. GAMBLE.
Estate and Rating Surveyor—A. J. BRICKWELL, C.B.E., M.Inst.T., Liverpool Street Station.
Engineer—C. J. BROWN, C.B.E., M.Inst.C.E. King’s Cross Station.
Assistant Engineer (Maintenance) — E. L. HAWKINS, M.Inst.T., Liverpool Street Station.
Assistant Engineer (Construction)—R. J. M. INGLIS, M.Inst.C.E., King’s Cross Station. Parliamentary and Surveying Assistant—J. H. WARDLEY, King’s Cross Station. Engineer’s Accountant—H. HALL, Liverpool Street Station.
Signal and Telegraph Engineer—F. DOWNES, Liverpool Street Station.
Chief of Police—MAJOR A. C. CHAUNCY, Liverpool Street Station.
Hotels Superintendent—J. E. RYAN, Liverpool Street Station.
Mineral Manager—O. C. GATENBY, M.Inst.T., Doncaster.
Assistant Mineral Manager—C. R. PEACOCK.
Medical Officer—DR. C. GRANT MACMAHON, Liverpool Street Station.
Assistant Medical Officer—DR. W. G. HOPKINS, London Road Station (Low Level}, Nottingham.
Port Master and Steamship Manager—CAPTAIN J. MAN, C.M.G., O.B. E., R.N., Grimsby Docks,
Assistant Port Master—J. R. BAILEY, M.B.E., M.Inst.T., Grimsby Docks.
Assistant Port Master—R. H. HELLYER, Immingham.
Chief Engineer for Docks (N.E. andG.C. Sections).—A. TULIP, Hull.
District Superintendents.
{Eastern Section)
F. C. Wilson, Norwich,
{Western Section}

District Goods Managers.
P. Syder, M.Inst.T. (City Manager), 44/47, Bread Street, London, E.C. 4.
R. A. Newman, M.Inst.T. (London Suburban Manager), King’s Cross St., London, N.I.
District Passenger Managers.
S, A. V, Gregory, London. | F. W. Wheddon, Manchester (London Road).
J, P. Allix, Leeds.

A. B. Coulter, Cambridge.
D. W. Harrison, M.Inst.T., Nottingham.
F. Leigh, Lincoln.
District Locomotive
L. P. Parker, B.Sc (Lond.), Stratford.
A. H. Rees, Cambridge.
J. A. Frampton, Norwich.
G. B. Hennessy, Ipswich.
J. F. Sparke, King’s Cross.
W. Emerson, Peterborough.
G. Oakes, Doncaster.
District Engineer (Docks).
E. A. Tarrant, Grimsby and Immingham.
NORTH EASTERN AREA.
( Unless otherwise statedy the address of the Officers Is at Yorky and Assistants at the same
addresses as their Chiefs,)
Divisional General Manager—THOS HORNSBY, M.Inst.T.
Assistant to Divisional General Manager and Head of Traffic Statistics Office—
F. H. GRAVESON.
Locomotive Running Superintendent—C. M. STEDMAN, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E. Assistant Locomotive Running Superintendent—J. J. LOV ATT, M.I.Loco.E.
H

Engineer—JOHN MILLER, B.E., LL.D., M.Inst.C.E.
Signal and Telegraph Engineer—A. E. TATTERSALL, M.I.E.B.
Chief Engineer for Docks—A. TULIP, Hull.
Assistant Engineer for Docks—W. MACKENZIE.
District Engineers (Docks):—
Hull—P. L. TRIFPITT, Hull.
The Hartlepools and Middlesbrough—P. APPLEYARD, West Hartlepool.
Estate and Rating Surveyor—G. SOWERBY. Superintendent—C. M. JENKIN JONES.
Assistant Superintendent—ARTHUR COLLINSON, O.B.E.
Passenger Manager—J. T. NAISBY.
A^ssistant Passenger Manager—P. A. HARVERSON.
Goods Manager—P. GIBB.
Cartage Manager—W. HUDSON.
Medical Officer—J. G. McBRIDE, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S. (Edin.).
Assistant Medical Officer—J. DONALD GUNN, M.D., Ch.B., F.R.C.S. (Edin.).
Chief of Police—LT.-COL. G. A. C. WEBB, D.S.O.
Hotels Superintendent—H. GENT.
District Goods Managers.
Newcastle—J. E. Kitching. I Leeds—A. Brown.
Middlesbrough—E. M. Rutter. | Hull—E. V. Taylor.
West Hartlepool (District Goods and Docks Manager)—R. Tate.
District Passenger Managers.
Northern District : I Southern District :
Newcastle—E. F. Wilkinson. 1 York—P. A. Harverson.
Leeds and West Riding District :
Leeds—J. P. Allix.
District Engineers.

District Superintendents.

Telegraphic Addresses and Telephone Numbers of Principal
Departments.
General^ Railway^ York Engineer^ Railway^ York TulipNortheastern^ Hull Surveyor^ Railway^ York Superintendent, Railway, Travel^ Railway, York...
Chief Goods^ Railway, York Rates Railway, York ... Medical, Railway, York Police, Railway, York Supotel, Railway, York
tendent Running, Railway^ York

SCOTLAND.
{Unless otherwise stated, the address of the Officers is at 23, Waterloo Place, Edinburgh.} General Manager, Scotland—JAMES CALDER.
Assistant to General Manager, Scotland—F. W. LAMB.
Engineer, Scotland—W. A. FRASER, M.Inst.C.E.
Locomotive Running Superintendent, Scotland—G. A. MUSGRAVE.
Chief Assistant to Locomotive Running Superintendent—G. W. PHILLIPS. A.M.I.Mech.E.
Electrical Engimeer, Scotland—WM. WOOD, M.I.E.E.
Chief of Police, Scotland—LT.-COL. G. A. C. WEBB, D.S.O., Waverley Station, Edinburgh.
Solicitor and Rating Agent. Scotland—THOS. B. MAITLAND, S.S.C.
Medical Officer—J. G. McBRIDE, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S. (Edin.), York.
Assistant Medical Officer—J. DONALD GUNN, M.D., F.R.C.S. (Edin.).
Factor—J. HAY, 47, Leith Street, Edinburgh.
District Engineers.
Head Office—J. I. G. Macgregor, M.Inst.C.E.
Central District—R. Peters.
Western District—J. C. L. Train, Glasgow.
Northern District—W. Y. Sandeman. Thornton.
Southern District—R. C. Rattray, Carlisle.
Aberdeen District—W. Ebdon, Aberdeen.
SOUTHERN SCOTTISH AREA.
Superintendent—C. H. STEMP, C.B.E., Waverley Station, Edinburgh.
Chief Assistant to Superintendent—H. GRANT.
Passenger Manager—G. S. BEGG. Waverley Station, Edinburgh.
Goods Manager—G. MILLS, 50, George Square, Glasgow.
Assistant to Goods Manager—G. S. KELLOW.
Canal and Sack Superintendent—R. S. BLUB, Waverley Station, Edinburgh.
Marine Superintendent—JAS. A. RODGER, M.Inst.N.A., M.I.Mech.E., 50, George Square, Glasgow.
Hotels Manager—A. A. RYAN, North British Station Hotel, Edinburgh.
District Commercial Superintendents.
Southern District—H. B. Angus, Edinburgh. | Northern District—J. Wilkie, Dundee.

HISTORICAL SKETCH.
CONSTITUTED under the Railways Act, 1921. Amalgamation operative, 1st January, 1923, except in the case of the Hull and Barnsley Railway, which was amalgamated with the N. B. Ry. as from 1st April, 1922. The following particulars relate to the “constituent” companies as prior to amalgamation.

North Eastern Railway Incorporated 1854 as an amalgamation of the York, Newcastle and Berwick; York, and North Midland; and Leeds Northern Rys. The York, Newcastle and Berwick, incorporated in 1847, included the York and Newcastle (originally the Newcastle and Darlington Junction and Great North of England Rys.), the Newcastle and Berwick Ry. and other railways. The York and North Midland included by purchase or lease the Leeds and Selby, the Whitby and Pickering, the Hull and Selby, and other lines. The Leeds Northern was originally the Leeds and Thirsk Ry. In 1862 the Newcastle and Carlisle, leased to the York, Newcastle and Berwick in 1848, was added to the North Eastern system, and in 1863 also the famous Stockton and Darlington Ry., incorporated 1821 and opened 27th September, 1825. Upwards of fifty amalgamated railways are included in the late N. E. Ry. system, among them the old Clarence Ry., incorporated 1828, amalgamated with the West Hartlepool Harbour and Ry., these being amalgamated with the N. E. Ry. in 1865. The N. E. Ry. had a larger tonnage of mineral and coal traffic than any other railway in the Kingdom, and the greater proportion of it was carried in North Eastern wagons. It was also the largest dock-owning railway company in the Kingdom. The H. and B. Ry. was amalgamated as from Is-t April, 1922, prior to the formation of the L. and N. E. Ry
Statistics {1922} immediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage.—Owned, 1,798 miles, 39 chains; share of joint lines, 49 miles 14 chains; line eased or worked, 18 miles 38 chains; total route mileage, 1,866 miles 11 chains.
Rolling Stock.—2,143 steam locomotives ; 13 electric locomotives; 3 petrol rail motor cars; 71 electric motor cars; 55 electric trailer cars ; 4,065 coaching vehicles; 123,823 freight vehicles; 3,964 service vehicles.

Great Central Railway. As the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Ry., the Great Central system consisted mainly of the cross-country main lines from Manchester to Sheffield and thence to Lincoln, Grimsby and Cleethorpes, with branches to Barnsley, Wakefield and other centres, further amplified by the Cheshire Lines Committee’s system, and various joint lines in the area served. Later developments have added the Wrexham, Mold and Connah’s Quay and North Wales and Liverpool Rys. (taken over 1st January, 1905), the Wigan Junction and Liverpool, St. Helens and South Lancashire Rys. (amalgamated as from 1st January, 1906), and the Lancashire, Derbyshire and Bast Coast Ry. (incorporated with the Great Central system as from 1st January, 1907), so that, in conjunction with various other new lines, widenings, and especially in view of the construction of the London extension (opened for coal traffic 25th July, 1898, for passenger traffic 15th March 1899), the G. C. Ry. justified its title (adopted 1st August, 1897) to a notable degree. The nucleus of the system was the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Ry. incorporated 1837, brought into use for passenger traffic from Manchester to Godley, 17th November, 1841. By 14th July, 1845, the line was completed from either terminus to Woodhead Tunnel (3 miles long), and on 22nd December of the same year the line was opened throughout. On 11th January, 1847, the Sheffield and Lincolnshire, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Extension, Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction and the Great Grimsby Docks undertakings were amalgamated with the Sheffield and Manchester, the title of Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Ry. being then a<dopted. The Manchester and Lincoln Union was then added, and by a Consolidation Act of 1849 the component companies were dissolved and were incorporated under the same generic title. During subsquent years many other smaller systems were added, and by virtue of direct or joint ownership and the construction of various new lines, the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Ry., in conjunction with the Cheshire Lines Committee, and in co-operation with the G. N. Ry., gradually developed as a great provincial system. The natural corollary was an independent outlet to the south, but it was only after several attempts and a strenuous fight in Parliament that powers were obtained in 1893 for the construction of the London extension opened 1898-99. The G. C. andG. W. Rys. then joined forces to construct an alternative main line from Neasden to Grendon Underwood, via High Wycombe and Princes Risborough. This route, joint between Northolt and Ashendon Junctions, was brought into use on 2nd April, 1906. In April, 1906, an arrangement was made between the Great Central and the Metropolitan Companies whereby the whole of the latter system north of Harrow, except the Uxbridge branch, became joint property, the Great Central tracks south of Harrow then being transferred exclusively to the former company. The Banbury branch was opened in 1902. The Doncaster Avoiding Line was opened in July, 1910. The King’s Dock at Immingham was opened in July, 1912. For further details see RAILWAY YEAR BOOK, 1922, and previous editions.
Statistics {1922} immediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage. — Owned, 631 miles 7 chains; share of joint lines, 89 miles 13 chains; lines leased or worked, 60 miles 6 chains; share of lines leased or worked jointly, 74 miles 64 chains; total route mileage, 855 miles 10 chains.
Rolling Stock.—1,358 locomotives ; 1 petrol-electric rail motor car ; 16 electric tramcars ; 2,727 coaching vehicles ; 35,330 freight vehicles ; 2,963 service vehicles.

Great Eastern Railway. The Great Eastern Ry. was an amalgamation of many other lines, of which the following are the chief;—Eastern Counties (incorporated 1836, title changed to Great Eastern Ry. in 1862), from London to Colchester, together with the lines from Witham to Maldon and Braintree, and Stratford to Loughton, also (after leasing the Northern and Eastern Railway) Newport to Ely, Cambridge to St. Ives, March to Wisbech, Ely to Peterborough and Shelford to Shepreth Junction; Northern and Eastern (incorporated 1836, leased to the Eastern Counties, 1844, and amalgamated with the Great Eastern Ry., 1902), from Stratford to Newport and Hertford; Norfolk, an amalgamation of the Yarmouth and Norwich (incorporated 1842) and Norwich and Brandon (incorporated 1844) covering the Yarmouth-Norwich, Norwich and Ely, and Wymondham and Fakenham lines. Eastern Union, an amalgamation, in 1867, of the Eastern Union (incorporated 1844) from Colchester to Ipswich and thence to Bury and Woodbridge with the Hadleigh branch and the extension from Haughley to Norwich (Victoria) ; East Anglian, an amalgamation of the Lynn and Ely, Lynn and Dereham, and Bly and Huntingdon, including the lines between Lynn and Ely and Dereham, Magdalen Road, and Wisbech, and St. Ives and Huntingdon ; East Suffolk (incorporated in 1851 as the Halesworth, Beedes and Haddiscoe), together with various other railways. The Blackwall Ry., opened. Blackwall to Minories, 1840, thence to Fenchurch St., 1841, was leased to the Great Eastern Ry. from 1st January, 1866. The Eastern Counties and Northern and Eastern Rys. were originally constructed on the 5 ft. gauge, but in 1844 were converted to the 4 ft. 8^ in. Sections were opened :—London to Romford, 28th June, 1839; Romford to Brentv^ood, 1st July, 1840; Brentwood to Colchester, 29th March, 1843; Colchester to Ipswich, June, 1846; Ipswich to Haughley Junction, 30th November, 1846; Haughley to Norwich (Victoria), 11th June, 1849 ; Stratford to. Cambridge, Ely and Norwich were reached in 1845, thus joining with the Yarmouth and Norwich opened 1st May, 1844. Cambridge to St. Ives and Huntingdon, 17th August, 1847, and St. Ives (Needingworth Junction) to March, 1st February, 1848, St. Ives to Huntingdon and St. Ives to March becoming in March, 1882, part of the G. N. and G. E. Joint Line, of which the Soraersham and Ramsey, opened 16th September, 1889, was also a part, the other and main portions being March to Spalding, Sleaford and Doncaster, opened 6th March, 1882, March to Ruskington, thence to Pye Wipe Junction (Lincoln) for goods traffic 3rd July, 1882, and for passenger traffic 1st August, 1882, and to Doncaster (Black Carr Junction), 1st August, 1882. Joint line opened throughout in September, 1882. Manningtree to Harwich, August, 1854 ; Ipswich to Yarmouth and Beedes to Lowestoft, 1st June, 1859 ; Reedham to Lowestoft, July, 1847, and Brundall to Aele and Yarmouth, 1883. The Yarmouth to Lowestoft direct line was opened as a Joint Line of the M. & G. N. Jt. and G. B. Rys. controlled by the Norfolk and Suffolk Joint C<^mmittee, July, 1903. Other sections were:—Shenfield to Wickford, November, 1888; Wickford to Southminster and Wickford to Southend, and Woodham Ferrers to Maldon, October, 1889; Colchester to Hythe, March, 1847, to Walton-on-the-Naze, May, 1867, and Thorpe to Clacton-on-Sea, July, 1882 ; Wyvenhoe to Brightlingsea, April, 1866 ; Kelvedon, Tiptree and Tollesbury Light Ry., 1905-1907; Westerfield to Felixstowe, May, 1877; new Felixstowe Town station lines, July, 1898; Saxmundham to Aldeburgh, April, 1860; Framlingham branch, 1859; Norwich to Cromer, in portions from October, 1874, to March, 1877 ; North Walsham to Mundesley-on-Sea, July, 1898, and Mundesley to Runton East and Runton West Junctions (Cromer), March, 1907, as a joint M. & G. N. Jt. and G. E. line, worked by the Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Committee. The original London terminus was at Shoreditch, on the site now occupied by Bshopsgate goods station. Liverpool Street was opened to local traffic 2nd February, 1874, and for all traffic 1st November, 1875. The
East Side Suburban station was opened 2nd April, 1894. An all-night service on the Walthamstow branch wus inaugurated 21st June, 1897. For further historical details see RAILWAY YEAR BOOK, 1922, and previous editions.
Statistics {1922) irninediately prior to amalgamation,
Mileage.—Owned, 1,107 miles 16 chains; share of joint lines, 74 miles 68 chains; lines leased or worked, 8 miles 9 chains; share of lines leased or worked jointly, 58 chains; total route mileage, 1,190 miles 71 chains.
Rolling Stock.—1,335 locomotives; 5,548 coaching vehicles; 27,213 freight vehicles ; 2,898 service vehicles.

Great Northern Railway. An amalgamation of two rival schemes, the London and York and the Direct Northern, both promoted in 1844. The Act of Incorporation was passed in 1846, after fierce litigation. The first section (opened 1st March, 1848) was that from Louth to New Holland, for (Grimsby and Hull, and with this the M. S. & L. Ry. was associated. Next followed the Doncaster to Askern section (September, 1848), worked by L. & Y. Ry.; in October, 1848, the Lincolnshire loop line was opened from Werrington, north of Peterborough, to Lincoln, and from Lincoln to Retford, 9th April, 1849. The London section was opened 8th August, 1850, from a temporary terminus at Maiden Lane, and in September of that year through services were instituted to Edinburgh, via the Lincolnshire loop line from Peterborough to Retford and Doncaster, and thence via the L. & Y. and N. E. Rys. to York and beyond. In 1850-51 the Hitchin, Royston and Shepreth line was opened, and for a time worked by the Eastern Counties Ry. The direct line from Peterborough via Retford was opened 1st August, 1852, and, in October, King’s Cross station was brought into use. Doncaster works were opened in 1853. In the West Riding routes were laid out for Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, etc. On 1st August, 1854, the Leeds, Bradford and Halifax Junction was opened, but trains ran from Doncaster via the L. &L Y. Ry. and various lines, the direct route not being completed until 1st February, 1866. The Bradford, Wakefield and Leeds (West Yorkshire) line was opened in 1857. For some time the Ambergate, Nottingham and Boston & Eastern Junction Ry. was worked by the G. N. Ry., and it was afterwards leased to the latter for 999 years from 1st August, 1861. Space will permit only a few opening dates of interest to be mentioned : Luton and Dunstable line, 1860; Barkston to Sleaford, 1856; Sleaford to Boston, April, 1859; March and Spalding, Lincoln and Honington, and Doncaster and Gainsborough, 1867; Edgware, Highgate and London Ry., 23rd September, 1867; East Coast Joint Stock was instituted 1860; in 1863 G. N. trains commenced to work over the Metropolitan Ry.; in 1866 the Cheshire Lines Committee was set up, consisting of the M. S. & L. and G. N. Rys., the Midland being added in 1867; and in 1879 the G. N. & G. E. Joint line was constituted.
The line from Stamford to Wansford—8 miles 22 chains in length—was closed on the 29th June, 1929, and dismantled.
Statistics {1922) immediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage.—Owned, 696 miles 42 chains ; share of joint lines, 250 miles 22 chains ; lines leased or worked, 98 miles 65 chains ; share of lines leased or worked jointly, 5 miles 51 chains ; total route mileage, 1,051 miles 20 chains.
Rolling Stock.—1,359 locomotives ; 6 steam rail motor cars ; 3,474 coaching vehicles; 38,706 freight vehicles; 2,870 service vehicles.

Great North of Scotland Railway. The Company was incorporated in 1846, for a railway from Aberdeen to Inverness, with various branches. At Cairnie Junction, 48J miles from Aberdeen, the main line forks : one line goes through Portsoy and follows the coast to Elgin; the other route is via Keith ar-d Craigellachie and over the Morayshire Extension Railway to Elgin. It was intended to amalgamate the G. N. of S. and Aberdeen Rys., but in 1860 the Amalgamation Act was repealed and in 1866 the Aberdeen was absorbed by the Caledonian. The construction of the line was commenced in 1852. Between Inverurie and Aberdeen part of the railway is laid along the course of the Aberdeenshire Canal, which had been in use from about the commencement of the nineteenth century, and the waterway was used to convey materials for the construction of the railway as well as for the general trade of the district. The completion of the first portion of the line was much delayed by the severe weather of 1853-54, and it was not until 12th September, 1854, that the first forty miles—a single line from Kittybrewster to Huntly—were opened for traffic. From the first the electric telegraph formed part and parcel of the under- tali pg. the Great North being far in advance of other Scottish railways in this respect.
The G. N. of S. Ry. never had any second-class carriages. The system was consolidated as from August, 1866, by the absorption of the Alford Valley, Formartine and Buchan, Inverurie and Old Meldrum, Aberdeen and Turriff, the Banff, Macduff and Turriff Extension, the Keith and Dufftown, and the Strathspey Rys., and from 1st August, 1875, the Deeside Ry., the line to Ballater (for Balmoral and Braemar, etc.), was amalgamated with the G. N. of S. Ry. A line from Ellon to Cruden Bay and Boddam was opened in 1897. and a light railway from Fraserburgh to St. Combs in 1903.
Statistics (1922) immediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage.—Owned, 334 miles 27 chains; share of joint lines, 13 chains; total route mileage, 334 miles 40 chains.
Rolling Stock.—122 locomotives; 766 coaching vehicles; 3,603 freight vehicles; 124 service vehicles.

Hull and Barnsley Railway. Incorporated 26th August, 1880, as the Hull, Barnsley and West Riding Junction Railway and Dock Company, for certain lines of railway, having a total projected length of 66 miles, and for the construction of a dock at Hull. The line was opened for goods traffic 20th July, 1885, and for passenger traffic a week later. Alexandra Dock, Hull, was opened 16th July, 1885. The South Yorkshire Junction Ry. is worked by the Hull and Barnsley, and was opened 1st September, 1894. The branch line from Wrangbrook Junction to Wath, 8 m. 70 ch. in length, was opened 31st March, 1902. Joint line of the Great Central, Hull and Barnsley and Midland Committee, 4 m. 74 ch., opened 1st October, 1909. Joint line of the Hull and Barnsley and Great Central Railways, 25 m. 58 ch., opened 1st May, 1916. The title “Hull and Barnsley Railway’’ was assumed by Act of Parliament passed in 1905. The Company was amalgamated with the North Eastern Railway as from 1st April, 1922, prior to incorporation in the London and North Eastern Railway.
Statistics (1921} immediately prior to amalgamation with N.E.H.
Mileage.—Owned, 78 miles 74 chains; share of joint lines, 15 miles 79 chains; lines worked, 11 miles 40 chains; total route mileage, 106 miles 33 chains.
Rolling Stock. — 181 locomotives; 138 coaching vehicles; 4,537 freight vehicles; 292 service vehicles.

North British Railway. The original Company was incorporated in 1844 for a line from Edinburgh to Berwick, with a branch to Haddington, and was opened on 22nd June, 1846 ; in 1862 the Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee and the West of Fife Rys. were added, and in 1865 the Edinburgh and Glasgow Ry. and the Monkland Rys. Various branches were made during this period, and several smaller companies were taken over, while in later years the West Highland, Invergarry and Fort Augustus, the Glasgow, City and District and other railways were added. The following items are of special interest: The Monkland and Kirkintilloch Ry. was authorised in 1824 and opened for traffic in October, 1826, and the Ballochney Ry. was authorised in 1826. Both lines when opened were worked by means of horse haulage. The Edinburgh and Glasgow Ry. was authorised in 1838 and opened on 18th February, 1842 ; the Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Ry. was authorised in 1845 and opened in September, 1847 ; the Dundee and Arbroath Ry.,owned jointly with the Caledonian Railway Company, was authorised in 1836 and opened in 1838-40 ; the Dumbarton and Balloch Ry., also owned jointly with the Caledonian Railway Company, was authorised in 1846 and opened in 1850 ; the Edinburgh and Hawick Ry. was authorised in 1845 and opened in 1847-49 ; the Slamannan lines were authorised in 1835 ; the Carlisle and Port Carlisle branch was authorised in 1853 and opened in 1854, leased by the old North British Company in 1862 and amalgamated in 1880; the extension from Drumburgh to Silloth was authorised in 1855 and opened in 1856-59, leased in 1862 and amalgamated in 1880 ; the Border Union Ry. from Carlisle to Hawick was authorised in 1859 and opened in 1861-62; the Galashiels and Peebles Ry. was authorised in 1861 and opened in 1864-66. The First Tay Bridge, which was opened for traffic on the 1st of July, 1878, was partially destroyed during a storm on 28th December, 1879. The Second Tay Bridge, which was constructed alongside the original bridge, was opened for traffic in 1887. The Edinburgh Suburban Ry. was authorised in 1880 and 1882 and opened in 1884 ; the Glasgow, City and District Ry. was authorised in 1882, opened in 1886, and amalgamated in 1887; the Forth Bridge, owned jointly by the North Britie^h, North Eastern, Great Jforthern and Midland R^-ilwj^y Companies, was opened in March, 1^90 ; the new Edinhnxgb (Waverley) station was opened in 1893. The West Highland Ry. was authorised in 1889, opened to Fort William in 1894, to Mallaig in 1901, and amalgamated in 1908. The Invergarry and Fort Augustus line was authorised in 1896 and opened in 1903. It was first worked by the Highland Railway Company, and subsequently by the North British Company until 31st October, 1911, when it was closed. It was reopened for traffic in 1913, and acquired by the North British Railway Company in 1914. The East Fife Central line was authorised in 1893 and opened in 1898; the “Lothian Lines’^ were authorised in 1913 and opened in 1916. In 1863 powers were obtained to run steamers between Silloth and Belfast. In 1859 arrangements were made for the joint use of Carlisle (Citadel) station, and in 1864 for a similar arrangement in regard to Perth station,
Statistics {19,22) mmediately prior to amalgamation.
Mileage. — Owned, 1,277 miles 12 chains; share of joint lines, 16 miles 31 chains; lines leased or worked, 79 miles 70 chains; share of lines leased or worked jointly, 4 miles 20 chains; total route mileage, 1,377 miles 53 chains.
Rolling Stock.—1,074 locomotives; 1 petrol shunting motor; 3,576 coaching vehicles; 55,806 freight vehicles ; 3,164 service vehicles.

Subsidiary Companies###. {Immediately prior to amalgamation,)
Brackenhill Light,—Authorised under the Light Railways Act. and opened 1906. Connects with Swinton and Knottingley Joint Line at Ackworth. Worked by North Eastern Railway.

Colne Valley and Halstead.—Incorporated 1856. Chappel and Halstead section opened 16th April, 1860. Extension to Haverhill by Acts of 1859, 1861, etc. Length : 19 miles. Rolling Stock : 5 locomotives, 13 coaching vehicles, 174 freight vehicles, 1 service vehicle.
East and West Yorkshire Union.—Incorporated 1883 for constructing lines in the Leeds district; opened 20th May, 1891. South Leeds Junction Railway acquired 1896. Light railways from Robin Hood to Royds Green authorised 1896, and from Stourton to Hunslet authorised 1901. Passenger services discontinued 30th September, 1904. Length: 9J miles. Rolling Stock: 6 locomotives, 207 freight vehicles, 1 service vehicle.
East Lincolnshire.—Boston to Grimsby. Incorporated 1846; leased to Great Northern Railway 1848. Length : 47^ miles.
Edinburgh and Bathgate.—Ratho to Bathgate. Incorporated 1846; opened 12th November, 1849 ; leased to North British Railway, 1869. Length : 10| miles.

Forcett.—Incorporated 1865 ; opened 1867. Worked by North Eastern Railway. Length : 5^ miles.
Forth and Clyde Junction.—Stirling to near Balloch, connecting the rivers Forth and Clyde. Incorporated 4th August, 1853. Opened 26th May, 1856 ; leased to North British Railway, 1875. Length: 30| miles.
Giford and Garvald.—Ormiston to Garvald. Incorporated 1891. Constructed under Light Railway Order dated 1898. Opened to Gifford 14th October, 1901. A private railway worked and maintained by North British Company. Length : 9J miles.
Great North of England^ Clarence and Hartlepool Junction.—Leased 1848 to North Eastern Railway. Length : 6J miles.
Horncastle.—Kirkstead to Horncastle. Incorporated 1854; worked by Great Northern Railway 11th February, 1855 ; opened 11th August, 1855. Length : 7 J miles.
Humber Commercial Railway and Dock.— Incorporated by Acts of 1901,1904, 1905, etc. Includes Immingham Dock. Opened 12th July, 1912, and railways in connection. Leased to Great Central Railway. Length of railway : 15 miles 7 chains.
Lauder Light,—From Fountainhall to Lauder. Incorporated 1898; opened 2nd July 1901. A private railway worked by North British Company. Length : 10| miles.

London and Blackwall.—Opened 1840, Minories to Blackwall. At first worked by cable traction. Branch from Stepney to Bow constructed 1849. Mill wall and Greenwich line opened 1872. Limehouse curve opened 1880. Leased to Great Eastern Railway, 1866. Length : 6J miles. Passenger service between Stepney East and Blackwall discontinued on 4th May, 1926, and between Millwall Junction and North Greenwich on 1st July, 1926.
Mansfield.-—to Clipstone. Incorporated 1910. Further Acts, 1914, etc. Opened Mansfield Colliery and Clipstone, 26th June, 1913 ; whole line for goods and mineral traffic 4th September, 1916 ; for passenger traffic, 2nd April, 1917. Worked by Great Central Railway. Length: 16 miles,

Mid-Suffolk Light.—Haughley to Laxfield. Authorised under Light Railways Act. Opened for goods traffic, September, 1901 ; passenger traffic, 29th September, 1908. Length; 19J miles. Rolling Stock ; 3 locomotives, 10 coaching vehicles, 21 freight vehicles, 5 railway service vehicles.
Newburgh and North Fife.—Sb. Fort to Newburgh. Incorporated 1897 ; opened 25th January, 1909. A private railway worked by North British Company. Length: 13^ miles.

North Lindsey Light.—Frodingham to Winteringham and Whitton. Opened 1910. Worked by Great Central Railway. Length : 11^ miles.
Nottingham and Grantham Railway and Canal.—Incorporated 1846; as a much larger scheme, but then confined to the Grantham and Nottingham section. Also owns the Grantham Canal. Leased 1861 to Great Northern Railway. Length : 22^ miles.
Nottinghann Joint Station Committee.—Constituted a separate undertaking, under agreement of 30th January, 1892, and Act of 1897. Managed by a committee of the Great Northern and Great Central Railways. Includes also several short connecting railways. Length : 2 miles.
Nottingham Suburban.—Nottingham to Daybrook. Incorporated 1886; opened 2nd December, 1889. Worked by Great Northern Railway. Length: 33 miles.
Seaforth and Sefton Junction.—Incorporated 1903. Leased to Great Central and Great Northern Railways.

Sheffield District.—Treeton to Atterclift’e. Incorporated 1896. Powers given to Midland Railway for constructing the Treeton and Brightside Railway transferred to it in 1898. Opened 30th May, 1908. Worked by Great Central Railway as successors to the Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast Railway. Running powers ’ Lengthl: 5^ miles.
South Yorkshire Junction.—Wrangbrook to Denaby September, 1894. Worked by Hull and Barnsley Railway.
Stamford and Essendine.—Incorporated 1853 ; opened 1856 ; leased to Great Northern Railway 1894. Length, 12J miles.
Welbeck Colliery Branch.—Constructed and worked by the Great Central Railway for a private firm. Purchased by the L.N.B.R., 1927. Total length : 2J miles.

West Riding Railway Committee.—Incorporated as the West Riding and Grimsby Railway, 1862; opened 1st February, 1866 ; vested in Great Northern and Great Central Railways 1867. Managed by Joint Committee and worked jointly. Crofton branch opened 1st July, 1887. Length: 31^ miles.
limited sphere as an “agricultural” railway and find a paying outlet to the North for the produce of its district, with a return traffic from the coalfields and the manufacturing districts of Lancashire and Yorkshire. In 1845 the “Eastern Counties Extension,” via Cambridge and Lincoln, with practicable connections with Doncaster, York, Leeds, etc., was considerably to the front with various rival schemes, and was supported by an influential list of shareholders, railway directors, municipal officers, and representatives of the investing public. But the prospective “ direct route ”—the Great Northern—won, and the Eastern Counties was compelled to “lie by and wait.” Not till 1864 were matters ripe for a renewal of the attempt to obtain a share of the traffic of Lancashire and Yorkshire, the Durham coalfields, and the manufacturing districts of Scotland. Then, in one of the most exciting parliamentary contests of the last 50 years, the “Great Eastern Northern Junction Railway” was brought forward—the fifth or sixth proposal for an advance to the North, but now supported by an array of legal, managerial and engineering talent seldom seen on one side of the committee room. This was the renowned scheme for carrying coal in fully loaded trains at ^d. a mile. The opposition, however, was equally skilful and determined, with the result that the projects of the “ plaintiff ” company were again thrown out, and those of the G. N., in partial mitigation of the evils complained of, adopted. But “Facility” clauses and other concessions, with “ arbitration ” in case of disputes, offered by the G. N., and held fair and reasonable by Parliament, failed to satisfy the Eastern Counties. A projected alliance with the L. and Y. Ry. and intermittent agitation with the M. S. and L. and Midland Rys., also an alliance with the G. N. involving the joint making of certain lines linking the G. N. and E. C. followed, produced no tangible result. At length, in 1878, competing Bills were again brought forward and hotly contested by several leading authoiities of the day, the G, N, scheme for a line from Spalding to Lincoln being passed, but with instructions for joint working between the two railways, practically giving the G. E. Ry. what they had so long sought. Accordingly, the sectional lines, March to Spalding, the trunk continuation thence to Lincoln, and the already existing railway, via Gainsboro’ to Black Carr Junction, Doncaster, became joint property to be administered by a committee of G. N. and G. E. directors, through a traffic manager of their own, the parent companies, of course, retaining a voice in all important matters. In 1896 the Ramsey and Somersham Junction line was purchased by the Joint Committee and added to the Joint G. N. and G. E. System. The traffic was operated by the two railways concerned, with their own engines and rolling stock, the Great Eastern using the Great Northern stations at Spalding, Sleaford, Lincoln and Doncaster, while Great Northern trains used Great Eastern stations at St. Ives and March. Expenditure and revenue were shared by the owning companies on a pre-arranged basis. From 1st July, 1909, the management of the Joint line was shared by the two owning railways, G. N. officials having control of the Northern Section and G. E. officials of the Southern Section. Length, 123 miles—opened throughout in September, 1882. The G. N. & G. E. Joint Committee owned the Fossdyke Navigation Canal, 10 miles 73 chains in length ; taken over by the railway in 1882.

West Riding and Grimsby.—Great Northern and Great Central Railways. Length: 31J miles.

Kilsyth and Bonnyhridge.—From Kilsyth to a point near Larbert on Caledonian Railway. Incorporated 1882; opened 2nd July, 1888. Worked jointly by Caledonian and North British Railways. Length : 8J miles.
B. —Now Joint with London Midland and Scottish Railway.
Aberdeen Joint Passenger Station, 26 chains. Axholme Joint, 27f miles: Cheshire Lines Committee, 142 miles (see separate article); Dumbarton and Balloch (including Loch Lomond steamers), 5^ miles ; Dundee and Arbroath (including Carmyllie Light Railway), 23 miles ; Great Central and Midland Joint, 39J miles; Great Central, Hull and Barnsley, and Midland Joint (two-thirds share), 5 miles; Great Central and North Staffordshire Joint, 11 miles; Great Northern and London and North Western, 46 miles; Halifax and Ovenden, 2^ miles; Halifax High Level, 3 miles; Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham, 9J miles, really a joint working arrangement; Methley (two-thirds share), 6 miles; Midland and Great Northern Joint, 1944 miles (see separate article); Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Committee, 22| miles (Great Eastern and Midland and Great Northern Joint); Oldham, Ashton and Guide Bridge, 6^ miles; Otley and Hkley, 6^ miles; Perth General Station Committee (26 per cent, share) ; Prince’s Dock. Glasgow (two-fifths share), 1| miles; Rothesay Dock Branch, 18 chains; South Yorkshire Joint (three-fifths share), 33| miles ; Stobcross Joint Depot, 39 chains ; Swinton and Knottingley, 19 J miles ; Tottenham and Hampstead, 4| miles ; also the Dentonholme lines at Carlisle, 4 mile.
C. —Now Joint with. Great Western Railway.
Great Western and Great Central Joint, 41 miles.
D. —Other Joint Lines.
Bast London (leased jointly with Southern, Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways), 4 miles ; Metropolitan and Great Central Joint, leased to Joint Committee, April, 1906, length, 61J miles. Watford Extension Railway (jointly with Metropolitan Railway). Length : 24 miles. Opened 2nd November, 1925.
Other railways worked by London and North Eastern Railway are: Forth Bridge, guaranteed by London and North Eastern and London Midland and Scottish Railways, opened 4th March, 1890, length, 4j miles; King’s Lynn Railway and Docks, opened July, 1869. length 9 miles, worked by G. B. Ry.; Gas Light and Coke Company’s Beckton line opened, November, 1872. Length : miles ; worked by G.E. Ry.

GENERAL PARTICULARS.
Shortest Routes for Principal Through Services from London.
The London and North Eastern Railway provides the shortest routes between London (King’s Cross) and Aberdeen, Bradford, Darlington, Doncaster, Dundee, Durham, Edinburgh, Grimsby, Halifax, Harrogate, Huddersfield, Hull, Leeds, Lincoln, Middlesbrough, Newcastle, Peterboro’, Scarboro’, Stockton, Sunderland, Wakefield, West Hartlepool and York, and between London (Liverpool Street) and Cambridge, Norwich, Lowestoft and Yarmouth. It also provides good through and express train services (in some instances by the only route) between London (Marylebone) and Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Huddersfield, Halifax and Bradford; between London (Liverpool Street) and Southend, Chelmsford, Colchester, Ipswich, Harwich and Parkeston Quay, Clacton-on-Sea, Walton- on-the-Naze, Felixstowe, Hunstanton, King's Lynn, Wisbech, Ely, Newmarket, etc.; and between London (King’s Cross) and Glasgow, Nottingham, Cromer, Lincoln, Boston, Grimsby, etc. Also between Leeds, Sheffiel^^ Bradford ^pd ptjier to^yns yvitb the north-; eastern counties and Scotland.

Shortest or only Routes between other Principal Centres.—Between most towns in East A^nglia, Essex and Lincolnshire, the greater part of which is served exclusively or mainly by the London and North Eastern Railway, or in conjunction with the Midland and Great Northern Joint Rys., in which it has a half interest; between many towns in South Yorkshire; throughout most of Yorkshire, Durham and Northumberland; in South-east Scotland; between Northallerton and Hawes Junction, Darlington and Tebay and Penrith, and Newcastle and Carlisle, and thus to the London Midland and Scottish system, the Lake District, etc.

Principal Through Train Services (including those operated jointly with other companies) —London (King’s Cross) to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth, Inverness, Dundee, Aberdeen, Fort William, Harrogate, Newcastle, Sunderland, Stockton, Middlesbrough, Scarborough, Whitby, York, Hull, Grimsby. Lincoln, Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Cromer, Cambridge, etc. London (Marylebone) to Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Huddersfield, Halifax, Bradford, Barnsley, Mansfield, Chesterfield, Stratford-on-Avon, etc. London (Liverpool Street) to Southend, Clacton-on-Sea, Walton-on-the-Naze, Felixstowe. Aldeburgh, Lowestoft, Yarmouth, Cromer, Sheringham, Mundesley - on - Sea, Ipswich, Norwich, Cambridge, Ely, King’s Lynn, Hunstanton, March, Newmarket, Bury St. Edmunds, etc, Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds to York, Stockton, Newcastle, Hull, and other towns on the North Eastern system. Liverpool and Manchester to Sheffield, Doncaster, Grimsby, Hull, Scarborough, etc. Leeds to Scarborough,Whitby, Bridlington, Harrogate, Newcastle, Edinburgh and Glasgow. Harwich to March, Peterborough, Rugby, Coventry and Birmingham, and to Lincoln, Sheffield, Liverpool, Manchester. Newcastle, York, Sheffield, Nottingham and Leicester to Gloucester, Cardiff, Barry and Swansea. Glasgow, Edinburgh, Newcastle, York, Hull, Bradford, Sheffield, Nottingham, Leicester and Oxford to Southampton or Bournemouth, or both. Aberdeen, Dundee, Glasgow, Edinburgh, etc., to Newcastle, York, Sheffield, Nottingham, Leicester, etc., to Plymouth and Penzance. Liverpool, Warrington, Manchester and Sheffield to Yarmouth, Lowestoft, Ipswich, etc. Edinburgh and Glasgow to Craigendoran, Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen, St. Andrews, North Berwick, Carlisle, Peebles, Elgin, Inverness, etc.; between Edinburgh and Glasgow and throughout most of South-eastern Scotland; between Edinburgh and Carlisle and towns on or adjacent to the “Waverley” route; between Aberdeen and Ballater, Fraserburgh, Peterhead, Macduff, Buckie, Elgin, Keith, Lossiemouth, and other towns on the late Groat North of Scotland system ; also from Glasgow to the West Highland line, and between towns in the Glasgow area, and numerous through services of a relatively local character. Nearly all principal trains on all sections include corridor coaches, restaurant cars and first and third class sleeping cars as required, and on the Great Eastern section Pullman cars are attached to the Continental trains, while trains consisting of Pullman cars only are run between London (King’s Cross) and Wakefield, Bradford, Halifax and Leeds, and between London (King’s Cross) and Leeds, Harrogate, Ripon, Darlington. Newcastle, Berwick, Drem, Edinburgh and Glasgow ; also between London and Clacton-on-Sea on Sundays (June to September, inclusive).
Fastest Times, Fastest Runs and Longest Runs.—See pages 21-26.

Continental Services.—The well-known services via Harwich to the Continent were inaugurated in 1863, and in 1883 Parkeston Quay was opened. Here there is 2,800 ft. length of quay with ample sheds, warehouses and cranes. Steamship services run between Harwich and Hook of Holland, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Zeebrugge and Esbjerg, and from January 1, 1927, the Flushing service operated by the Zeeland SS. Company has been transferred from Folkestone to Harwich (Parkeston Quay). Through trains connecting with the night services are run from London (Liverpool Street), including first and second class restaurant and Pullman cars, and from Liverpool, Warrington, Manchester, Sheffield, Worksop and Lincoln (restaurant car trains), with through carriages from Glasgow, Edinburgh. Newcastle, etc., and from Birmingham, Coventry, Rugby, etc. Another Continental service is that via Grimsby, for Hamburg, Antwerp, Rotterdam, etc., with through restaurant car trains in connection from Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, etc. Services to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, etc., are also available from Hull, Newcastle- on-Tyne, Leith, Aberdeen, etc., for which special trains are run where the ordinary service does not suffice. Through carriages from Glasgow and Edinburgh to Southampton connect with Southern Railway services to the Channel Islands, Le Havre and other French ports.
Electric Traction.—Passenger traffic between Newcastle (Central), Tynemouth, Manors North and Newcastle (Central;, via Wallsend and Backworth, and also between Manors Bast and Percy Main, via the Riverside branch, is worked by electric power, the total mileage electrified being 30 miles. Trains are run as follows:—Trains run to the coast, Tynemouth, Cullercoats, Whitley Bay and Monkseaton every ten minutes on the circular route, Newcastle (Central) to Newcastle (Central), proceeding alternately via Benton and via Wallsend. Express trains are also run during the busy periods. Hourly service between Newcastle (Central) a^nd Tynemouth, via Riverside branch. During the year 1916 the electrification of 18 miles of mineral railway between Shildon and Newport was completed and brought into use. Electric tramcars are used on the Grimsby and Immingham Electric Ry. Schemes have been prepared for electrifying the suburban routes from Liverpool Street and King’s Cross. The Manchester South Junction and Altrincham Line, which is jointly owned by the L.N.E.R. and L.M.S.R., is electrified and an electric ser^dee of trains commenced to run on the 11th May, 1931 (see pp. 17-20).
Running Powers.—Exercised over sections of the London Midland and Scottish and Southern Rys. Also parts of the Metropolitan, and over the East London Ry.

Road. Motor Services.— Passenger Services.—Following on the road powers granted to the Company by the London and North Eastern Railway (Road Transport) Act, 1928, the Company has entered into working agreements with the following omnibus undertakings:— East Midland Motor Services, Ltd.; East Yorkshire Motor Services, Ltd.; Eastern Counties Omnibus Co., Ltd.; Eastern National Omnibus Co., Ltd.; Hebble Motor Services. Ltd.; Lincolnshire Road Car Co., Ltd.; North Western Road Car Co., Ltd.; Northern General Transport Co., Ltd.; Scottish Motor Traction Co., Ltd.; Trent Motor Traction Co., Ltd. ; United Automobile Services, Ltd.; W. Alexander & Sons, Ltd.; West Yorkshire Road Car Co., Ltd.; Yorkshire Traction Co., Ltd.; Yorkshire (Woollen District) Electric Tramways, Ltd. For further particulars, see page 30.
The working agreements provide for the setting up of machinery to deal with co-ordination of rail and road services and the Company has also acquired a financial interest, in certain cases jointly with the London Midland and Scottish Railway Company (q. v.l, in these undertakings. The extent of the financial interest acquired by the railway companies is in no case mor© than 50 per cent, of the total, and the object of these arrangements has been to enter into a partnership with existing omnibus undertakings on equal terms, with a view to co-ordinating rail and road passenger transport in the best interests of the public.
The Company has also acquired an interest jointly with the London Midland & Scottish Railway Company in the services operated by the following Corporations beyond their boundariesHalifax, Sheffield; and certain long distance services of the Sheffield Corporation have been acquired outright by the two railway companies, viz :—Sheffield and (1) Buxton, (2) Bakewell via Baslow, (3) Huddersfield, (4) Barnsley, (5) Doncaster, and -other services between Sheffield and Manchester have been inaugurated.
The Company owns an omnibus service operating between Sheffield and Gainsborough, and the following service is owned jointly with the London Midland and Scottish Railway Company :—Sheffield-Bl ackpool Express Service.

Goods Services.—The Company has an extensive fleet of road motors engaged in the collection and delivery of goods. Country lorry services have been introduced in many districts, generally within a radius of ten miles from the stations, effecting a direct delivery to any address within the area served. At a number of points the cartage of traffic is now being performed by motors, working from adjacent stations. This enables traffic to be concentrated, thus giving better loading, lass handling and improved transits. Special motor vehicles have been provided for the conveyance of live stock in outlying districts. The Company has entered into a Working Agreement with Messrs. Currie and Co. (Newcastle), Ltd.
Train Control.—North Eastern Area Control Offices are in operation at Middlesbrough, Darlington, Newcastle, Hull and Leeds for freight traffic, while a main line Control Office at York covers both freight and passenger train working.
A Central Train Control Office is situated at Liverpool Street Station which controls the traffic operations in the Western Section of the Southern Area. District Train Control Offices are located at King’s Cross, Nottingham, Manchester, Doncaster, Leeds and Lincoln which control traffic operations in the respective Districts.
On the Great Eastern section a Train Control Office was established in 1921 at Stratford, for controlling freight train movements within a radius of about 50 miles from London. A suburban passenger Train Control Office is also in operation at Liverpool Street station. A Train Control was established in November, 1926, at Cambridge, which controls all traffic operations and train movements between Bishops Stortford and Peterboro’ East, Histon, and Wimblington, Ely and Bury, Whitemoor and Cowbit.
The late North British Railway had the most extensive system of Train Control of any Scottish railway. From small beginnings in 1913 the system has been greatly extended, and now practically the whole of the industrial areas, as well as a large part of the rural districts, have been linked up with the Control Offices in the respective districts. The first Control Office established was at Portobello and opened in August, 1913. The equipment then introduced, however, was found too cumbersome to permit of any material extension, and nearly three years later (May, 1916) the original system was abandoned for the up-to-date method now in operation. The whole of the staff was removed from the
Portobello Office to the New Control Office at Edinburgh (Waverley). The Southern District Control covers a radius of about 60 miles, extending from Berwick and Hawick in the South, to Ratho and Dalmeny, about 10 miles west of Edinburgh, together with branches, and covers about 330 miles of rails. The Western District Control Office, located at Coatbridge, opened in October, 1914, is linked up at Ratho with the Central District and extends from that point westwards to Helensburgh, a distance of 61 miles, together with all branch lines, and covers about 360 miles of rails. The Northern District Control Office, located at Burntisland, was established in November, 1920, and embraces the whole of the lines between the Forth and the Tay, including Dundee, a distance of 50 miles, covering altogether about 320 miles of rails. The three District Control Offices work under the general supervision of a Headquarters Control in Edinburgh.
Central Wagon Control.—The Central Wagon Control at York controls the movement of 300,000 vehicles over 7,000 miles of line, and takes the place of six separate controls which used to operate in the case of the independent constituent Companies. In addition to the ordinary goods, cattle, and mineral wagons the Central Control has containers, the Harwich-Zeebrugge train ferry, loco, coal, meat, refrigerator, fish and fruit wagons, brake vans, sheets and ropes under its supervision; also horse boxes, carriage trucks, special cattle boxes, calf vans, hound vans and elephant vans. Distribution instructions are issued from the Central Wagon Control to the 21 districts into which the system is divided. The telephone facilities available enable continual touch to be maintained with every district and the aid of the various Train Controls enlisted so as to effect the most efficient distribution. The Central Wagon Control was established early in 1923 to enable the resources of the Company to be utilised to the best advantage.

Largest Stations.—Edinburgh (Waverley), London (Liverpool St.), Newcastle (Central), York, London (King’s Cross), Aberdeen (Joint) and Nottingham (Victoria). See page 34.
Other large stations: Leeds (New), joint with London Midland and Scottish Railway ; Hull; Darlington; Glasgow (Queen Street); Lincoln; Manchester (London Road), half share with London, Midland and Scottish Railway; Manchester (Central), Liverpool (Central), and Southport, Cheshire Lines Committee; Sheffield (Victoria) ; Leicester (Great Central), length of longest platform 1,245 ft.; Doncaster (Central); Leeds (Central); Stratford; Norwich (Thorpe) ; Cambridge, length of longest platform, 1,375 ft.; Ipswich; Finsbury Park; also Carlisle (Citadel) and Perth (General).
Largest Signal Boxes.—York—Locomotive Yard, 295 levers, the largest manually worked box in the British Isles ; Newcastle No. 1, 259 levers, electro-pneumatic ; Edinburgh, Waverley—East, 260 levers; Liverpool Street —West, 244 levers; Aberdeen—North, 150 levers; King’s Cross—232 levers (electro-mechanical); Whitemoor Junction, 140 levers; Barnetby-Wrawby Junction, 132 levers; Cambridge North, 72 levers (all electric.)
L.N.E.R. Signal Boxes.
Area. L.N.E.R. Joint. Total. Southern (Western Section) 934 133 1,067 Southern (Eastern Section) 504 7 511 North Eastern ... 1,065 — 1,065 Southern Scottish 590 — 590 Northern Scottish 96 — 96 3,189 140 3,329 r—;? .5 ===a Total, (including joint boxes).
Important Bridges, Viaducts, etc.—High Level Bridge, Newcastle, opened 1849 ; King Edward (High Level) Bridge, Newcastle, opened 1906; Queen Alexandra Bridge, Sunderland, opened 1909; Royal Border Bridge, Berwick, opened August 1st, 1850; swing bridges over the River Ouse, at Goole, Selby, Naburn, and over the River Hull at Sculcoates; lofty viaducts Whitby and on the Darlington and Tebay section; bridges over Newark Dyke, and over the Derwent at Derby; viaducts at Welwyn and Ilkeston; Spey Viaduct on the Moray Firth Coast line, 7 spans (950 ft. in length), main span 350 ft., and the other 6 spans are each about 100 ft. long; and swing bridges at Reedham, Somerleyton, Trowse, Carlton Colville, Beedes and St. Olaves, all double-line swing bridges, worked by electric power; over the Trent at Keadby a Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, opening span 163 feet, approximate weight 3,000 tous; also over the S.Y.N. Canal at Keadby a draw-bridge, both bridges being electrically operated. The most notable, however, are the Forth and Tay bridges.
The Forth Bridge, which, although owned by a separate company (the interest on the capital of which is guaranteed by the London and North Eastern and the London Midland and Scottish Railway Companies, as successors to the North British, Midland, North Eastern and Great Northern Rys.), is worked and the permanent way maintained by the London and North Eastern Railway Company. The bridge was opened for traffic on March 4th, 1890, by the late King Edward VII., the then Prince of Wales. The Marchioness of Tweeddale drove the first engine along the bridge, the locomotive being No. 602, belonging to the North British Railway Company. The Forth Bridge (which is fully miles long) consists of a south approach viaduct, 1,983 ft., in length, made up of eight spans of 168 ft. one span of 173 ft., and one span of 179 ft., and 4 granite arches of 57 ft. span; a north approach viaduct of 966 ft. in length, consisting of three spans of 168 ft., one of 173 ft., and one of 179 ft., and three granite arches of 25 ft,; two great central spans of 1,710 ft., each including a central girder of 346| ft. long and two projecting arms of the two main cantilevers, each 689| ft. long. The greatest dimension of the largest tubes is 12 ft., the cross sections being elliptical, while that of the struts is 8 ft. The two principal spans have a clear headway of 150 ft. above high water for a width of 500 ft., and the cantilevers rise to a height of 340 ft. above the masonry on which they are built; the highest part of the bridge is 361 ft. above high-water mark.

Longest Tunnels.—North Eastern Area.—Bramhope, between Leeds and Harrogate is 2 miles 241 yards in length. Other tunnels exist at Burdale, Sandsend, Shildon Grinkle, Quayside (Newcastle), Crimpie, North Shields, Sunderland (South), Bensham, Brotherton Byker, Corbridge, Crawley Bank, Edlingham, Scarborough, Grosmont, Haltwhistle. Kettleness, Knaresborough, Ravenscar, Scotswood, Tyne Dock, Fa.rnley, Whitchester and Deptford, and Walker; Drewton (2,114 yards in length), Barnsdale, Cadeby and Brierley. Great Central Section.—The two parallel Woodhead tunnels are the longest. . They are 19 miles from Manchester in an easterly direction on the main line, penetrate the Pennine range, and were driven through the millstone grit of which it is composed. The first tunnel was commenced in the spring of 1839 and was opened for traffic on 22nd December, 1845. The second was commenced in the spring of 1847, and opened for traffic on 2nd February, 1852. The length of the tunnels is 3 miles 13| lineal yards. Catesby tunnel, south of Rugby, is 1 mile 1,237 yards jn length. Bolsover Tunnel, Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast section, 1 mile 864 yds. Great Eastern Section.— Between Newmarket and Warren Hill (1,099 yards). Great Northern Section.—Ponsbourne, 2,686 yds. long, between Cuffley and Hertford; Queensbury, 2,501yds.; Leesmoor, 1,533 yds.; Potter’s Bar, 1,214 yds.; Mapperley, 1,192 yds.; Clayton, 1.057 yds.; and Welwyn North, 1,046 yds. Great North of Scotland Section.—Hutcheon Street, 269 yds North British Section.—Between Edinburgh (Waverley) and Haymarket, two double line tunnels, one 1,009 yds. in length and the other 992 yds. in length ; Cal ton (Edinburgh), two double line tunnels, one 398 yds. and the other 475 yds.; Whitrope (Riccarton), 1,208 yds.; Cowlairs (Glasgow), 1,001 yds.; Falkirk, 845 yds.; Glenfarg, two tunnels, one 506 yds. and the other 516 yds.; Dock Street (Dundee), 628 yds.

Gravitation Yards.— Great Central Section.—There are three gravitation yards, viz., Dunford, Wath and Annesley. Wath yard lies between Barnsley and Mexboro and deals with traffic in both directions; the yard is on the “Hump” principle. Dunford yard lies immediately east of Dunford Bridge Station and is on the up side of the line. The whole of this yard is on a gradient. Annesley yard lies on the down 'side of the line between Sheffield and Nottingham and provides for traffic in both directions. This yard is not on the hump system but is on a falling gradient throughout. Great Northern Section.—There is one gravitation yard on this section, situated at Colwick, near Nottingham. The yard is on both sides of the line and deals with both up and down traffic. Great Eastern Section.— Whitemoor New up yard, situated immediately north of March. This yard deals with traffic from the North and Midlands to the Eastern Counties. It is built on the “ Hump ” principle, and is equipped with Frdlich wheel brakes, the first installation of its kind in Great Britain, and illuminated by means of flood lighting. The Down Marshalling Yard at Temple Mills, Stratford, has been converted into a gravitation yard on the “Hump ” principle and illuminated by flood lighting. This yard deals with traffic from London depots and the South. North Eastern Area.—Shildon, where a heavy mineral traffic is handled. The yard at Shildon is built on a natural gradient and is one of the oldest gravitation yards in the country. Other yards where the principle of gravitation is employed are at Newport, Stockton, York, Gascoigne Wood and Hull. North British Section.—There is a gravitation yard at Cadder on the Edinburgh and Glasgow main line, about five miles from Glasgow.

Summit Levels.—Great Central Section.—The end of Woodhead Tunnel near Dunford Bridge, 966 feet above sea level. North Eastern Area.— Between Barras and Spital on the Darlington and Penrith line, 1,370 ft. above sea level. Great Eastern Section.—Between Epping and North Weald, 340 ft. above Ordnance datum. Great Northern Section.—Between Thornton
and Denholme, 877 ffc. above sea level. The summit level on the main line is at Stoke, between Corby and Great Ponton, and is 345 ft. above sea level. Great North of Scotland Section.—Between Nethybridge and Boat of Garten, 702 ft. above sea level. North British Section.—Between Corrour and Tulloch, 1,350 ft. above sea level.
Water Troughs are situate between Lucker and Belford, between Northallerton and Danby Wiske, near Charwelton and Killamarsh stations, between Bentley and Ipswich, between Burston and Tivetshall; at Langley, between Knebworth and Stevenage; at Werrington Junction, north of Peterborough ; north of the River Trent between Newark and Carlton ; and between Scrooby and Bawtry.

Steepest Gradients.—North Eastern Area.—The steepest gradient worked by passenger engines is at Kelloe Bank, between Ferryhill and Hartlepool, where there is an incline of 1 in 36 for | of a mile ; other heavy inclines occur at Seaton Bank, between Sunderland and Hartlepool (1 in 39 and 1 in 44), and on the Scarborough and Whitby Railway (1 in 39 for 3 miles, near Ravenscar). There is a very notable climb between Kirkby Stephen and Barnard Castle—725 ft. in 8J miles, on the Westmorland side of Stainmoor. On the mineral lines in the county of Durham, and in the Cleveland District, there are several steep inclines, either self-acting or worked by stationary engines. Of these the Ingleby Incline, near Battersby Junction, in Yorkshire, is the most remarkable ; the incline rises 570 ft. in 1,000 yards—a gradient of 1 in 5|. On the Hull and Barnsley Section.—1 in 50 for 12| chains at Hull, falling towards Hull. Great Central Section.—1 in 35 on the Brymbo branch. The steepest gradient on a goods or mineral line is 1 in 22 on the Bryn Malley colliery branch. Great Eastern Section.—1 in 71 at Bethnal Green, falling towards Bishopsgate, for 32 chains. Great Northern Section.—1 in 40 to 1 in 50, from Drighlington to Batley West, for a length of over 3 miles ; 1 in 49, Lofthouse North to Lofthouse East; 1 in 50, Armley to Holbeck; Woodkirk to Batley West; Dudley Hill to Lowmoor ; Laisterdyke to Bradford; Thackley to Shipley. Great North of Scotland Section.—Near Rothes, 1 in 50 for 1^ miles. North British Section.— Commonhead Incline, 1 in 23 for 440 yards; and the Causewayend Incline, 1 in 23 for 860 yards. Other severe gradients include the following :—On the Commonhead Incline, 1 in 26 for 380 yards; 1 in 27 for 550 yards; 1 in 31 for 650 yards ; the Cowlairs Incline (1 in 50 for 108 yards, 1 in 44 for 335 yards, 1 in 42 for 1,624 yards). Waverley Station and St. Margarets, 1 in 78 for 1 mile 333 yards; on the line from Edinburgh to Carlisle, between Hardengreen and Tynehead, 1 in 70 for 7 miles 1,480 yards ; between Hardengreen and Hawthomden, 1 in 53 for 2 miles 1,688 yards ; on the line from Queen Street to Helensburgh, between Bowling and Kilpatrick, 1 in 91 for 1,200 yards; on the West Highland line, between Garelochhead and Arrochar and Tarbet, 1 in 52 for 1 mile; between Rannoch and Corrour, 1 in 53 for 1 mile 880 yards; on the line from Edinburgh to Dundee, between North Queensferry and Inverkeithing, 1 in 70 for 1 mile 1,342 yards; on the Montrose and Bervie line, between North Water Bridge and St. Cyrus, 1 in 50 for 1 mile 1,548 yards ; on the line from Edinburgh to Perth, between Glenfarg and Bridge of Earn, 1 in 74 for 2 miles 1,500 yards. The steepest gradient worked by goods and mineral trains only is 1 in 21 for a distance of 600 yards, at Kirkcaldy, falling towards Kirkcaldy Harbour.

Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Works.—North Eastern Area.—Locomotive Works at Darlington and Gateshead, Carriage and Wagon Works at York and Heaton, and Wagon Works at Shildon and Darlington. Great Central Section.—Locomotive Works are situate at Gorton, near Manchester, and the Carriage and Wagon shops at Dukinfield, near Manchester. Great Eastern Section.—Locomotive and Carriage Works at Stratford, London, and the Wagon Works at Temple Mills, near Stratford. Great Northern Section.— Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Works at Doncaster. Great North of Scotland Section.— Inverurie. North British Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Works at Cowlairs,
near Glasgow.
Principal Locomotive Depots, Locomotive Districts, etc.—Southern Area.— Gorton, Wrexham; Sheffield, Retford, Staveley, Barnsley; Col wick, Derby, Annesley, Leicester, Langwith Junction; Lincoln, Immingham, Grimsby, New Holland, Keadby, Louth, Tuxford; Neasden, Woodford; King’s Cross, Hatfield, Hitchin, Hornsey; Peter- boro’ (New England), Peterboro’ Bast, Stamford, Boston, Wainfleet, Spilsby, Grantham, Sleaford ; Doncaster, Mexboro’; Ardsley, Leeds (Copley Hill), Bradford, Ingrow, Holmfield ; Norwich, Yarmouth South Town, Yarmouth Vauxhall, Swaffham, Wells, Lowestoft, Cromer, Beedes, Dereham; Cambridge, King’s Lynn, Bly, Bishops Stortford, Saffron Walden, Ramsey, Thaxted, Stoke Ferry, Hunstanton, Huntingdon, Wisbech, March; Ipswich, Parkeston, Colchester, Bury St. Edmunds, Hadleigh, Brightlingsea, Framlingham, Kelveden, Eye, Haverhill, Halstead, Clacton, Maldon, Walton-on-Naze, Aidburgh, Braintree. Sudbury, Felixstowe, Laxfield ; Stratford, Ilford, Brentwood, Chelmsford, Southend, Southminster, Wickford, Epping, Ongar, Hertford, Buntingford, Wood Street, Enfield, Palace Gates. North Eastern Area.—Gateshead, Heaton, York, Leeds (Neville Hill), Hull (Dairycoates), Middlesbrough, Tyne Dock, West Hartlepool, Shildon, Sunderland, Darlington, Hull (Springhead), Tweedmouth, Percy Main, Stockton and Selby. Great North of Scotland Section,—Kittybrewster, Keith and Elgin. North British Section.—Edinburgh (St. Margarets and Haymarket), Glasgow (Eastfield and Parkhead), Coatbridge (Kipps), Dundee, Thornton, Carlisle, Ferryhill, Dunfermline, Polmont, Bathgate, Hawick, Stirling, Burntisland and Perth. These are not numbered, neither are the engines attached specially indicated.
Permanent Way.—Main Line : 95 lbs. B.B.S. rails in 60 ft. lengths on 20,10 in. by 5 in. sleepers, and 2, 12 in. by 6 in. joint sleepers. Standard 46 lbs. middle and 53 lbs. joint chairs and standard fishplates are used. Branch Lines: 85 lbs. R.B.S. rails in 45 ft. lengths, on 18, 10 in. by 5 in. sleepers, and 40 lbs. standard chairs 90 ft. rail lengths are being tried.

Colours of Engines and Rolling Stock.—With the exception of the “Pacific,” “Atlantic,” “Shire” and “Sandringham” classes, which are painted green, all locomotives are now painted black, passenger engines with red lining, varnished teak for coaching stock. For easy identification various types of London and North Eastern freight rolling stock are now painted different colours, e.g., ordinary wagons are grey ; end door wagons, grey with a white diagonal stripe ; refrigerator vans, white ; other wagons fitted with automatic brake or pipe, red; service vehicles, blue; and dock use wagons, green. The initials “N. E.” appear on all wagons. Ends of coaching stock, except corridor stocks, painted black.
Renumbering of Locomotives and Rolling Stock.—N. E. R. (and new) locomo fives—1-3,000 ; G. N.R.—3,001-5,000 ; G. C. R—5,001-6,800 ; G. N. S.R.—6,801-7,000 ; G.E.R. —7,001-9,000; N. B. R.—9,001-11,000. A numerical prefix is added to the number on carriages and vans ; 1 indicates East Coast ; 2, N.E.; 3, N.B.; 4, G.N.; 5, G.C.; 6, G.E.; 7,G.N. ofS. Special ranges of numbers are used for horseboxes and carriage trucks. The numbers of the old N.E. wagons have been retained; late G. N. wagons are having 400,000 added to their original numbers; G. C., 500,000; G. B., 600,000 ; N. B., 700,000 ; and G. N. of S., 800,000. The space between 120,000 (the last old N. E. number) and 400,001 (the first G. N. number) has been left for new building.

Brake.—Vacuum on late G. N., G. C. and H. and B. Rys.; Westinghouse on late N. B G. E. and G. N. of S. Rys., while the North British had both systems in use. On all sections there are also engines, carriages, and wagons fitted with brake equipment on the alternative system. The vacuum brake is being fitted as the standard for the entire system.
‘‘ The Plying Scotsman.”—As from 1st May, 1928, and for the duration of the summer service, and also during the period of the summer time table 1929, 1930, and 1931, the “ down ” and “ up ” “ Flying Scotsman ” was run non-stop between King’s (jross and Edinburgh, a distance of 392 miles, this accomplishment being possible by the provision on the tenders of the engines of a corridor through which, when the journey was approximately half completed, a fresh driver and fireman passed to take control. A number of travel innovations were also introduced for the first time on a railway train in this country, a fully-equipped hairdressing saloon in the charge of a competent hairdresser being available. Accommodation was also provided for a ladies’ retiring room, in the care of an experienced attendant, where perfumery and other toilet articles were on sale. Newspapers and periodicals can also be purchased from the attendant on the train.
Pullman Trains.—A Pullman train composed entirely of first and third class Pullman cars with restaurant, was first placed in service July, 1923, to serve Leeds (non-stop to and from London), Bradford, Harrogate, Ripon, Darlington, and Newcastle. From July, 1925, the train was extended to serve Berwick and Edinburgh, and from September, 1925, the train was divided, the Harrogate and Edinburgh Pullman ceasing to serve Leeds and Bradford and running direct to Harrogate (non-stop to and from London) via Church Fenton ; and a new West Riding Pullman instituted to serve Leeds (non-stop from London) and Bradford. Since September, 1926, the West Riding Pullman has served Wakefield (Westgate), at which point a through portion is detached and run forward to Bradford and Halifax. On the return journey the train started from Harrogate and joined up at Wakefield (Westgate) with the through portion from Halifax and Bradford, and ran non stop to London. Commencing May, 1928, the Harrogate-Edinburgh Pullman was named “ The Queen of Scots,” ran via Leeds (Central), and was extended to and from Glasgow. The West Riding Pullman was extended from Leeds to Harrogate, and in July was further extended to and from Newcastle. Additional Sunday Pullman car trains were also instituted between London and Harrogate, via Leeds (non-stop between London and Leeds), with through portion to and from Bradford, and named “ The Harrogate Sunday Pullman.”
First-class Pullman Cars are also run on the Continental trains to and from Liverpool Street. During the summer months a special 1st and 3rd class Pullman Car express is run on Sundays between London (Liverpool Street) and Clacton-on-Sea.
A series of Pullman “ Excursions-de-Luxe” known as “The Eastern Belle Pullman, Limited” have been run during the summer months June to September inclusive, since June, 1929. The train runs from London (Liverpool Street) to and from a different resort on the
East Coast each. day except Saturdays. The places served are Aldeburgh, Clacton, Cromer, Dovercourt Bay, Felixstowe, Frinton, Heacham, Hunstanton, Lowestoft, North Walsham, Sheringham, Skegness, Thorpeness, Wroxham, Yarmouth. West Runton, Walton- on-Naze. The train is formed entirely of first and third class Pullman cars. Meals are served throughout the train without the necessity for passengers to change their seats.
Restaurant Cars run on all principal and many secondary trains on all sections. On certain sections cars utilising electric cooking appliances are in service, some of which are of Gresley ” articulated type. Continental trains from and to Liverpool Street station have 1st and 2nd class restaurant cars ; other services, 1st and 3rd class. See page 27.
Sleeping Cars.—First-Class Sleeping Cars, some of " Gresley’’ twin type, are run on the night brains between London (King’s Cross) and Scotland. Third-Class Sleeping Cars have, as from September 24th, 1928, also been run on certain of the night trains between London (King’s Cross) and Scotland; and on some of the standard services both restaurant and sleeping cars are provided for sections of the journey. See page 28.

Steam Rail Coaches.—There are 87 steam rail coaches and 8 trailers of the Sentinel Camniell and Clayton types-now in operation on the L.N.E.R. The coaches are painted green and cream, and are named after the various stage coaches which ran before railways were constructed.
Wireless on Trains.—On Monday, 24th November, 1930, a quintuple dining car set was put into the Leeds express service from King’s Cross at 10.10 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. Leeds to King’s Cross fitted for the reception of wireless programme by means of headphones. Both the first and third class dining saloons and the adjacent passenger compartments in the first and third class brake vehicles were specially wired and fitted with sockets into which headphones can be plugged, so that passengers can listen-in to the B.B.C. National Programme broadcast from Daveniry. The restaurant car attendants supply the headphones on payment of one shilling for the throughout journey.
Containers for Rail Traffic.—The use of containers for rail transport enables door-to-door transit to be given, eliminating intermediate handling. Breakage and pilferage are minimized and packing is saved, together with the labour incidental thereto. Also the return of empties is obviated. The L.N.E.R. has in service a considerable number of open and covered containers, ^ome of the latter being ventilated and equipped with removable shelves for the conveyance of fruit and other perishables, others are insulated for carrying imported nieat and a number are specially adapted for conveyance on steamers.
Railhead Depots.—The Company has developed a system of railhead depots for the despatch of goods in bulk, at correspondingly cheap rates, for re-delivery either by rail, or, within a good radius from the store, by road. This scheme reduces packing costs, labour charges, accelerates transit, and ensures delivery of goods in a fresh condition. The Company is pleased to consider the adaptation of existing premises or new erections to meet special requirements, and. in fact, has a scheme for the erection of a standard type of railhead building which can be provided at short notice. Uncovered storage accommodation is available at most stations on the system.
Conveyance of Milk.—Since December, 1928, large quantities of milk, formerly conveyed between Staffordshire and London in churns, have been conveyed in glass-lined tanks.
The tanks are mounted on four-wheeled underframes, and are of 2,000 and 3,000 gallon capacity.
Ticket Issuing Offices.—A ticket issuing and collecting office of the Passimeter type was first introduced at Muswell Hill Station in November, 1927. Similar offices have since been installed at Wood Green, Winchmore Hill, Gordon Hill, Highgate, High Barnet, London Fields, Stoke Newington, Stratford (Angel Lane), Coborn Road, Stamford Hill, Cambridge Heath, Buckhnrst Hill, Ilford West, Hatfield, Derby, Nottingham (London Road), Guide Bridge and Manors Bast Stations.

Education of Employees.—By arrangement with the various Universities in England and Scotland, courses of lectures on railway operating, economics, law and geography are given at most of the principal centres on the system. Classes conducted by members of the staff are held at numerous centres for instruction in railway accounts, signalling, etc. In connection with signalling, a school with modern model signal layout, etc., has been opened at York for the training of men engaged in connection with the installation and maintenance of signal and telegraph appliances, etc ; this school is also used by the operating staff for lectures on block signalling, etc. Examinations in all these subjects :ire held at the end of the session, and first, second and third class certificates are awarded to successful candidates.
Technical instruction is also given at evening and part-time day classes at certain centres on the system, notably at the Great Eastern Institute at Stratford, which was established in the year 1851, and was the first institute of its kind in the eastern part of London. In the Mechanical Engineering Department the best students have the opportunity of competing for a limited number of students’scholarships, tenable for two or three years. The successful students attend one or other of the University or Engineering Colleges, and spend the college vacations in the workshops. They pay the college fees, but draw their wages just as if they were on duty. Instruction vans, equipped with models of locomotive parts, have been provided on certain sections of the line, and are accompanied by Inspectors, who deliver lectures to enginemen at locomotive depots.
The Company has a scheme of Traffic Apprenticeships, under which members of the staff may qualify by competitive examinations for obtaining specialised training in branches of railway work. A limited number of men of outstanding ability from Public Schools and Universities are also selected for appointment as Traffic Apprentices.
There are Mutual Improvement Classes and Debating and Literary Societies at numerous points on the system.
Staff Magazine.—A monthly All-Line Magazine, entitled “ The London and North Eastern Railway Magazine,” was inaugurated in January, 1927. Although the magazine contains a good deal of information relating to the social side of railway life, the inclusion of articles of railway educative value is not lost sight of, and articles regularly appear therein bearing on various aspects of railway working.
Railway Museum.—In the Railway Museum at York are preserved railway relics including early engines, signalling apparatus and permanent way material, as well as prints manuscripts, etc. Among the engines preserved are George Stephenson’s “ Hetton ” (built 1822), “ The Stirling No. 1,” single driver express passenger engine (built 1870), and the old L. B.&S.C. Ry. ‘‘Gladstone” (built 1882). The world’s first iron railway bridge (1825) has been re-erected in the museum. A special room is devoted to the “ Briggs Collection.”
London and North Eastern Railway Musical Society was formedin 1908 at the instigation of the late Col. Wm. Johnson Galloway, a director of the Company. The President is Mr. W. Whitelaw, Chairman of the Board, and the Deputy President Lord Faringdon, C.H., Deputy Chairman of the Board. In the first instance an Orchestra and Male Voice Choir were formed in the London District, but commencing with the season 1919-20, choirs were established also at Cambridge, Ipswich and Norwich. Since 1923 choirs have been formed at King’s Lynn, Grimsby, York, Peterborough, Doncaster and Lincoln ; the choir now consists of some 350 voices. The object of this Society is to foster and develop the study of music, and for this purpose capable professors are appointed at the several centres. A matter very closely watched is that the instruction given shall be on correct lines so that a high artistic standard may be attained, to which end many free scholarships have been awarded for the violin, viola, ’cello and other instruments. Concerts are given each season in the Hamilton Hall of the Liverpool Street Station Hotel; occasionally at other centres on the system; at hospitals and various institutions, and by the orchestra and combined choirs twice a year. The Orchestra numbers 100, and is unique as an amateur body in that it is entirely self-contained, and does not have to rely on professional help in any of the sections.
The North British Railway Musical Association.—Inaugurated 1922. Hon. President, W. Whitelaw, Chairman of the Board; Hon. Vice-President, James Calder, General Manager, Scotland; Conductor, Archibald Russell; Hon. Secretary, John A. Lamont, Superintendent’s Office, Southern Scottish Area, Waverley Station, Edinburgh. The Association meets for the purpose of the study of choral music. Concerts are given during the season in the Usher Hall, Edinburgh. Performances are also given at various points in the Scottish A.rea on behalf of charitable and other organisations connected with the service.
Funds, Institutes, etc., for the Staff.—North Eastern Area,—Institutes at York, Gateshead, Shildon, Darlington, Newcastle, Hull, etc., containing libraries, reading and recreation rooms. Recreation grounds at numerous points, the most extensive being at Darlington, where there is an Athletic Club comprising 2,700 members. There is also at York a well equipped gymnasium with a membership of 500.
Southern Area.—Institutes at Stratford and Doncaster, libraries at King’s Cross, Liverpool Street, etc.; recreation grounds at numerous points, the most important being the Great Northern Athletic Association’s ground at Gordon Hill, Enfield, the Great Eastern Athletic Association’s ground at Loughton, and the Great Central ground at Sudbury.
Scottish Area.—Inverurie Institute and Recreation Park (library, reading room, billiard rooms, football, cricket, bowling, etc.); Riccarton Institute (library, reading room, bowling, etc.); libraries at Cowlairs and St. Margarets.

Savings Bank in connection with each depositors amounting to approximately
The North Eastern Railway Cottage Homes and Benefit Fund was started in 1919* Under this scheme 235 cottages have already been built for the benefit of retired or disabled servants and their dependents. The Fund has also a relief section, which up to date, has paid out the sum of £39,492.
Three approved housing societies have been formed with the Company’s assistance and have erected over 800 houses in the North Eastern Area.
Lantern Slides.—Lent without payment and conveyed free by rail. These slides include picturesque views of cathedrals, places of historical interest, fishing, yacht racing the Railway Museum, York, and of the Continent.
Canals.—Derwent Navigation, 39 miles long, authorised 1701, taken over 1855 ; Pocklington Canal, 9^ miles long, authorised 1815, taken over 1847 ; Ripon and Boroughbridge Canal, lOJ miles long, authorised 1767, taken over 1845 ; Ashton, 17| miles in length, con- Btructed under Acts of 1791 and 1792, taken over by railway in 1848; Peak Forest, 15^ miles in length, constructed under Act of 1794, taken over by railway in 1846 ; Macclesfield, 26^ miles in length, constructed under Act of 1826, taken over by railway in 1846 ; Chesterfield, 45^ miles in length, constructed under 4ct of 1771, taken over by railway in 1846 ; Edinburgh and Glasgow Union, length 3I5 miles, opened 1822, taken over by Act of 1865. The following canals were leased oy the G. N. Ry. :—Nottingham, 143 miles long, constructed 1792, taken over by railway 1861. Grantham, 33 miles long, constructed 1793, taken over by railway 1861. Witham, 31| miles long, taken over by railway, 1846. Fossdyke Navigation (leased jointly by G. N. & G. E. Joint Committee 1882), 11J miles long, taken over by railway 1846 Haddiscoe Cut, 2^ miles.
Hotels Owned and Worked.— Aberdeen (‘‘Palace” and “Station”); Bradford (“Great Northern Victoria”); Cruden Bay (“ Cruden Bay”); Edinburgh (“North British Station”); Felixstovve (“ Felix ”); Glasgow (“North British Station ”) ; Grimsby (“Yarborough”); Grimsby Docks (“ Royal”); Hull (“Royal Station”); Hunstanton (“Sandringham”); Leeds (“Great Northern Station”); London (“ Great Eastern,” Liverpool Street; “Great Northern Station,” King’s Cross); Newcastle-on-Tyne (“Royal Station”); New Holland (“Yarborough”); Parkeston (“Great Eastern”), Perth (“Perth Station,” jointly owned with London Midland and Scottish Railway); Peterborough (“Great Northern Station”); Saltburn-by-the-Sea (“Zetland”); Sheffield (“Royal Victoria Station ”) ; West Hartlepool (“ Grand”) ; York (“Royal Station”).
Hotels Owned but not Worked.—Burntisland (“Royal”); Dalkeith (“Harrow Inn”) ; Fort Augustus (“Lovat Arms and Station Hotel”); Glasgow (“ Ivanhoe”) ; Harwich (“Great Eastern Hotel”) (closed); Lincoln (“Great Northern Station”); Linlithgow (‘ Star and Garter”); St. Neots (“Station”).

Docks, Harbours, etc.
England.—Cleetliorpes.—The pier at Cleethorpes is owned by the L. & N. E. Rly. Company. It is about a quarter of a mile in length and possesses a cafe and large pavilion, in which concerts and dances are arranged during the season. Adjoining the pier are swimming and slipper baths and gardens, which, together with the Northern Promenade, are also owned by the railway company.
Grimsby Docks,—Grimsby, the premier fishing port in the world, owes its prosperity to the enterprise of the late Great Central Ry. It is also an important centre for ooal, timber and general shipping trade, for each of which special provision is made. The first attempt to improve the natural harbour was in 1801, when the so-called Old Dock was opened. This dock was constructed by a private company, which afterwards sold it to the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire (late Great Central) Railway Company. In 1846 the Royal Dock was commenced, and completed in 1852. In 1872 the Alexandra and Union Docks were added, and the Old Dock deepened, this work being completed in 1879. There are two fish docks with an area of 29 acres, equipped with graving and floating or pontoon dry docks, extensive wharves, herring slip, etc.; huge ice and fish-curing factories abound, and a new fish dock is to be built adjoining these, with a separate entrance lock. When completed the fish docks will have accommodation practically double that of to-day. The Grimsby docks are splendidly equipped to meet all demands. For the coal trade, two coal drops and three hydraulic coal hoists have been erected. On the quays and in the sheds are fifty-five fixed and portable hydraulic, electric, steam and hand cranes and hoists, having a lifting capacity vary ing from 5 cwt. to 60 tons. The Company’s wharves are 28,162 ft. in length. The total covered area alongside the quays is 583,000 square ft. There are also many bonded stores, and storage warehouses sufficient to meet all requirements. Royal Dock (25 acres)—Large Lock, length 295 ft., width 70 ft.; Small Lock, length 197 ft., width 45 ft. Union Dock (1^ acres), length 230 ft., width 44 ft. 4 ins. Alexandra Dock (49 acres). No. 1 Fish Dock (18 acres)— Large Lock, length 143 ft., width 34 ft. 9 ins. ; Small Lock, length 139 ft., width 28ft. 6 in. ; No. 2 Pish Dock (16 acres); Pontoon (Dry) Dock, No. 2 Fish Dock, for fishing craft is 116 ft. 8 in. long and 15 ft. deep; No. 1 Graving Dock, Royal Dock, length 398 ft. 3 in., entrance 69 ft. 6ins.; No. 2 Graving Dock, Fish Docks, length 400 ft., entrance 28 ft.; No. 3 Graving Dock, Fish Docks, length 450 ft., entrance 35 ft. 3 ins. Certain important dock alterations are now being carried out, which will have the effect of greatly improving the facilities in the near future.

Immingham Dock.—The Immingham King’s Dock was formally opened by their Majesties the King and Queen on 22nd July, 1912. This work is one of the largest ever carried out as a single undertaking. The entrance lock is 840 ft. long and 90 ft. wide, with a depth on sill at M.H.W.S. of 47 ft. 11 ins., whilst the depth at M.L.W.S. is 28 ft. 2 ins. The Dock consists of a central basin 1,100 feet square, with two long arms running parallel to one another on the western side. The total area of the water space amounts to about 45 acres, including a timber pond of 6 acres. There are two commercial quays situated on the north-eastern side of the Dock, each of which is fully equipped with double luffing power cranes from 2 to 10 tons capacity. These quays are used principally for dealing with general cargoes taken by regular liners sailing to the Far East, etc. On the Mineral Quay situated on the northern side of the south-west arm there are eight 3-ton and eight 5-ton hydraulic cranes of the double power luffing gantry type, whilst at the end of this quay is situated a 50-ton luffing jib crane. This quay is used for dealing with Iron Ore, Pig Iron, Tinplate Bars, Sawn Timber, Pit Props, etc. On the southwest arm (Coal Quay) there are seven hydraulic _ coal hoists, each capable of shipping at the rate of 700 tons per hour. No. 7 Hoist is movable, and working in conjunction with No. 6 Hoist enables vessels to be loaded in two holds at the same time. Each hoist is served by a group of six or eight gravity sidings. Each siding accommodates forty 10-ton wagons, making a total of 240 to 320 loaded wagons for each hoist respectively. Coal storage sidings are provided, capable of holding from 150,000 to 170,000 tons of coal, and empty sidings for about 5,500 wagons. A Granary has been provided with a capacity of 15,000 tons, equipped with a marine elevator capable of discharging vessels at the rate of 150 tons per hour. Excellent storage accommodation is provided at the Dock, and in addition to the Granary there is a Wool Warehouse, capacity 40,000 bales, Bonded Stores, etc. The Dock area in all totals 1,000 acres, giving ample accommodation for the storage of Deals, Battens and Boards, Pit Props, Mining Timber, Iron Ore, etc. Two jetties have been constructed on either side of the entrance to the dock. The Eastern Jetty during the summer season is used by luxurious liners for a series of cruises to the North Cape, Northern Capitals and beautiful fjords of Norway. On the Western Jetty a coal hoist has been erected for the shipment of bunker and cargo coal, forming an exceptional bunkering depot which enables vessels to replenish their bunkers without entering the dock. There is an electric tramway connecting Immingham and Grimsby, and also frequent services of trains to and from Killingholme, New Holland and Hull, etc., right up to the lock gates. There is a Graving Dock 740 ft. long, divided by a caisson, making the inner length 410 ft. and outer 310 ft. Width at entrance, 56 ft.; and on blocks, 57 ft. 6 ins., with a depth of 22 ft. of water on the blocks. Inquiries to be made from the Humber Graving Dock and Engineering Company, Ltd.

Hartlepool Docks.—These docks were acquired in 1865. They have a water area of 103| acres, exclusive of West Harbour, 35 acres; and there are 45 acres of timber ponds; land area, 150 acres. A very large timber import traffic is carried on.
Harwich and Parkestou Quay.—The London and North Eastern Railway has piers and quays at Harwich and Parkeston. The quay at Parkeston is 2,8C0 ft. in length and has a depth of water alongside varying from 16 ft. to 20 ft. at L.W.O.S.T. The quay is served by electric cranes varying in lifting capacity from 30 cwts. to 30 tons. On the quay are three tranship sheds served internally by electric cranes. A covered way leads direct from the station platform to the quay, and included in the station buildings is the Parkeston hotel. The coaling of the railway company’s vessels is carried out by an electrically driven coaling plant. Customs sheds and warehouses are provided on the quay and in the vicinity. Services using the quay are those by L.N.E.R. steamers to Hook of Holland, Antwerp, Rotterdam and Zeebrugge, Zeeland S.S. Company’s boats to Flushing, and United Steamship Co. of Copenhagen steamers to Esbjerg. At Harwich there are passenger and cargo pien. The passenger pier is used for the ferry boat service between Harwich, Shotley, and Felixstowe, and the summer steamboat service between Ipswich and Harwich. The cargo pier is served by a 30-cwt. electric travelling crane and a 10-ton hand crane. The depth of water at the head of the pier is 10 ft. at L.W.O.S.T. A train ferry service between Harwich and Zeebrugge was inaugurated April 24th, 1924.

Hull Docks.—The whole of the docks are the property of the London and North Eastern Railway, and have a river frontage of over 7 miles, with a total water area of 220 acres. The Town Docks were acquired from the Hull Dock Company by the North Eastern Railway Company in 1893. Water space, about 140 acres; quay space, 280 acres. There are eight docks; also a riverside quay, 2,598 ft. in length, with sufficient depth of water at all states of the tide for ships of moderate draught. Depth of water on Albert and William Wright Dock sill varies from 29 ft. to 21 ft. 2 ins. Alexandra Dock : water space, 63| acres ; length of quays, 2^ miles. Entrance Lock : length, 550 ft. ; width, 85 ft.; depth of water on sill, 34 ft. H.W.O.S.T. and 28 ft. H.W.O.N.T. Graving Docks : No. 1, length on floor, 500 ft.; width of entrance, 60 ft.; No. 2, length on floor, 550 ft.; width of entrance, 65 ft. River Pier: The Company’s River Pier on the Humber runs westward from the entrance of the Alexandra Docks, with a minimum depth of water alongside of 18 ft. at low water spring tides, enabling vessels to load or discharge cargo and passengers at any state of the tide. In addition, the King George Dock, jointly constructed by the North Eastern and Hull and Barnsley Railway Companies, was opened June, 1914, and has a water space of 63 acres. The Entrance Lock, which is 750 ft. long and 85 ft. wide, possesses three sets of gates, and provides at H.W.O.S.T. 42| ft. of water on the outer sill and 39J ft, on the inner sill ; at L.W.O.S.T. there is a depth of water on the sill of 19^ ft. The equipment includes two Graving Docks, 550 ft. and 460 ft. in length, with entrances 72 ft. and 66 ft. wide respectively, and having a minimum depth of water on the sills of 22 ft.; coaling appliances, consisting of electric belt conveyors and hydraulic hoists; 64 electric cranes; warehouses and open storage, and a grain silo. The North Eastern and Hull and Barnsley Railway Companies constructed a deep-water oil jetty at Salt End (to the east of King George Dock, Hull), which extends 1,500 ft. into the River Humber; and in 1928 the London and North Eastern Railway Company added a second similar jetty, with a length of 1,900 ft. The largest vessels can discharge oil, petrol and other inflammable spirits at this jetty, and there are 120 acres of land available for storage purposes. In close proximity to the jetties the Railway Company own an estate of over 1,000 acres, which has been allocated for industrial development.

Lowestoft Harbour,—Lowestoft is one of the principal fishing ports of the country. The area of tidal basins is 74 acres and the length of quays 11,118ft. There are tidal docks for the trawl and herring fishery with markets and offices alongside. The depth alongside the quays is 11 ft. at L.W.O.S.T. In the Inner Harbour there is a dry dock with a width of entrance of 48 ft. and a length on the blocks of 250 ft. There are also patent slips with a length of cradle of 100 ft. for 90 ft. keel; one with cradles 68 ft. long and one with cradles 71 ft. long. In addition to the fishing traffic, timber, oil, ice and general cargoes are regularly dealt with. Three tugs are stationed in the harbour for the convenience of vessels. The South Pier of the harbour, also owned by the London and North Eastern Railway Company, is used as a promenade, and during the summer season first-class military bands perform in the open-air bandstand. There are luncheon and fully licensed refreshment rooms on the Pier, and facilities are provided for dancing on the Pier deck and in the Pavilion.
Middlesbrough DocIc.—OpQxiQd 1842. Has water area of 25J acres. Depth of water on sill, 32 ft. at H.W.O.S.T. Has large export trade in manufactured iron and steel. Regular sailings for India, China, Japan, Siam, Australia, Canada, South America, U.S.A., Africa and Mediterranean and Black Seas.

Tyne Dock.—Opened in 1859. "Has a water area of 50 acres, exclusive of a tidal basin of 10 acres. Timber pond, 5 acres connected with dock itself, and about 16 acres outside; land area, 215 acres. Depth of water on sill, H.W.O.S.T., 33 ft. There are four staiths and 16 berths at which coal can be shipped, the maximum shipping height being 48 ft. 2 ins ; over 7 million tons of coal have been exported from this dock in one year. The principal imports are timber, grain, iron ore and wood pulp.
Silloth Harbour and Docks.—Silloth is situated on the Solway Firth in the County of Cumberland. There are a tidal harboar and dock covering over 10 acres. The docks are adequately equipped with coal hoist and cranes, and are conveniently situated for dealing with Irish and Isle of Man traffic. There is good shed accommodation. Silloth is an authorised landing place and lairage for live stock from Ireland.
Docks, harbours, wharves, etc., are also owned or leased at Connah’s Quay, Keadby, Limehouse, Lincoln, Marylebone, New Holland, Winteringham Haven, Holme, Derby, Surfleet, Boston, Wakefield, Gainsborough, Misterton, Chatteris, Poplar, Canning Town, Blackwall, North Greenwich, North Woolwich, Tollesbury, Wivenhoe, Mistley, Felixstowe, Oulton Broad, Yarmouth, Wells, Ipswich, Shotley, Edmonton, Bow, Outwell Basin, Littleport, Benwick, Barith Bridge, Maldon, Blaydon, Redheugh, and Selby.

Steamships (over 250 Tons 3Net).
Name. Date built. Builders. Engined by •Type. Accrington .. 1910 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw Amsterdam .. 1930 J. Brown & Co., Ltd. J. Brown & Co., Ltd. G.T. Antwerp 1920 J. Brown & Co., Ltd. J. Brown & Co., Ltd. G.T. Archangel 1910 J. Brown & Co., Ltd. J. Brown <fe Co., Ltd. T.T. Bruges 1920 J. Brown & Co., Ltd. J. Brown & Co., Ltd. G.T. Bury 1910 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw City of Bradford 1903 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw City of Leeds 1903 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw Cromer 1902 Gourlay Bros. & Co. Gouriay Bros. & Co. T.S. Dewsbury 1910 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw Felixstowe .. 1919 Hawthorns & Co., Ltd. .. Hawthorns & Co., Ltd. .. Screw Jeannie Deans 1931 S. & E. Fairfield & Co., Ltd. S. & E. Fairfield & Co., Ltd. Paddle Lutterworth .. 1891 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw Macclesfield .. 1914 Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Ltd. Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Ltd. Screw Malines 1922 Armstrong, Whitworth ife Co., Ltd. Wallsend Slipway and Engineering Co. G.T Marylebone .. 1906 Cammell, Laird & Co. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw Nottingham .. 1891 C. S. Swan & Hunter Wallsend Slipway Co. Screw Prague 1930 J. Brown & Co., Ltd. J. Brown & Co., Ltd. G.T. St. Denis 1908 J. Brown & Co., Ltd. J. Brown & Co., Ltd. T.l Sheringham .. 1926 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw Staveley 1891 C. S. Swan & Hunter West garth, English & Co. Screw Stockport 1911 Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Earle’s Shipbuilding Co. .. Screw Vienna .. .. 1929
1 J.Brown & Co., Ltd. J. Brown & Co., Ltd. G.T. * G.T., Geared Turbines ; T.S., Twin Screw; T.T^ Triple Turbines,

Scotland.—The L. N. E. R. Company are also owners of a large number of docks, harbours and piers in Scotland, among which are Alloa, Bo’ness, Bowling (Frisky Wharf), Burntisland, Charlestown, Craigendoran, Kincardine, Mallaig, Methil, Silloth, and Tayport.
Methil Docks^ Pifeshire.—Methil is an important port on the Firth of Forth, and the main outlet for the shipment trade of the Fifeshire coalfield. There are three docks, with a total water area of 27| acres and a total shipping capacity of over 7,000,000 tons of coal per annum. The new dock (No. 3), which was constructed at a cost of about £750,000, was opened for traffic in January, 1913. In addition to coal export, facilities are afforded for dealing with import traffic in timber, esparto grass, china clay, etc. There is ample shed and warehouse accommodation, and the total length of the dock sidings and those in the adjacent Kirkland yard extend to 32 miles. The total area of the dock sites is 127 acres.
Burntisland Docks, Fifeshire.—The harbour and docks at Burntisland were originally the property of the Burntisland Harbour Commissioners. The undertaking was vested in the North British Railway Company (now merged in the L. N. E. R.) as from 15th May, 1922. The harbour is one of the best in the Firth of Forth, being easy of entrance under all circumstances
Trading between Length. Breadth. Depth. Gross
Tonnage. I.H.P. Speed. Passenger accommodation. Grimsby and Continental Ports Ft.
265 Ft.
36 Ft.
17.4 1,678 309 Knots per hr.
13 416 Harwich and Continental Ports 366 50 27.4 4,220 13,000 21 716 Harwich and Continental Ports 332 43 17.9 2,957 1,476 21 758 Harwich and Continental Ports 343 43 17.8 2,448 — 20 650 Harwich and Continental Ports 332 43 17.9 2,949 1,462 21 776 Grimsby and Continental Ports 265 36 17.4 1,683 309 13 420 Grimsby and Continental Ports 256.5 34.5 15.7 1,360 356 13 182 ?
Cargo (12 psrs.) 199*
Cargo (12 psrs.) Cargo only Grimsby and Continental Ports 256.5 34.5 15.7 1,361 356 13 Harwich and Continental Ports 254 31 15.3 812 201 13 Grimsby and Continental Ports 265 36 17.4 1,678 309 13 422 Harwich and Continental Ports 225 33 16 892 248 141 Cargo only Firth of Clyde Piers 250.5 30.1 8.75 635 2,200 181 1,715 Grimsby and Continental Ports 240.3 32.3 15.5 1,007 250 13 Cargo Grimsby and Continental Ports 250.1 34.2 16 1,018 278 13 (12 psrs.) Cargo Harwich and Continental Ports 337 43 25.7 2,969 1,525 211 (12 psrs.)
776 Grimsby and Continental Ports 270.2 41.1 20.3 2,082 398 13 425 Grimsby and Continental Ports 240.2 32 15 1,051 238 13 Cargo Harwich and Continental Ports 366 50 27.4 4,220 13,000 21 (12 psrs.)
716 Harwich and Continental Ports 343 43 17.8 2,435 1,325 20 696 Harwich and Continental Ports 265 36 17.2 1,088 14 Cargo only Grimsby and Continental Ports 240.2 32 15.8 1,047 244 13 Cargo Grimsby and Continental Ports 265 36 17.4 1,681 309 13 (12 psrs.)
418 Harwich and Continental Ports 366 50 27.4 4,220 13,000 21 716 ? In Summer months.

and having a good roadstead in front. There are two docks with powerful hydraulic coal hoists capable of dealing with large consignments of coal. Cranage facilities are also available and there is extensive shed accommodation.
Boness DocB.—Bo’ness is situated on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, in the County of Linlithgow. The harbour has a deep water area of 6 acres, with a quayage of 1,700 ft. The dock has a deep water area of 7 acres and the quayage measures 2,400 ft. There are 16 hydraulic cranes and 3 coal hoists. Bo’ness is the principal pitwood importing centre in Scotland, and is conveniently situated to the Lanarkshire and Fifeshire coalfields. The dock is admirably equipped for dealing with general cargo traffic, being in close proximity to Glasgow and other large industrial areas.
Steamships (see also tabular particulars on pages 134-5 and 137).—The London and North Eastern Bailway is interested in the ships run by the Hull and Netherlands S. S. Co., Ltd., between the Ports of Hull and Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Harlingen. The late North Eastern Railway possessed power to run boats between Hull and Dunkirk, Bruges, Ghent, Flushing, Zeebrugge, Antwerp, Delfzyl, Hamburg, Stettin, Danzig, Lubeck. Copenhagen, Aarhuus, and Stockholm. These powers have been exercised so far as Dunkirk, Ghent, Antwerp and Hamburg are concerned by The Wilsons and North Eastern Ry. Company, Ltd.

Steamships (under 250 Tons Wet).
(1) Great Central Section,
Name. Type. DIMENSIONS. Gross
Tonnage. Ind. Horse power Passenger or Cargo. Plying between Length. Beam Depth. Brocklesby .. Paddle. ft.
195-0 ft.
Sl’l ft.
8-7 508 1,000 Passenger Hull and New Killingholme.. 9, 195’0 31-1 8-7 508 1,000 Ferry Boat Holland.
n Cleethorpes .. 190-1 25-5 7-9 273 850 99 j> Frodingham T.S. 209-6 22-1 7-2 317-69 1,100 J • n Barton.. 96-0 19 123 370 Tender. Marple.. T.S. 91*0 20-1 8'5 123 320 Docks (Grimsby) and Bi ver Humber.
(2) Great Eastern Section,
Name. Type. Length. Beam. Registered Tonnage (Net). Indicated Horse Power. Passenger or Cargo. Trading between Epping .. Motor Boat 50 12 12 35 Passenger f Harwich, Hainault 99 51 13 11 35 99 < Shotley, Brightlingsea .. 99 68 16 24 80 99 (. Felixstowe.
(3) North British Section,

The London and North Eastern Ry., as successor to the North British Ry., is also part owner of the Loch Lomond Steamers. See L.M.S. Section.
See also ‘‘Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway,” “Cheshire Lines Committee,’’ “ Joint Railways,” “ Leased and Worked Railways,” etc.
The London and North Eastern Railway also operate certain Continental services jointly with the late Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (now London Midland and Scottish). The first steamship—the “City of Norwich,” belonging to the North of Europe Steamship Company—was dispatched from Grimsby Docks, with cargo to Hamburg, in May, 1852. In September, 1856, the North of Europe Steamship Company withdrew their boats, and a line of steamers was commenced by the Anglo-French Steamship Company. In 1864 the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway secured Parliamentary powers to run steamers to Hamburg, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Flushing, Lubeck, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Reval.Cronstadt, Petrograd and Konigsberg; and, purchasing the Anglo-French Company’s fleet of boats, started running steamers to Hamburg in July, 1865. In April, 1866, railway steamers commenced to run between Grimsby and Rotterdam, and in August of the following year the service was extended to Antwerp. Since then the steamer services of the G. C. Ry. were considerably developed, so that the company ranked among the leading carriers between England and Continental ports, while numerous other shipping companies ply to and from the docks at Grimsby. On 1st December, 1885, the sailings between Grimsby and Hamburg were increased from two ro four per week, and on 1st July, 1891, a daily servicenow a Royal Mail route—was established, Sundays excepted. In 1889 the Railway Company obtained an Act entitling them to run steamers between Grimsby and Gothenburg, Ghent, Amsterdam, Bremerhaven, Stettin, Danzig, Riga, Gefle, Malmo, Frederiksstad, Christiania, Drammen, Holmstrand, Arendal, Christiansand, Stavanger, Bergen, Drontheim, Esbjerg, and Frederikshaven. In addition to the services mentioned above regular lines ply between Grimsby Docks and Esbjerg, Gothenburg, Malmo, Halmstad, Oslo, Riga, Christiansand, Helsingborg, Landskrona, Drammen, Skein, Danzig, Gefle, Dieppe.
The early Great Eastern Railway Continental steamers used the Company’s pier at Harwich, but since the construction of Parkeston Quay all services have been concentrated there. Principal services are to and from the Hook of Holland, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Zeebrugge, Flushing and Esbjerg. A train ferry service was introduced between Harwich and Zeebrugge in April, 1924, by the G. E. Train Ferries, Ltd.
On the Firth of Clyde the North British Ry. had for many years taken an important share in the famous Clyde steamer services. The Company has now six vessels thus employed, the sailings being made from and to Craigendoran. There are also steamers plying on the Firth of Forth between Granton and Burntisland, and between North and South Queensferry. The steamers on Loch Lomond are partly owned.
STATISTICS.—Year Ended December 31st, 1931.
Capital Issued (including nominal additions or deductions)—
4 per Cent. First Guaranteed Stock ..
4 per Cent. Second Guaranteed Stock
4 per Cent. First Preference Stock
5 per Cent. Redeemable Preference Stock (1955) ..
4 per Cent. Second Preference Stock
5 per Cent. Preferred Ordinary Stock
Deferred Ordinary Stock
Loans and Debenture Stocks
Capital Expenditure—Year ending December 31st, 1931 Total to December 31st, 1931 ..
Railway
Road Transport ..
Steamboats
Canals
Docks, Harbours and Wharves .. Hotels, Refreshment Rooms, etc. £47,153,357
100,447
881,564
40,955 2,712,369 1,790,560 £38.168,929 ' 94,199 863,056 57,417 2,621,826 1,689,553 £8,984,428
6,248 18,508 Dr. 16,462 90,543 101,007 Collection and Delivery of Parcels and Goods •• 1,149,114 1,494 576 Dr. 645,462 £53,828,366 £44,989,556 £8,838,810 Expenditure.
Net Receipts.
Revenue Receipts and Expenditure of the Whole Undertaking— Gross Receipts.


Add—Jointly Owned and Jointly Leased Lines—Company’s Proportion of Net Kevenue ..
Miscellaneous Keceipts (Net)



Expenditure (Kailway)—
Maintenance and Kenewal, Way and Works ,, ,, Kolling Stock ..
Locomotive Kunning Expenses
Traffic Expenses
General Charges, etc. ..
Kates and Taxes
Kailway Freight Kebates Fund—Kates Kelief
National Insurance Act
Kunning Powers
Mileage, Demurrage and Wagon Hire Miscellaneous ..
£38,168,929
Jointly Owned and Leased Lines.—Cheshire Lines Committee ; Great Central and Midland •Toint Lines; Great Central, Hull and Barnsley and Midland Committee ; Great Central and North Staffordshire Kailway Committee; Great Western and Great Central Kailways Joint Committee; Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Kailway Company ; Methley Kailway Joint Committee ; Metropolitan and Great Central Joint Committee; Midland and Great Northern Kail ways Joint Committee ; Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Kailways Committee ; Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne and Guide Bridge Junction Kail way Company ; and South Yorkshire Joint Line Committee.
Gross Keceipts. Expenditure. .. £1,473,133
.. 2,052,077
31,557

Deduct—Miscellaneous Charges
Net Ke venue ..
Net Kevenue (Company’s Proportion)
Electric Power and Light Account (19,121,252 units)..
Dividend.—5% Preferred Ordinary Stock, Nil per cent. Carried forward £30,637.
Mileage.—Owned, 6,296 miles 36 chains ; share of joint lines,* 79 miles 1 chain ; leased or worked, 11 miles 19 chains ; leased or worked jointly,* 0 miles 58 chains ; total mileage, first track, 6,387 miles 34 chains ; second track, 3,951 miles 60 chains ; third track, 485 miles 35 chains ; fourth track, 364 miles 78 chains ; over four tracks (reduced to single track), 304 miles 66 chains ; total length of single track (including sidings), 16,773 miles 4.5 chains. Authorised but not open for traffic, 10 miles 17 chains. Mileage run over by Company’s engines : Owned, 6,296 miles 36 chains (9 miles 38 chains not worked by Company); partly owned, 360 miles 3 chains ; leased or worked, 11 miles 19 chains ; leased or worked jointly, 156 miles 43 chains ; continuous running powers, 404 miles 2 chains ; occasional running powers, 86 miles 28 chains ; total, 7,305 miles 13 chains.

  • Not including Joint Lines set out above.

Rolling Stock.—Locomotives (steam): tender engines 1 (4-6-4), 75 (4-6-2), 326 (4-6-0), 239 (4-4-2), 831 (4-4-0), 2 (2-8-2), 467 (2-8-0), 194 (2-6-0), 50 (2-4-0), 332 (0-8-0), 2,127 (0-6-0), total 4,644 ; tank engines, 15 (4-8-0), 75 (4-6-2), 44 (4-4-4), 163 (4-4-2), 4 (4-4-0), 20 (2-6-4), 28 (2-6-2), 264 (2-4-2), 3 (2-2-4), 4 (0-8-4), 9 (0-8-2), 9 (0-6-4), 723 (0-6-2), 920 (0-6-0), 153 (0-4-4), 4 (0-4-2), 111 (0-4-0), 1 (2-8-8-2 Garratt), total, 2,550 ; tenders, 4,689 ; total steam locomotives, 7,194 ; locomotives (electric), 1 (4-6-4), 12 (0-4-4-0), 2 petrol-power shunting engines ; rail motor vehicles, 87 steam, 87 electric, 1 petrol, 1 petrol electric, 55 electric trailer cars ; carriages of uniform class, 9,932 ; composite carriages, 2,908 ; restaurant cars, 227 ; sleeping cars, 115 ; post office vans, 30 ; luggage, parcel; milk, fruit and brake vans, 1,484 ; fish vans, etc., 3,176 ; carriage trucks, 708 ; horse boxes, 1,487 ; miscellaneous, 48 ; total coaching vehicles, 20,170 ; open wagons, 118,482 ; covered wagons, 34,444 ; mineral wagons, 87,539 ; special wagons, 3,350 ; cattle trucks, 7,162 ; rail and timber trucks, 13,408 ; brake vans, 4,613 ; total merchandise and mineral vehicles, 268,998 ; service vehicles, 14,749 ; departmental locomotives, 18.
Road Traffic Equipment.—1,122 road motors for goods and parcels ; 40 road motors for passenger traffic ; 8,450 horse wagons and carts ; 153 miscellaneous vehicles ; 4,600 horses for road vehicles; 291 horses for shunting.
Canals.—285 miles 15 chains.
Houses and Dwellings Owned by Railway.—2,460 labouring-class dwellings ; cottages for Company’s servants, and 6,234 other houses and cottages.
Traffic—
Nos. of Passengers— 1st Class
2nd Class 3rd Class Workmen
Total
189,048,748
176,714,717
Nos. of Season Tickets—1st Class 2nd Class 3rd Class
20,446
38,822
113,328
16,581
38,798
92,722
Total
172,596
148,101
Goods Tonnage—
Merchandise (excluding Classes
1-6)
Minerals and Merchandise (Classes 1-6)
Coal, Coke and Patent Fuel ..
21,509,504
16,415,419
Total
21,325,380
78,521,976
17,515,386
68,571,989
121,356,860
102,502,794

Head of Live Stock
Train Mileage.—Traffic : steam coaching, 61,759,728 ; goods, electric coaching, 1,277,127; goods, 46,161 ; " ' ’ ' '
20,540 ; shunting miles, coaching, 4,009,138 ; and light, 15,282,294 ; total engine miles, 161,159,402.


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Sources of Information