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THE CRYSTAL PALACE MOTOR CAR SHOW
Advertised 29th January to 6th February 1904
Actually held 12th to 24th February at Crystal Palace
No better indication of the growth of the automobile manufacturing industry could he furnished than the remarkable display of motor vehicles and accessories which is being held at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, under the auspices of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT). The exhibition opened on Friday last, and will close on the 24th inst. Some idea of its importance can be gathered from the fact that there are upwards of 270 exhibitors, whose wares are spread over an area of 130,000 square feet. Although the firms represented are of many nationalities, British interests preponderate, and nearly every type of self-propelled vehicle, from a motor bicycle to a 5-ton steam wagon, is included in the catalogue. In addition to wheel vehicles, there is this year a section devoted to exhibits of marine motors — a departure to which petrol engine manufacturers are now giving a large share of their attention — and it is obvious that for small high-speed vessels, such as racing launches, this type of prime mover will at least hold its own with the steam engine.
Judging from the show of light road vehicles, the latter are not making much headway; indeed, apart from the heavy ears for commercial uses, the fewness of the steam carriages is one of the most marked features of the exhibition, and is not a good augury for the future of this type of vehicle. There is evidently a growing disposition on the part of the petrol car builders to provide something less expensive than the lordly productions that were the almost sole exhibits of a year or two back. Who would have prophesied in 1896 that a carriage would be placed on the market early in the twentieth century at a selling price of £70? Yet such is the fact. It is true that this production will scarcely satisfy the requirements of an engineer, nor is he likely to be altogether pleased with some which cost twice this amount. Nevertheless, progress is being made in this direction. Another feature of the show which cannot fail to be remarked is the increasing popularity of the motor omnibus, which has been largely brought about by its extensive adoption by several enterprising railway companies. There must be a wide field for this type of vehicle, particularly in sparsely populated districts. There is, also, still room for development in the production of medium weight vehicles suitable for delivery vans.
In view of the detailed descriptions of the continental motor cars which have recently appeared in the pages of THE ENGINEER, we shall confine the present notice as closely as possible to home products which are admirably represented by practically all the leading builders. Most of these have now adopted a standard pattern, thereby minimising the cost of production, a necessary qualification for commercial success.
The principal features of novelty of the Daimler Motor Company's exhibits are a comparatively slow-running vertical engine, with mechanically-operated inlet valves; a single trembler coil ignition system, an automatic carburetter, and a modified radiator. The attention of petrol car builders to improvements in carburetters since the introduction of the Krebs instrument by the eminent French firm of Panhard et Levassor is not confined to continental builders; nearly all the more important English firms have been at work in the same direction. The illustration represents the standard frame and motive mechanism of an 18-22 horse-power Daimler car. The four-cylinder engine is of the slow-running type. It has a bore of 95 mm. and a piston stroke of 130 mm., while at 800 revolutions per minute it develops 18 brake horse-power. It can be readily accelerated to 1,000 revolutions per minute and under these conditions gives 22 brake horsepower. Both induction and exhaust valves are mechanically operated, and are placed obliquely on the same side of the engine. The carburetter and throttle are of new design, giving a positive regulation of mixture at all loads and speeds of the motor, and combined with it is a graduated throttle, which is actuated by an automatic governor, and by a master hand control. The ignition used is the high-tension system, employing only one coil and trembler, and one low-tension timing brush. Distribution is effected in the high-tension circuit, the distributor itself being placed on a vertical accessible spindle. The results claimed for this system are simplicity of wiring, accurate timing, and certainty of action. The magneto high-tension system can readily be attached to the engine if desired. The water-cooling system of previous Daimler types has been considerably modified. The tank has been dispensed with, and a belt-driven fan fitted behind the radiator. The lubrication of the engine is ensured by a three-sight pressure-feed lubricator, placed upon the dashboard, and by an ingenious arrangement this is automatically replenished from the main oil reservoir when required. The power is transmitted to the 34in. road wheels by the usual system of friction clutch, cog gear and chains. The gear case is so suspended as to permit of self-alignment, and the bearings are fitted with automatic ring lubrication, a new construction of frame has been adopted, straight steel plates being used in combination with wood and channel steel. It is narrowed in the front, without in any way weakening the side members, and the under-frame of former years has been entirely dispensed with, thus materially reducing weight. This company is also making cars fitted with propelling mechanism of almost identical type to the above, but capable of developing from 28 to 30 horse-power. Various patterns of body can be fitted to these frames.
The Lanchester Engine Company Limited, Birmingham, has an extensive stand, on which arc to be seen cars of various powers, namely, 10, 12, 16, and 18 horse power. The last named has seating accommodation for seven persons, and has all important departure in its water-cooled engine. A water jacket has also been fitted to the 12 horse-power car for five persons. Beyond the adoption of water cooling instead of air cooling to these two sizes of cars, and certain innovations in body designs, the Lanchester cars retain all the distinctive features which are now so well known.
An exhibit which has attracted an unusual amount of attention on this firm’s stand is a section of a full-sized engine operated by an electric motor. This conveys to the uninitiated an insight into the working of this beautifully balanced engine and of its unique valve gear which cannot be otherwise readily acquired. By means of this model the curious may see how one mechanically-operated valve serves for both admission and exhaust. There are also shown a countershaft in its complete state and a worm gear comprising , worm , and worm wheel in which the traces of wear after 17,000 miles running are scarcely visible, a remarkable testimony to the efficiency of this ferns of driving gear for motor cars. A model illustrating modern practice in wire-wheel construction, showing right and wrong methods, is worthy of attention by all who are interested in mechanically-propelled vehicles.
A particularly effective display is made by the firm of S. F. Edge, Limited, New Burlington-street, London, the most important _feature being the 30 brake horse-power Napier carriage having six cylinders. We give in Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5 several views of this new vehicle, for which the agents claim that the engine shaft is never quite free from impulse. The engine has mechanically-operated inlet valves of annular pattern, by which it is claimed that "over a given diameter of valve a larger circumferential opening is provided than with the ordinary single-port valve." The engine and gearing are entirely encased, an aluminium shield being provided underneath.
The engine has circular hollow connecting rods, and is fired by a system of single coil synchronised ignition, a necessary feature of the multi-cylinder engine. The clutch is the metal-to-metal variety, with no end thrust, being self-contained and kept in gripping position by three springs, which are independently and instantaneously adjustable. Behind the clutch is the gear box, which, for the power transmitted, is small and light. There is direct drive on the top speed absolutely without any gear wheels in mesh.
It is claimed that the flexibility of the engine is so great that speeds of 4 to 50 miles an hour can be obtained merely by the use of the accelerator, without the clutch being taken out. In Fig. 4, above, will be seen the induction side of the engine, showing the Napier carburetter, the hydraulic air regulator, and a portion of the water pump. This runs on ball bearings, and has a cut-out arrangement, so that if by any chance any foreign matter should get into the pump and stop it, instead of the pump being broken, there are two small prongs which would break without damaging the pump, and which are easily and instantly renewable when the pump is in working order. The hydraulic air regulator, which governs the volume of air admitted to the carburetter by the amount of water which is passing through the water jackets, is also shown. The front and rear axles are of nickel steel of H section. The weight of the engine, frame, and wheels complete is 17 cwt.
The new Crossley motor, chassis, and accessories, are exhibited by Messrs. Charles Jarrott and Letts, Limited, Great Marlborough-street, W. These were fully described in THE ENGINEER during the last two weeks, and require no comment here.
Figs. 6 and 7, page 186, represent views of the Duryea car, which, although of American origin, is now being made in this country for the Duryea Company, Coventry. The Duryea carriage differs in its essential features from any other car on the market. It has a three-cylinder inclined engine, with simple, interchangeable, mechanically operated valves. The diameter of the cylinders is 4.5in. On the top speed the engine drives a live rear axle direct by means of a single chain, but on the two lower speeds, and for reversing, an ingenious system of epicyclic gearing on the main axle is brought into use. The new cars are also fitted with an improved automatic governed carburetter and throttle, which, it is claimed, gives the correct mixture of gas and air, and prevents racing. The ignition is effected by means of a high-tension magneto apparatus and ordinary sparking plugs, which gives a firing spark at the slowest speeds.
In the new engines built for the Duryea, cars by Messrs. Willans and Robinson, of Rugby, a greatly enlarged water jacket is provided, the circulation of cooling water being maintained by a pump driven from the engine. The engine is well balanced, the cranks being set at 120 deg., and has a very silent exhaust. The steering and control are both effected by a horizontal lever. The normal speed of the engine is about 600 revolutions per minute, but the engine is extremely flexible, and can be run at almost any speed from 100 to 1,200 revolutions per minute. In the ear body shown the designer has succeeded in producing a tasteful contour, while allowing easy access to all parts of the mechanism.
The illustration, Fig. 8, represents a motormeter, made by Messrs. Elliott Brothers, Leicester-square, which can be easily attached to a car, and which indicates clearly on a dial the speed at which the vehicle is travelling, the number of miles travelled on any journey, and the total mileage accomplished by the car. The instrument consists of a speed indicator and a cyclometer combined. The indicator is constructed with a specially-designed governor mechanism having the smallest possible number of parts, and all the parts are made of a metal which will not rust. The construction provides for a steady but very sensitive pointer movement under the worst conditions of vibration. The whole weight of the governor is carried on bail bearings, which do not require any oiling. The driving mechanism consists of a flexible metallic shaft, enclosed in a flexible metal tube of sufficient length to reach from the front wheel centre to the indicating instrument. The upper end of the tube is fixed to the case of the indicating instrument in such a manner as to exclude wet and dirt, and in the same manner the lower end is attached to a union carried on the adjustable bracket which holds the driving roller. The flexible shaft joins the spindle of the centrifugal governor in the indicating instrument to the roller, driven by means of friction from the front off-side wheel of the car. This roller is of a special material to resist wear, and the spindle carrying the roller is mounted on ball bearings. Attached to the off-side front wheel is a metal disc, made in two halves, and fitted together with a small feather and groove; this construction renders it possible to fit the disc on to the inside of the wheel without taking the wheel off. The attachment of the disc to the wheel is made by means of four small bolts, which have plates on the ends of them to grip the spokes. The appliance is well made, and not unduly obtrusive.
The marine section comprises many interesting features, not the least of which is the 30ft. racing launch Scolopendra, built by John J. Thornycroft and Co., Limited, Chiswick, which won the 50-guinea Yachtsman's cup at Cork last summer. The craft has a total length of 30ft. with a beam of 5ft., draught of hull only 8in., and extreme draught at the propeller 17.5in. She is propelled by a 20-brake horse-power petrol motor having four cylinders, and running at a normal speed of 1,000 revolutions per minute. The motor is of this firm's standard pattern, and is fitted with either mechanical or automatic inlet valves. Reversing and stopping is effected by means of a Hele-Shaw friction clutch, which admits of rapid manoeuvring without shock, while being highly efficient. The propeller is of bronze, and of the well-known Thornycroft pattern. The engine is started from rest by means of a ratchet arrangement, with a lever or crank handle, and its speed when running is regulated between certain limits by means of advance spark gear and the governor throttle. Six runs over the measured mile, with two persons on board, gave a mean speed of 18.2 miles per hour.
In this section Simpson, Strickland, and Co., Limited, Dartmouth, exhibit a steam racing launch; engines of the compound and triple-expansion marine types, and a Ljunstrom surface condenser.
Messrs. J. E. Hutton, Limited, of Shaftesbury-avenue, London, and the Simms Manufacturing Company, Willesden-lane, London, showed interesting applications of the petrol motor to launches and dinghies.
In the heavy vehicle section the show is above the average in point of interest. Messrs. W. Tasker and Sons, Limited, Andover, and Wallis and Steevens, Limited, Basingstoke, exhibit the steam road locomotives which they have built to come within the Light Locomotives Act. Both of these we have previously described.
Messrs. Jesse Ellis and Co. Limited. Maidstone, show a combined sanitary steam tipping wagon, designed to tip with either steam or hand power. This wagon is supplied with a separate tank, easily and quickly adaptable to road watering. the steam motor wagon shown is intended to carry four tons, and is provided with Stevens’ patent spring attachment, a simple device which causes the springs on both sides of the vehicle to he equally deflected under all conditions, thus keeping the driving gears — no chains being used — always in mesh. This wagon has a compound horizontal engine, 4in. and 8in. by 6in. cylinders, with link motion. The steam pressure is 200 lb. per square inch. In the construction of the road wheels of the artillery pattern the oak spokes are driven into square steel shoulder pieces in the rim, and rubber packing is introduced in building up the hubs.
Messrs. T. Coulthard and Co., Limited, Preston, show two steam wagons, one being new, and the other bearing the traces of 18,000 miles of running.
The Bristol Wagon and Carriage Works Company, Limited, Bristol — the latest addition to the builders of heavy motor vehicles - show a 4-ton gear-driven steam trolley of orthodox design. The engine is of the compound horizontal type, with cylinders 4.25in. and 7.25in. diameter by 4.5in. stroke, and is supplied with steam at 200 lb. pressure by a vertical water-tube boiler, having about 70 square feet of heating surface. All the working parts of the engine are enclosed in an oil-tight and dust-proof casing. The main frame of the wagon is built up of 4.5in. by 2.5in. channel steel, and the wheels are of the artillery pattern revolving on gun-metal bearings. The water tank has a capacity of 120 gallons, enough, say, for a 20-mile run, and the fuel bunkers will hold enough coke for a day's run. The steering gear is simple and strong, and the shocks due to uneven roads are taken up over the front axle by means of two parallel plate springs.
The Straker Steam Vehicle Company, Limited, Bristol, show a variety of heavy vehicles, including a five-ton standard wagon, a 20-passenger omnibus for public service in the Lake District between Penrith, Pooley Bridge, and Patterdale, a 4-ton colonial wagon, a 2-ton delivery van, and a 12-passenger omnibus. In the 5-ton wagon one or two important improvements have been introduced. In the first place, the steering gear has been almost entirely redesigned, so that it now gives a straight front axle in all vehicles, with the worm spindle at right angles to the axis of the wagon, instead of bring inclined, as heretofore. The steering is still effected by ' worm and segment, but of larger (bonnet, and increased pitch, the hearing surfaces having been increased throughout. The boiler is of a new and improved pattern, and of larger capacity, and we hope to refer to it, as well as to other features of the Straker vehicles, more fully in a future issue.
One of the most striking features of the Show this year was the large number of small ears or voiturettes exhibited; a glance through the catalogue discloses the fact that these little vehicles are now receiving the attention they deserve. Voiturettes not exceeding £200 in price were shown by over thirty exhibitors. In the majority of these a vertical single-cylinder petrol motor forms the propelling medium, and drives a variable-speed gear by means of a central shaft and clutch, and from the gear box the motion is transmitted to the road wheels in one of two well-known ways, i.e., by a countershaft and chains to the wheels direct, or by means of bevel gear and central shaft.
In other cases — and we are glad to see that there is a growing tendency in this direction — a horizontal petrol motor is employed. In several well-known American cars a chain transmits the motion direct from the crank axle to the rear live axle on the top speed, an epicyclic train of gear wheels being brought into action on the slower speeds.
The 10 horse-power Albany car shown by the Albany Manufacturing Company, Limited, of Cumberland Park, W., has a horizontal water-cooled engine with a single cylinder, 4.5in. by 5.5in. The crank shaft is at right angles to the centre line of the car, and the clutch shaft has a worm which drives a worm wheel on the gear shaft. The car is propelled at the top speed by a direct drive to the rear live axle by a universal joint shaft, and epicyclic gears are introduced to reduce the speed of the vehicle.
A voiturette to carry two persons, shown by the Belsize Motor Car and Engineering Company, Limited, Manchester, has a vertical single-cylinder water-cooled motor, capable of giving 7 brake horse-power at 1,000 revolutions. The cylinder is 4.5in. diameter by 5in. stroke. The inlet and exhaust valves are fitted on the top of the cylinder and mechanically operated. They are easy of access, as by unscrewing one nut the two valves and seats can be removed for adjustment or grinding. The change speed gear is placed transversely across the frame in line with the engine and clutch, and provides three forward speeds and a reverse. The power is transmitted from the gear case to a countershaft by a central chain, and from this again by a single chain to the differential gear on the rear live axle. The chain is of ample strength and protected from dust and mud by a gear case. The frame of the car is of pressed steel, the driving axle and engine shaft are of nickel steel. The driving axle is entirely enclosed by an aluminium sleeve. The steering is of the worm nut and rack type, and is irreversible. The timing of the ignition and the throttle valve are controlled by levers on the steering wheel. Metal-to-metal compensated hand and foot brakes are provided, and act on drums on the wheels. The length of the carriage is 9ft., the width over all 5ft. 3in., the wheel has 6ft. 3in., the track 4ft., and the total weight 8 cwt. As will be seen from the accompanying illustration —Fig. 1— the vehicle is built on attractive lines, and must be considered remarkably good value for the small outlay of 175 guineas.
The Belsize Company also showed a 16-20 horse-power car, in which the power is furnished by a three-cylinder vertical petrol engine, with mechanically-operated valves, the lift of the inlet valves being variable —Fig. 3. The valves are operated by two cam shafts running down each side of the crank case and driven by two gear wheels, outside the main crank chamber, but enclosed in a separate chamber on the front of the engine. The admission cam shaft is arranged so as to slide longitudinally, and the cams are stepped down in such a manner that the lift of the inlet valves can be altered at will. This can be regulated from the steering post by a small lever, enabling the engines to be run quietly and economically. Each cylinder is cast separately, and the valves, as in the smaller car, are placed on top of the cylinders. The crank shaft is now of nickel steel, instead of being built up as formerly. The crank case is constructed in two pieces only, and so arranged that the lower half can be removed without disturbing the crank shaft and bearings. When at any time it is necessary to take out the crank shaft and pistons, it is sufficient to remove the lower half of the crank case; take the bottom caps off the main crank bearings, and the whole shaft, connecting-rods and pistons can be let down, leaving the top portion of the crank case, cylinders and valve mechanisms intact, and the bedding down of the engine undisturbed.
The electrical ignition device is such that all three cylinders are worked from one trembler coil, ensuring uniformity of firing for each cylinder. The commutator is fitted to the dashboard, and has only one platinum-pointed adjusting screw for all three cylinders. The circulating water is cooled by a honeycomb radiator and fan driven from the crank shaft. The power is transmitted through an inverted cone clutch to the gear box. Three forward speeds and reverse are provided, with a direct drive on the top speed. The teeth are of ample width, and the wheels are made so as to be readily detached from the sleeves on which they are mounted. The power from the gear box to the back axle is transmitted by a cardan shaft to a toothed pinion driving a large plate wheel mounted on the differential box of the back axle. Two powerful compensated brakes acting on the road wheels are fitted. The foot brake is applied internally to a huge drum on the back wheels, and is of the expanding toggle type. The hand brake is also toggle jointed, and acts externally on the same drum.
The light car exhibited by the Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company, Limited, Birmingham, retains many of the leading features of the more powerful vehicles made by this firm. The horizontal engine has a single water-cooled cylinder, 4in. bore by 5in. stroke, running normally at 800 revolutions per minute, and giving at this speed 6.5 horsepower. The inlet valves are automatic, and there is no governor. The motor is suspended beneath two transverse members of the frame, the crank shaft and countershaft being parallel with the rear axle, and a heavy fly-wheel is provided. The valves are placed so as to be easy of access, the inlet valve being immediately above the exhaust valve. The clutch is fitted on an extension of the first motion shaft in the gear-box, and is actuated by a pedal, a spur wheel being attached to the male portion of the clutch, and driven from the crank shaft by a Renold chain. The gear case is of the usual Wolseley pattern, and is provided with three speeds forward and one reverse, all actuated by one lever, the speeds being 7, 13, and 20 miles per hour. The car has a live axle driven by a central chain from the gear-box countershaft, and the differential gear is of the usual Wolseley straight tooth pattern. Ample brake power is provided, a pedal operating a band brake on the differential box, and a hand lever actuating band brakes on the driving wheel hubs. Steering is effected by a hand wheel, worm and sector. A high-tension ignition is provided, the commutator being driven direct from a worm wheel on the end of the crank shaft. The coil is on the dashboard. The carburetter is of the float-feed type, with gravity feed from the tank, and the regulation of the gas to the motor is controlled by a hand-operated throttle. Lubrication is provided from an oil reservoir on the dashboard, separate pipes, with independent sight feeds leading to all the important hearings. It will be gathered from the foregoing that the number of moving parts has been reduced to a minimum, complicated valve mechanism having been studiously avoided. The result is a small reliable car, such as can be placed in the hands of persons with little mechanical knowledge. The wheel base is 5ft. 6in., the track 4ft., and the total weight about 8.5 cwt. The car is a particularly good hill-climber for the power at command, demonstrating that the system of transmission is highly efficient. This vehicle, which we hope to illustrate next week, is put on the market at the price of £175.
A new four-seated car of medium power, and priced moderately at 250 guineas, is shown in Fig. 2. It is built by the firm of Humber, Limited, and weighs 11 cwt. It is propelled by a vertical water-cooled engine with two cylinders, 3.625in, bore by 4.25in. stroke, giving 8 brake horse-power at 1,000 revolutions. The drive is taken through an aluminium leather-faced clutch in the fly-wheel to the usual pattern of gear case, containing three-speed gears. From the latter a propeller shaft with lubricated universal joints transmits motion to the differential gear on the rear live axle. The frame of the car is of the usual Humber tubular frame, and the engine and gear box are carried on a second tubular framework. Ample cooling capacity for the engine is provided by a radiator and gear-driven pump. The ignition and throttle levers are placed on the steering wheel.
The illustration —Fig. 4— represents a "double-decker" motor omnibus which was exhibited by Milnes-Daimler Limited, 221, Tottenham Court-road, W., and which is intended for public service. The vertical petrol engine has four cylinders, 105 mm. by 130 mm. stroke, and develops 20 horse-power at 800 revolutions. The speed of the engine is reduced by throttling the inlet mixture. The induction and exhaust valves are positive acting. This change speed gear is of the Cannstatt type, four speeds forward, viz.:- 3, 5.5, 8, and 12 miles per hour at the normal speed of the motor. There is also a reverse, which, in conjunction with the flexibility of the motor, it is claimed will give any speed from one to twelve miles per hour. The transmission is by a cone clutch to the gear box, and then by shaft with universal joints to the differential cross shafts direct on to the internal gear rings on driving wheels. The diameter of the front wheels is 32in., and that of the back wheels 42in. The lubrication of the cylinders, cranks, and gear box is effected by pressure-feed lubricators within view of the driver, having regulators which can be adjusted to suit the requirements of each bearing. The well-known Simms-Bosch magneto system of ignition is adopted. The wheel base is 10ft. 3.5in., gauge 4ft. 11in., length of frame 16ft. 3.5in., and width of frame over all 6ft. 6in. For motor wagon work the makers have arranged the motor to work with either petroleum spirit or paraffin. When starting the former is used. but afterwards an ingenious but simple vaporiser, in which the exhaust gases are caused to gasify the paraffin, is employed. Beyond the increased odour and diminution of power when using paraffin, we understand that there is no difficulty in the use of the heavier oils by this system. The makers find that this size of motor will give 23.5 brake horse-power at 900 revolutions using petrol as fuel, and 18 brake horse-power using paraffin under similar conditions.
The illustration shows the 18 horsepower James and Browne car, a very smooth-running vehicle with four horizontal cylinders, 4in. diameter by 6in. stroke, making normally 700 revolutions per minute. The cranks are arranged in pairs, the cranks of the two outer cylinders being in line, and those of the two inner cylinders being similarly disposed but at an angle of 180 degrees to the former, giving a good balance. The driving gear is simple, the direction of the drive not being changed from the engine to the driving wheels. The fly-wheel is on the longitudinal centre line of the car, an arrangement which eliminates the tendency due to gyrostatic action, for the car to steer more easily in one direction than the other. The transmission is by substantial spur gearing from a buffoline wheel on the fly-wheel to a transverse shaft, having a special clutch and gears sliding on squares. Front these the power is communicated to gear wheels, or another and parallel countershaft, carrying the differential gear, and thence again by sprocket wheels and chains to the road wheels.
At the show was exhibited a full-size model, on which a new device for operating the admission valves mechanically is attached, although this is not an essential feature of the James and Browne engines. The method of operating these valves is by means of a tappet carried on an extension of the device, which holds the valve seat in position. The mechanism is very simple, and possesses the additional advantage of being easily thrown out of operation if desired, leaving the valves to be operated automatically. The exhaust valves are very easily taken out and replaced, without displacing the springs, and the whole construction of the engine is highly creditable. The car is fitted with four speeds forward and a reverse, all actuated by one lever, and the gear wheels have amply wide teeth. All the bearings are fitted with ring lubricators and the lubrication of the pistons is effected by the partial vacuum in the crank chamber. The clutch is of special construction, and composed entirely of metal. The carburetter is provided with automatic air inlet, and the engine is controlled on the throttle both by the governor and by band. The wheel base is 7ft. 9.5in., and the gauge 4ft. 1.5in. The James and Browne carriages are constructed in such a manner that it is possible to run them on solid tyres, an advantage which few of the vehicles exhibited possess.
In addition to the Napier ear mentioned last week there are several other vehicles propelled by six-cylinder engines, notably the Sunbeam car, built by Marston and Co, Wolverhampton, and the Ariel car. In the latter the six cylinders are all comprised in one casting — a nice piece of foundry work, but one which is not without its disadvantages from a manufacturing point of view.
The Wilson-Pilcher car, built by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Limited. has also six cylinders. As a piece of wonderful mechanism this engine and gear had probably no rival in the Exhibition. The engine is of the horizontal description, the cylinders being disposed in pairs on either side of a central longitudinal crank shaft which extends to the rear axle, passing through various epicycloidal reducing gears and clutches. The rear axle is driven by means of helical gearing. The smoothness of running of the Wilson and Pilcher engine is remarkable, but it is questionable whether the end justifies the means.
The 6 horse-power Siddeley light car, which comes in the same category as the Belsize and the Wolseley referred to above, has many points in common with the latter. Here again, a horizontal engine is employed, with a single cylinder 4.5in. diameter by 5in. stroke, and said to develop 6 brake horse-power at 800 revolutions, although the speed can be accelerated up to 1,000 revolutions. The gear-box is attached to the same brackets as the motor, to which it is connected by a chain and driven by a clutch on the first shaft of the gear-box; from the secondary shaft of this gear-box a chain runs direct to the rear live axle. Three forward speeds and one reverse speed are obtained by means of sliding gear wheels in the usual manner, giving speeds of 7, 13, and 20 miles per hour. The weight of the car and its load are carried on bearings provided by extending the sleeve in which the live axle proper revolves through the wheels. The axle is driven by a central chain of which the chain wheel is secured to the differential box. This car weighs about 10 cwt., is arranged to carry two persons and has earned a reputation for hill-climbing.
The Engineer of 19th and 26th February 1904