Grace's Guide is the leading source of historical information on industry and manufacturing in Britain. This web publication contains 149,270 pages of information and 234,239 images on early companies, their products and the people who designed and built them.
Note: This is a sub-section of Motor Shows
Held in Olympia
The exhibition of motor vehicles for pleasure purposes which was opened at Olympia on Monday last under the auspices of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) is the largest ever held in this country. In addition to British builders, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, and America are all represented. The number of exhibitors is over 300, and it is estimated that over 140 different makes of cars are on view. Out of this number only three types of vehicle are propelled by steam engines.
The most noteworthy features of the Exhibition, as showing the trend of modern motor car design, are the increasing adoption of the four-cylinder vertical engine, a further diminution in the use of horizontal engines, general improvements in details, the ascendency of the propeller shaft and live axle form of transmission, the almost general adoption of magneto systems of ignition, and the large number of removable rims for road wheels.
Hitherto when a pneumatic tire has been punctured or otherwise damaged while in use, it has been necessary to replace it. The process is by no means easy under the best of circumstances. Temporary expedients have for some time been on the market which enable the unfortunate motorist to reach his destination before repairing the damaged tire. Now, however, it is possible to have the wheels built in such a way that instead of cramping on a temporary rim, the wheel and rim are made in two distinct parts, and by carrying a separate rim fitted up with a tire a permanent replacement can be effected on the road with much less trouble than was formerly necessary in taking off a tire only.
Although it does not attract the admiring crowd which is always to be seen round the more glittering exhibits, the E. J. Y. R. steam car exhibited by the Highclere Motor Car Syndicate, Limited, Highclere, Hampshire, is one of the most interesting engineering features of the show. The car may be roughly described as a petrol-engined vehicle driven by steam, the chief difference being the use of a flash boiler and the abolition of the change gear box. The early experience which motorists have had with toy-like and flimsy American steam cars has had a very bad effect upon would-be users of steam for road locomotion, and it requires some pluck to enter the lists with steam against the powerful petrol motor interests.
Mr. Rutherford, the inventor of the E.J.Y.R, car has, however, set out to supply a vehicle of far different type to some which our readers may have in mind. The chief feature of the system is an ingenious automatic regulator and governor which enables the engine to be run free for testing or warming up before starting, and also allows the engine to be driven very slowly to maintain a constant supply of water to the generator. This latter advantage is intended to prevent one of the greatest sources of trouble in flash boilers, namely, the burning of the tubes owing to the fire being left on when there is an absence of water or steam in the tubes. In Fig. 7 is given a general view of the chassis, while there is also a side elevation and plan of the chassis, together with sectional views of the engine and regulator. The engine has three vertical cast iron cylinders 2-11/16th in. bore by 3-5/8th in. stroke. These are single acting, and cast separately, the valves being of the mushroom type operated from a sliding cam shaft by plungers fitted with balls. The cam shaft is controlled by a lever on the steering pillar, which gives a variable cut-off, neutral and reverse positions, while the engine can also by the same means be converted into a steam brake. The cam shaft is so constructed that by the removal of one set of nuts the whole of the valve mechanism can be removed. The pistons have each five steel split rings, and are connected to their rods by a crosshead bearing fixed into the head of the piston, requiring no holes in the piston walls for the gudgeon pin. By removing an inspection plug in the top of the cylinder, and the lower crank case cover, the pistons and connecting rods can readily be withdrawn. The steam throttle valve is mounted on the near side of the engine crank case, and is of the balanced valve type. It is controlled by a centrifugal governor on the end of the pump shaft, which can be cut out when increased speed is required by a small pedal, in the same way as with petrol engines.
The boiler or generator is of the Serpollet pattern, and carried under the bonnet. All the tube joints are outside the boiler casing, so that in case of one giving way it can be easily replaced. The generator is encased in a lagged box, and the exhaust gases from the burners are led to the rear of the car. The vaporiser is fitted in the base of the generator, and consists of a grid of solid drawn steel tubing, through which the paraffin passes on its way to the several burners. The latter are of the Bunsen type, with twelve jets arranged in three rows of four burners. They are enclosed in a tray which can be pulled out, and is made so that the flames are not liable to be extinguished. The exhaust steam is led through a feed-water heater at the back of the generator and thence, to the condenser in front of the bonnet. From the condenser the water is returned to the tank.
The automatic regulator is intended to obviate the disadvantages of the thermostat in steam cars and is of novel design. It is shown in section in Fig. 8, and its action will be seen; Two pistons of different diameters are fitted on to one spindle, the larger piston A being below the smaller B. The cylinder in which the pistons work is made in two parts K L bolted together, and is of different diameters. Ports, leading to and from the generator, condenser, and water supply, occur at certain positions in the cylinders, as indicated in the diagram, the general effect of which is that as the pistons rise or fall, according to the steam pressure, the supply of water to the generator is automatically regulated. At the same time a lever M actuated by the piston shaft automatically closes or opens the fuel supply pipe to the exact amount required, a by-pass in the taper valve D being provided to keep the burners always alight. Thus the pressure of steam is made to actuate the regulator, and supply the generator entirely automatically with the proper proportion of fuel and water required for any predetermined pressure of steam.
There are three pumps, two of which are for keeping up a water supply to the generator, and the other for maintaining air under pressure in the fuel tanks. These pumps are worked by means of enclosed gearing off the crank shaft. The amount of water supplied to the generator by the pumps, though normally controlled by the automatic regulator, can also be varied if desired by a small lever on the steering wheel.
The transmission system resembles very closely that of the live axle petrol car, with the exception that the change speed gear-box is absent. Between the engine and the cardan shaft is interposed a self-contained metal cone clutch. The cardan shaft has two universal joints, one of which — at the front end — has adjustable ball bearings to take up wear on the pins. The steering gear is of the usual worm and segment type; the brakes, foot and hand, act direct on the back wheel hubs; the frame is of pressed steel; and there are three pedals — one for the clutch, one for the brake, and a third for the accelerator. The lubrication of the engine seems thorough. The crank shaft, big ends of the connecting-rods, cam shaft, valve, and pump gearing are entirely enclosed in the crank chamber, and run in a bath of oil. The pistons are lubricated by pressure through sight feeds on the dash, and fuel and water tanks sufficiently large for a run of 150 miles are provided, and it is stated that the car can be started from cold in about eight minutes.
The Daimler Company has made several modifications in next season's productions. Its exhibits include a 30 horse-power four-cylinder car with live axle; 42 horse-power four-cylinder car with chain drive, the chains being enclosed in an oil-tight case; and a 58 horsepower four-cylinder car on similar lines. The Daimler engines are now fitted with enclosed cam shaft and timing gears, a hollow crank shaft carried in five bearings, and for chain drive transmission the gear-case encloses two pairs of spiral gears, instead of bevels — one to transmit power when the direct third speed is engaged, and the other when the first, second, fourth, and reverse are used. A view of the gear-case is shown in Fig. 1.
The chain casing is of aluminium, constructed so as to act as radius rods, the adjustment being made by excentrics. In the live axle transmission four forward speeds are provided, with a direct drive on the third. The back axle casing is pressed out of two pieces of sheet steel, as shown in Fig. 8. The two sections are butt welded together horizontally by the oxyacetylene process. The casing is provided with a large cover, giving easy access to the differential gearing.
The Armstrong-Whitworth car shown at Olympia is a beautiful example of workmanship, and, when compared with the earlier productions of this firm, has been greatly simplified. The 30 horse-power motor, Figs. 10 and 11, has four separate cylinders, with mechanically operated valves on opposite sides, ample water jacket space and cylinder covers to give access to the water space.
The crank case and gear case are bolted together, as shown in Fig. 11, spanning the fly-wheel and clutch, so as to ensure absolute alignment, and the bearings are all held in the upper half of the casing. There are five bearings of ample size for the crank shaft.
Lubrication is effected by means of a positive plunger pump supplying all the engine bearings with oil at 3 lb. to 4 lb. pressure per square inch, obviating the accumulation of excessive, lubricant in the crank chamber. The carburetter is of the multiple jet pattern, easy of access for cleaning the jets.
The transmission is through a neat multiple disc clutch running in an oil tight casing. In this clutch two Hellos of discs, one of which is fixed to the crank shaft and the other keyed on to an adaptor fastened to the gear shaft, are compressed together by a spring when in engagement, and a foot pedal, by overcoming the tension of the spring, releases them. The spring is in a most accessible position and is adjustable.
The gear box contains two shafts running in ball bearings. Both shafts have four feathers, and the wheels are kept in position by distance tubes, and secured with one nut on each shaft, these nuts in turn being secured by locking washers.
Referring to the illustration, the four wheels, A, E, D, H, have helical teeth, which are always in mesh. The action of changing gears is as follows:— The drive is direct on the top gear, and this is effected by B locking into A by means of a dog clutch, the drive being transmitted from the engine through the shaft S to the propeller shaft. For the second speed, A drives E, and G drives C, thus driving the shaft S and propeller shaft. For the first speed C and D are locked together, when A drives E, and H drives D, and consequently C drives the shaft S and propeller shaft. For the reverse, the gears are bound to be in the neutral position shown in the line drawing —Fig. 12— before the reverse wheel can be brought into action owing to the latter being shrouded. The gears, therefore, being in neutral position, A drives E, and G drives J, K drives C. The latter is on the shaft S. and drives the propeller shaft in the reverse direction to the engine shaft. The changes are effected by a single lever, so designed that it is impossible to miss a gear under any conditions, the double motion necessitated by a gate quadrant being absent.
In the drive on the main back axle motion is transmitted from the balance gear to the road wheels by hollow nickel steel shafts, passing through the centre of the steel tubes which form the axle proper. Helical gearing is largely employed in the main drive and differential gears. The front axle is a steel stamping without weld or joints of any kind. The road wheels have staggered spokes giving great lateral rigidity. Both hand and foot brakes act on the back wheel; the hand brake being internal expanding, and the foot brake an external band. The brake drums are secured to the spokes by steel bands, a method which gives greater strength and reliability than usual.
The distinctive feature of the now Darracq car is the rear axle and change-speed gear, which form one unit. As will be seen from the illustration, Fig. 2, the axle proper which carries the road wheels is of H section. This section is bowed, the ends being bored through to accommodate the driving shafts. The gear-box containing the change-speed gears, differential driving bevels, etc., is of oblong shape and is bolted in a transverse position on top of the solid axle. The driving shafts pass through the bored ends of the axle and drive the road wheels by means of dog clutches. The arrangement of the gear is different to that usually in vogue. Sliding elements are fitted to the primary shaft, with a dog clutch for the direct drive. The gear provides for three speeds and one reverse, operated by a side lever through a gate control.
The firm of John I. Thornycroft and Co., Limited, is exhibiting 30 horse power four-cylinder and 45 horsepower six cylinder cars. Illustrations of the engines are shown in Figs. 5 and 6. In both engines the bore is 4.5in. and stroke 5in. The connecting-rods are steel forgings of H section. The valves are mechanically-operated and interchangeable, being arranged on opposite sides of the cylinders, which are cast in pairs. As is now frequently the case, the bearings are mechanically lubricated by a gear pump in the crank chamber, the oil pressure being kept constant by an adjustable spring-loaded relief valve.
The supply of oil is replenished from time to time in a large chamber forming part of the crank case. The carburetter is of the float feed type, so arranged that as the throttle is opened the air supplied is augmented, the object being to supply a constant gaseous mixture to the engine. The carburetter is arranged so that by the loosening of one screw the air port sleeve may be slightly rotated to alter the mixture as required. The jet itself is readily accessible for cleaning purposes. Warm air is carried to the inlet pipe through a pipe terminating in a hollow collar from the exhaust pipe, suitable ports being provided. The clutch is made up of alternate bronze and steel flat discs running in oil.
In the suspension of the gear-box the makers have provided an arrangement of three-point suspension, whereby stresses due to twisting of the frame are obviated. A spring device with two clips holds the gear box in place, but allows it to be removed without disengagement of any nuts.
In the illustrations of the engines will be seen the arrangement of mounting the water pump, which is of the centrifugal pattern. The means of controlling simultaneously the supply of gas and the electric ignition is also shown. There will also be seen on the left hand end of the engine a lever for altering the position of the valve cam shaft to give half compression when starting.
The car designed by the Sheffield Simplex Motor Works, Limited, has several distinctive features. The engine, Fig. 14. has six cylinders, 4.5in. by 4.5in. The crank shaft is well balanced and carried in ball bearings, while the valves are of large area in comparison with the capacity of the cylinders. The ignition system provides a high-tension magneto and accumulator with trembler coil, and self-starting switch on the Eisemann-Carpentier system, in which a low-tension distributor for the accumulator system is combined with the magneto, doing away with the necessity of a separate drive, and ensuring synchronism between the timing of both systems. The timing is controlled by a small lever and sector on the steering wheel.
The ignition wiring is worthy of notice. The six high-tension wires are moulded in one, forming a multicore cable, special insulated switch handles forming connections with the sparking plug facilitating testing of individual cylinders. The clutch is of the metal disc type. The engine is controlled on the throttle operating by a side moving foot lever of improved design, which carries out the functions of the usual hand throttle and foot accelerator. The torque and driving thrust are taken direct through the frame by means of a tube attached to the live axle casing enclosing the propeller shaft, and terminating at the front end in a steel sphere forming an oil-tight universal joint, which works in phosphor bronze bearing carried on a cross stay with the frame. This permits a freedom of movement of the axle and springs, and encases all the driving gear from the gear box to the axle. The live axle is arched with the road wheels inclined outwards. The axle being arched is always under compression. Both the foot and hand brakes operate on separate rings of the same disc secured to the road wheels, Fig.15. The steering gear has been well thought out. The steering pivots, Fig 13. are supported in ball bearings, and inclined so that an imaginary centre line of the pivots will inset the corresponding line through the wheel at the point of contact of the tire with the road surface. The mechanical system of lubrication is very thorough, a positively driven pump being provided for each oil supply. The operation of the pumps is always under the eye of the driver, whilst at night the operation of the pumps can be audibly detected; a further advantage of this system is that the pumps can be operated by hand if necessary.
The most noteworthy alteration made in the design of the Deasy motor car, which was illustrated in THE ENGINEER on Nov. 9th, 1906, is the arrangement of the springs. Formerly there were two longitudinal springs over the back axle, and a transverse spring over the front axle, giving a three-point suspension of the frame. This arrangement has now been modified, and the transverse spring has been superseded by two longitudinal springs, conforming to customary practice. The frame is of ash reinforced by steel flitch plates, and extends right forward to the spring hanger, thus obviating the use of dumb irons.
Another modification consists in the re-arrangement of the brakes, all of which formerly acted upon the rear road wheels. Now only two brakes are so applied, the third acting on the gear shaft. The other special features of the Deasy car have been retained.
On the Austin cars no radical departures have been found necessary from last year's pattern, except that an improved form of carburetter and a dual system of magneto ignition are now provided. In place of the Krebs a simple form of carburetter in which an automatic air valve replaces the Krebs diaphragm is now used. It is arranged so that its opening is regulated gradually by the engine suction. In the ignition system there are two high-tension magneto devices gear driven at the same speed, the arrangement being such that when once the engine has been started on the larger ignition device the ignition is switched over to the smaller magneto, which works up to a higher speed than the larger one.
Most of the important motor car works in this country seem to realise now that the future demand for pleasure cars will be best met by machines of moderate horsepower. We find at the present show quite a number of excellent moderate sized four-cylinder cars.
The Humber people were amongst the first to understand the popular requirements, and this year they are showing a 10-12 horse-power four-cylinder car at a very modest price.
The Swift Motor Company and Belsize Motors, Limited, are also placing on the market vehicles with all the latest improvements at figures which a year or two ago could not have been associated with the high-class workmanship and materials now used.
The two-cycle engine has not made much impression in the motor industry of this country.
The show at Olympia served to bring to prominent notice, however, what has been named the "Valveless" car, in which the ingenious engine, designed by Mr. Ralph Lucas, and illustrated in THE ENGINEER some time ago, is used. This engine has two vertical cylinders placed side by side. The cylinders share in common a combustion chamber, carburetter, crank case, inlet and exhaust ports and ignition system. The two pistons operate separate crank shafts which revolve in opposite directions, being geared together by spur teeth cut on their webs. This gearing is so arranged that the pistons move up and down together. When the pistons B B1 ascend, the vacuum which they form in the air-tight crank case draws air into the passage G. This air lifts the disc V, which is attached to the needle valve S, so that petrol is sprayed from the jet K into the passage I. The pistons then descend and compress the charge of air in the crank case. On reaching the bottom of the stroke they uncover the ports D and E. The opening of the port D permits the charge of compressed air to pass from the crank case through the passage I into the cylinders. On its way the air is carburetted by the petrol which has already been sprayed into the passage I. The mixture so formed displaces the waste gases from the cylinders, driving them out through the exhaust port E. The pistons then ascend and compression is followed by explosion in the usual way. As the pistons approach their extreme downward position the exhaust port first opens and lets out the remaining pressure of the explosion, and then the inlet port opens and lets in a fresh charge, as already described, so that while one charge is being used in the cylinders another one is being prepared in the crank case, and thus explosion takes place at every revolution - not at every other revolution, as in ordinary engines.
The transmission is simple. The power supplied by the engine is transmitted by a metal cone clutch to a Renold silent chain, which drives a secondary shaft carrying a double jaw clutch, as shown in Fig. 16. The high and low gears are obtained by engaging this jaw clutch, by means of a hand lever, with either of two chain wheels which drive out to the axle at different speeds by means of ordinary roller chains. The reverse motion of the car is brought about by the employment of an epicyclic gear contained within the clutch, and is no longer dependent upon the uncertain method formerly employed when the reverse was brought about in the engine itself by advancing the spark to cause a back fire. The epicyclic gear is brought into action by the depression of the clutch pedal beyond its normal travel. The smoothness of running of Lucas's engine is due to the fact that every time an explosion takes place the two fly-wheels are caused to rotate in opposite directions. The "Valveless" car is shown by Messrs. Crawshay Williams, Limited.
The Lanchester Engine Company has this year come further into line with what may be called standard methods. A 50 h.p. six-cylinder engine shown has cylinders 120 mm. diameter and stroke. The valves are now vertical, and operated through rocking levers from a single cam shaft beneath the crank shaft. The cylinders are cast separately, and continuous passage of the water through the water jackets is effected by leaving an opening between each pair of cylinders, a rubber ring being employed to make a water joint. The gear-box is now a separate unit, and a further concession to orthodox methods has been made in the provision of a wheel for steering in place of the tiller. It is remarkable how this company has step by step forsaken its earlier ideas of motor car design.
One of the most fruitful causes of trouble in motor car management is connected with electric ignition systems. The accumulator system supplying current at 4 volts pressure to a condenser and trembler coil has many objectionable features. Especially is this the case with multiple-cylinder engines. Accumulators themselves are a constant source of annoyance, as they have a habit of "running down" at inconvenient times. But even if they are maintained well charged troubles are always liable to occur owing to the trembler blades on the condenser getting out of adjustment, the platinum points being burnt away unequally, and the synchronism of the explosions upset, with the result that there is a great loss of power. To remedy the latter defect most of the makers of ignition apparatus are producing multiple coils operating through a single trembler blade. This has the desired result of giving more even firing of the several units, and simplifies adjustment. When combined with a magneto system, road troubles should be greatly minimised.
The exhibitors of this class of coil include Mr. E. J. Hardy, of Coventry; Peto and Radford, Limited, Ashtead, Surrey; J. Lacoste and Co, Shaftesbury-avenue, London; and Van Raden and Co., Limited, Coventry. The last-named firm is also introducing an accumulator in which the plates of the active material are not made entirely of lead, but are formed of a grid in which lead wires are interwoven as a warp thread with fine elastic glass wool as a weft. Into these woven plates or carriers the active material is pressed in such a way that it becomes amalgamated with the threads of the woven fabric. In this way, it is claimed, the paste cannot become detached and cause a short circuit, nor can the plates buckle. In assembling the accumulator each electrode is, before being built up, wrapped in a sheet of spun glass, which forms a good insulator and an elastic cushion.
Radiators are a frequent source of annoyance to drivers of petrol cars. Many are also very inefficient. Leaky tubes due to unequal expansion of parts and corrosion are only too common. The method of securing the radiator to the frame of the car is also frequently faulty. The frames are always liable to more or less distortion, and if the radiator is secured rigidly to the frames it will require to be of much greater strength than usual to withstand the tension and twisting stresses to which it is subjected. As a matter of fact radiators, as usually built, although effective in appearance, are frequently indifferent specimens of the tinsmith's craft. The joints of the principal members are commonly made with solder, and require only a slight stress to cause leakage.
The Reliance Manufacturing Co| Reliance Manufacturing Company, 19, Milton-street, Lower Broughton, Manchester, is introducing a radiator of light weight and large cooling area, the cooling surface of which is made of corrugated flat tubes. The tubes are made without solder or other filling medium in the vertical joints, and although of thin material, are capable of withstanding comparatively high pressures. The connection of the tubes with the top and bottom plates is also effected in a special manner.
Some remarkably good specimens of gear-cutting are shown by David Brown and Sons, Limited, Huddersfield. This firm has one of the most complete gear-cutting works in existence. Engineers will appreciate a hand- driven model, which embodies spur, spiral, helical, bevel, and worm gearing. A model of the firm's standard worm-reducing gear, now so well known, is also shown, together with hide and pressed paper gears. The latter are meeting with extended use for driving, and are used without lubrication.
E. M. Bowden's Patents' Syndicate, Limited, Baldwin's-gardens, Gray's Inn-road, E.C., show a wide assortment of motor accessories operated by the Bowden wire mechanism, by which motion can be transmitted at a right angle without the use of angle levers or other gearing. It is shown, for instance, applied to an auxiliary air inlet, and for agitating the float of a carburetter.
Lodge Brothers, Birmingham, show in operation an ignition system whereby an ordinary plug is caused to give a spark under water or when the points have become fouled by a carbonaceous deposit.
The latest accession to the ranks of motor car builders is the Birmingham Small Arms Company. At Olympia this firm is represented by two sizes of car, namely, 18 horse-power and 25 horse-power. They are both of the live axle type, with four-cylinder engines, and for workmanship and high class material will bear favourable comparison with any of the better known makes. Fig. 17 represents a view of the 25 horse-power chassis, which has cylinders 115 mm. diameter by 130 mm. stroke. The valves are arranged on either side, and the ignition system is that known as the Simms-Bosch low tension, and synchronised high tension with coil and accumulator. The crank chamber is of aluminium. The crank shaft is solid forged nickel steel running in phosphor bronze bearings lined with white metal, machined over and accurately balanced. The connecting-rods are of high tensile steel forged H section, fitted with phosphor bronze bushes at the small ends, and heavy adjustable phosphor bronze bearings lined with white metal at the big ends. The cam shafts are of special steel, with cams cut from the solid and ground after hardening. The cam shaft runs in heavy phosphor bronze bearings.
The engine is fitted with two cam shafts, the inlet on the right-hand side and the exhaust on the left. The exhaust cam shaft has half-compression cams to facilitate starting. The valves are of special nickel steel accurately turned and ground to seats, and are worked by adjustable tappets. The clutch is of the multiple disc type, fitted with internal spring, so there is no end pressure on either the engine or the gear-box. The discs are of hard spring steel with planished surfaces, and are driven by steel keys solid with the fly-wheel and clutch shaft. There is a hardened universal joint between the clutch and the gear-box. The change speed box is secured to the transverse members of the frame, and is fitted with four speeds forward and reverse, the direct drive being on the fourth speed. The gears are of special steel, case-hardened, and of large diameter. The shafts are of nickel steel, short and heavy, the sliding shaft having solid keys. The transmission is by cardan shaft between the gear-box and the back axle, the shaft being of nickel steel. The universal joints are of special design accurately machined, hardened and ground, enclosed in grease-retaining covers.
The back axle is of the "live" typo, the wheels running on ball bearings carried on solid forged steel tubular axles with heavy flanges securely bolted to the differential case. The differential is of the ordinary bevel type, having pinions gearing into two bevel wheels of large diameter. The differential box is of crucible cast steel, fitted with largo ball bearings and phosphor bronze bushes. The differential shafts are nickel steel, and are fitted with (log clutches which engage in the back hubs.
The front axle is solid forged H-section, and fitted with solid forged swivels and tie-rod arms. The hubs are of steel fitted with patent ball bearings of largo type. The steering is of the worm and quadrant type, with a nickel steel shaft, having a forged lever securely keyed to it. The steering rods are of solid drawn tube without weld or joint, fitted with universal ball joints. The frame is of hydraulic pressed nickel steel, channel section, set in at the front to increase the lock. The bottom member is increased in width at the set. The frames arc 4.75in. deep and gradually tapered at each end; they are secured by transverse hydraulic pressed steel members, flanged and securely riveted together. There are two powerful brakes, either capable of locking the wheels. The pedal brake works on a drum on the end of the change speed box, and is water-cooled. The hand brake is direct on the back wheel hubs, and is of the internal expanding type. Both are of strong construction, with facilities for easy adjustment in case of wear, and the shoes are all lined with cast iron. The rods and levers are of forged steel.
MOTOR-PROPELLED CARRIAGES. 
Note: This was input by OCR and has not been proof-read and corrected.
Adams. Features. Pedal control; epicyclic gears. New 10 h.p. and the eight-cylinder 50 h.p.
THE ADAMS MANUFACTURING CO., LTD., 106, New Bond Street, W. (801.—The Adams exhibit is always an interesting one and not less so this year than on previous occasions. With the single-cylinder engine placed amidships, a:0 h.p. motor in front, and an eight-cylinder engine, there is no lack of material for inspection. The single-cylinder type, on which the company has so largely built its reputation, has settled down to a standard pattern, which has required no modification for 1908. It is shown in chassis form, and with seating accommodation up to four. Next in power is the new 12-14 h.p. two-cylinder tine. This has a vertical engine arranged under the bonnet in front, and is similar to the 30 h.p., except that it gives 12 14 and has only half the number of cylinders found in the former. Pressed steel frames are set up at the back to provide play for the three-quarter elliptic springs. The Nieuport magneto is provided for generating the sparking current. The lubrication is effected by a pump, and the gearing is of the planetary type associated with the Adams cars. In the 30 h.p. chassis it is adapted to give three forward speeds instead of two. The throttle is controlled from a handle on the steering wheel; apart from that there are pedals to rush, "that's all" the changes of gearing and braking being effected by the means indicated in the company's catch phrase. The eight-cylinder engine is rated at 50 h.p., and is fitted to a fine limousine car with a detachable top. The gearing in this case provides only two speeds. A Fide lever is provided whereby the gearing can lie totally declutched when required. In this ease a tinting lever is also provided on the steering wheel, as the ignition includes a coil and high tension distributer. It is interesting to note that while the Adams Manufacturing Co. have views of their own in motor car construction they are not bigoted, and are prepared to fall in with the popular demand to a very large extent, as witness the 12-14 h.p. and 30 h.p. vehicles described above.
Adler. Features. Dual ignition, independent action; single unit crank and clutch and gear case; combination torque and radius rods.
MORGAN AND Co., LTD., 127, Long Acre, W.C. (100).— On the centre of Messrs. Morgan's stand we find exhibited fur the first time in this country the chassis of the 18 h.p. Adler car, a very finely finished example of automobile engineering. Starting with the frame, we find the side members to be straight, throughout of pressed cambered channel steel, with transverse members of similar section. The engine is carried by extensions of the lower flange of the side members, by which the whole is enclosed to the ingress of dirt and mud. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and have their valve chambers on the left-hand side of the engine, so that only one camshaft is employed. The circulating pump is driven off the camshaft, and the high tension magneto is rotated by an intermediate wheel off the camshaft. The induction chambers are placed together in the centre of the cylinders, the exhaust on the outside. The circulating water is delivered to the top end of the pump, and also leaves the cylinders 'root above the crown of the combustion chambers. The contact maker is placed on the rear left- hand side of the engine, and is driven by worm drive off the camshaft. The bore of the cylinders is 85 and the stroke 110 mm. Auxiliary accumulator-feed ignition is also fitted, the plugs in connection with this system being placed in the side of the cylinders above the induction valves. The lubricating pump is driven off the end of the camshaft, and the oil passes through nine drip feeds on the dash. board, whence it reaches the various bearings by gravitation. The drive passes from the engine through a large diameter metal-to-metal disc clutch working in an oil bath, and thence to the change-speed gear. The crankshaft, flywheel, casing, and gear box are all in one strong casting, and carried as already mentioned. The gear within the gear box affords three speeds and reverse. A very powerful segmental hand brake is carried at the rear of the gear box, and the drive panes through a propeller-shaft to the live axle. In th. war of the universal joint a strongly coiled spring is caused to bear against a collar, and crosshead against the diagonal torque rods. The diagonal torque rods are in reality a combination of torque rod and radius rod. '1 he bevel spindle is carried in three ball bearings, one of them being a tail bearing. The driving wheels are carried on the driving shafts themselves, which run in ball bearings in the axle casing. The chassis is very well hung on long semi-elliptical springs. The front axle is of the tubular type, with well-designed steering pivots and columns. Internal expanding brakes, coking Wes t un brake drums of large diameter, are fitted to the driving wheel. The silencer is placed across the under-frame. The 9 h.p., 28 h.p., 35 h.p., and 50 cars are all of similar design, but of necessity vary in dimensions. The bore and stroke of the two-cylinder are 80 by 90 mm.; the 28 h.p. four-cylinder, 105 by 120 mm.; and the 50 130 by 140 mm. The 9 h.p. four-cylinder chassis is shown with a smart phaeton side-entrance body, and on the opposite side of the stand is another 9 h.p., with a single-seated body and hood. A 28 h.p. chassis at the back of the stand has mounted upon it a double limousine body, finished in Messrs. Morgan and Co.'s well-known style.
Albion. Features: Lubrication system; magneto with stationary arms tore; Murray governor; coil spring drive; chain cases.
THE LACRE MOTOR CAR CO, 1 to 5, Poland Street, London. W. (56).- For examples of sound find thoughtful engineering it will be admitted that this stand, upon Which we find 24 and 16 h.p. Atli on chassis, compares with anything in the exhibition. We have so lately dealt with the 24 h.p. Albion in detail that it would be superfluous to enter into a lengthy description again at is early a date; but the various points referred to in The Autocar of October 26th will be recognised in the chassis bared fur inspection. Visitors will note the separate cylinders with the ample water jacket covers, which permit of perfect withdrawal of the core after casting, and the removal of clutch when required, also the ingenious mechanical lubricator by which oil is mechanically driven to all the bearings on the chassis in any desired proportion. Also the special Albion magneto with stationary armature and current alternating rotor on the crankshaft. On the right of the crank chamber is the Murray governor — explained in our description — which controls the air, the ignition, and the throttle ie perfect relation. 'The balanced flywheel, the coil, spring drive, the well-designed universal joints can all he examined and thoroughly grasped by the light of our descript ion. The method in in hi( h the well-made chain cases perform the duty of radius ro.ls in addition to the most perfect protection of driving chains is readily perceived. The rear part of the frame is carried in a some, hat unusual but nevertheless admirable manner by double elliptical springs, connected by shackles at both ends, thee affording the most delicate responsive play and freedom from vibration. On the opposite side, in the 16 h.p. Albion, the two cylinders are cast in a pair, valve chambers on each side of the same and crank chamber carried from the main frame. This engine is of a pattern which has already been shown previously, and is particularly well known as giving the most excellent results for industrial purposes. The distribution gear is carried in an entirely independent casing in rear of the crank chamber. The drive passes through a transmission shaft and cross head form of spring drive to is gear box, and gear giving four speeds forward and reverse. The method of conveying the drive from the gearshift to the countershafts is 'interesting. The counter-shafts are staggered horizontally, and each carries its own crown wheel at the inner ends. The two driving bevel wheels, one at one end of the solid bevel shaft, and one at the other at the end of the bevel sleeve, in connection witb the universal joint, are employed. In the re, of the gear box we find a substantial locomotive form of double-cheek brake, pedal applied. The drive, of course, passes from the end of the countershafts to the road wheels by change in the usual way. Another 24 h.p. chassis carries a very handsomely finished double phaeton body with canopy roof and inversely curved brass screens back and front, with three glass panels in centre, and vertical glass screen over dashboard. This body is by the Lucre Motor Car Co., and is a magnificent example of finish, the carriage work upholstered and embellished in the best possible style.
Alldays. Features: Three models-10 20 and the new 14 h.p. New carburetter on 20 h.p.; forced feed 1,11,6- call. for 10 h.p., which is otherwise unaltered, having proved itself one of the most satisfactory small cars of the day.
ALLDAYS AND ONIONS PNTUMATIC ENGINEERING CO., LTD., Mat,lile,s Works, Birmingham (691.—In addition to the well-known 10 h.p. and 20 h.p. Alldays, a new model of the useful 14 h.p. sine is introduced for the first time at this show. It ha, a four-cylinder engine, with cylinders cast in two pairs, and all the valves on the left side. Both magneto and battery ignition are provided, and the lubrication of the crankshaft bearings is by forced feed, while the cylinders receive the oil by splash from the crank me. The lower part of the crank case is detachable without disturbing the bearings, and the tappet guides are also readily detachable. Another useful detail consists in making the halves of the bonnet removable and dispensing with the usual hinge which so frequently gets strained. Cardan drive is adopted, and the live axle runs on bearings throughout, the new type is shown as a landaulet and an open touring car. The 20 h.p. remains as before, except as to the carburetter, which is of a concentric type, and is fitted with a special automatic air adjustment. This also is shown as a four-seater and a landaulet. The two-cylinder 10 h.p. two-seater has suffered no alteration, except in the matter of having forced feed lubrication. Its reputation is probably unique in its claw
Argyll. Features: A complete chassis largely in section, so that the engine, gear box, and mechanism generally can be inspected internally and the working of all the parts followed. The new 40 h.p., shown for the first time.
ARGYLL MOTORS, boo., Alexandria, N. f3. (361.--Upon examination of the 14-16 h.p. Argyll chassis, we find the 1906 model to exhibit several changes and improvements on that of this year. No change is observable in the section and design of the frame, but the long rear side springs are now supplemented by a transverse spring upon which the hack of the frame is supported. The engine is of similar design to that of 1.907, but with several improvements. The water jacket is more accessible, and has a large top cover through which core and scale can be easily retnoved. The pinions have been lengthened told lightened, the advantages of which is obvious. The steering column has considerably more rake, and places the steering wheel in a much more convenient• and handy position than heretofore. The engine bearings are lubricated under pressure by means of a small geared oil pump, driven from the end of the exhaust cam- +delft, the oil being raised from the sump in the bottom half of the crank chamber and forced to the crankshaft bearings and the crank pins for the lubrication of the big ends. A tell tale gauge on the dashboard shows the driver when the system is in perfect working order. The tnain driving din. tribution wheel is of special fibre and steel, the teeth of all these gears being cut to a special shape to ensure absolute quietude. The engine is provided with the new Argyll carburetter, which is full of interesting features, and was described in detail in 7'/is Antorar of 9th inst. in connection with this ear's big brother—the 40 h.p. Argyll. The drive passes through the usual form of Argyll multiple disc clutch running in a special lubricant, but the declutching apparatus has been simplified in design, and is extremely easy of application. A neatly designed and efficient universal coupling occur between the clutch-shaft and gear shaft, while the forward end of the propeller-shaft connects to the gear- shaft by means of a correctly designed universal joint in which cross-pine bisect each other. This arrangement is obtained by causing a small pin to pass through a large one. At the rear end of the propeller-shaft is found a plunging joint. In general design the live axle is similar to that used on the 1907 pattern, hnt the ball hearings upon which the wheel hubs rim have been increased in size, and a new !Niel, brake arrangement has been fitted. The rear brake drums are steel stampings, and the internal brake shoes are expanded against them by means of a well-designed cam. These brakes are easily adjusted by means of two fly nuts on rods issuing from the brake countershaft. The adjustment of each brake can be made in a few seconds. For its power, price, and general automobile design and execution, the 14-16 h.p. Argyll is not surpassed by any car of its class in the exhibition. A 40 h.p. chassis is also staged, but, as we have previously described this, there is no need to say anything further, save beyond mentioning that the workmanship throughout is excellent. A 14-16 h.p. side entrance car fitted with Cape hood, a 40 h.p. side entrance vehicle with wind screen and a number of useful fittings, 14-16 h.p. limousine, and 16-20 h.p. three-quarter landau are also staged. A rear axle with cover to the bevel removed and arranged to show the ball races of the road wheels completes a very fine exhibit.
Ariel-Simplex. Features: The new 1908 Grand Prix Ariel racer. The first example of a car built to the new racing regulations.
ARIEL MOTORS (1906), LTD., 101, New Bond Sheet, W. (47).—A 30-40 h.p. four-cylinder Ariel-Simplex with rotund body, finished off in yellow, with crimson upholstering, lined dark chocolate, and with Cape hood, wind screen to dash and behind driver's seat. This model has all the standard features associated with Ariel cars in the past. A 30-40 h.p. four- cylinder limousine landaulet to seat seven is also a fine specimen of the motor manufacturing and the coach-building art. The 40-50 h.p. four-cylinder Ariel-Simplex limousine, also to seat seven, is another striking vehicle. A chassis which creates very great interest is the new 25-30 h.p. Ariel-Simplex chassis, which carries the maker's guarantee for two years, and the Ariel-Simplex four-cylinder racer, which has been specially built for the 1908 Grand Prix Race. The latter has its cylinders cast in pairs, with 155 mm. hors and 150 mm. stroke. It is of remarkably simple construction, the valves being all on the left-hand side, inlets over the exhaust, the inlets being mechanically operated by means of overhead tappet levers. Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto ignition is fitted. The carburetter is of very simple design, consisting essentially of the ordinary float feed and mixing chamber carrying a piston throttle, the latter serving to open extra air ports in proper sequence as the throttle is opened. A honeycomb radiator with belt-driven fan is fitted. The flywheel is cast with vaned arms, and contains a leather- faced cone clutch. Four speeds are given by the gear, operated by a gate change lever. The drive is by propeller-shaft to the live axle. The petrol tank is behind the driver's seat Shock-absorbers are fitted to both axles. The 25-30 chassis is fitted with a four-cylinder engine, with the cylinders cast in pairs, all the valves being on the left-hand side, the inlets over the exhaust, and operated by tappet levers. At the left-hand centre of the upper part of the crank case is mounted an oil pump driven by means of an armed wheel from the centre of the camshaft. This pump takes the oil from a well in the lower part of the crank case, and forces it to a sight feed lubricator on the dash, whence it is distributed where required. The carburetter is carried at the right hand of the engine, and furnishes mixture by means of a two-way casting to the centre of each pair of cylinders, ports being cast in the top of the cylinders to convey the mixture overhead to the other side a the engine, where the inlet valves are situated. On the right-hand side of the crank case, behind the distribution wheel case, is mounted the Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto, driven by means of a pair of spur wheels from the distribution wheel case. A continuation of the shaft driving the magneto also drives the centrifugal water-circulating pump. A honeycomb radiator with a fan behind is employed for cooling purposes. The steering is of worm, nut, and link lever type, and all the steering joints are ball and socket type. The flywheel is of large diameter, and contains a leather-faced cone clutch. The lave• for operating the clutch has its fulcrum carried on a bent down tubular cross stay, the fulcrum being adjustable by a sliding bracket. The tube which carries this fulcrum also serves to carry the forward end of the tubular underframe which supports the gear box, the rear ends of this underframe also being carried by substantial cross tubes. The gear is of the four-speed type, the countershaft being below the primary-shaft. Gate change lever is employed, and gives direct drive on top speed. The brake behind the gear box is of the shoe contracting metal to metal type, whilst the rear wheel hand-applied brakes are of the expanding itietal to metal type.
Armstrong-Whitworth. Features New 30 h.p. Three-jet carburetter; governed ignition; engine and, gear box three-point suspended by special, method; interlocking gear change;- encased propeller-shaft; clutch a -.parate unit; brakes balanced by small differential Ears
W. G. ARMSTRONG-WHITWORTH AND CO., LTD., Elswick Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne (34).— The 30 h.p. chassis is a new design, which differs in a number of features from any which have previously, been produced by this firm. A four-cylinder engine with cylinders separately cast is compactly put beneath the bonnet. These cylinders are quite a feature in themselves. The valves are all mechanically operated—inlets on the right hand, exhaust on the left. A three-jet carburetter with variable air inlet controllable by the piston throttle is used. This throttle is controllable by a hand lever on the steering wheel, which regulates the opening to any degree, whilst an accelerator pedal can also be employed to give the full opening to the throttle if desired. At the forward end of the jet chamber is arranged an automatic inlet valve, which has to be drawn from its seating before extra air is taken into the carburetter. The ignition is in duplicate, a Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto being fitted to the left hand and a bracket cast on the upper part of the crank case for that purpose. The timing of the magneto is automatically brought about by means of a governor on the forward end of the inlet camshaft. The commutator for the accumulator feed ignition is arranged on the top of the vertical shaft, which is driven by means of a pair of helical wheels from the tail end of the induction camshaft. Attention should be paid to the very neat inlet and exhaust pipe castings, these being as neatly arranged as anything shown. The valves are all very accessible. A feature of the design is that the engine flywheel case and gear box form one unit, being built up and bolted together to form a rigid whole. The engine casing and the gear box are supported by means of two cast brackets arranged a little before the centre of the third cylinder, and also by a suspension rod beneath the centre of the gear box. On the right-hand side of the gear box is a lug provided with a buffer spring. In reality the gear box and engine complete are three points suspended. The flywheel is arranged with arms, so that it forms a good fan, and the multiple disc clutch is a separate unit, being arranged immediately in front of the gear box, and easily detachable without taking down flywheel or gear box. Four-speed gear is fitted, combination of gate and straight sliding quadrant being the method of operation. The change speed lever and the locking arrangements are novel, and cannot be described without the aid of sketches, which we prop., to give later. The drive is by propeller-shaft to the rear axle, and an o'1-tight casing is provided for the whole length of the former, so that the working units are entirely encased from mud. All the road wheels and gear-shafts run on ball bearings. The brakes all take effect upon the rear wheel drums, the front brake being of the internal expanding type, whilst the hand brake is of the contracting metal to metal type. The application of these brakes is balanced by miniature differential (rears arranged upon the two cross brake-shaft. Forced lubrication is driven to the engine crank by means of a small positive driven pump arranged at the left hand of the crank case in front of the distribution casing.
Arrol-Johnston. Features. Four-cylinder engine, with inlet valves over exhausts, operated by rocking tappets; independent ignition oil ganef, to crank chamber.
THE NEW ARROL-JOHNSTON CAR CO., LTD., Paisley (78).— The 16-25 h.p. Arrol-Johnston remains very much as last year. It will lie remembered that the four-cylinder engine has the valves all on one side and all opening upwards. A Hele-Shaw clutch is used and propeller-shaft drive. The latest introduction is a 38-45 h.p. car. This has a pressed steel frame contracted in front and raised at the rear, the latter portion being carried on double elliptic springs. The engine has four cylinders, and the valves are all on one side, but the inlet valves are placed over the exhausts, and are opened downwards by rocking arms. The parts of the inlet pipes are cast in one with the cylinders. The valve tappets on this, as on the other car, are adjustable. Both Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto and accumulator and coil ignition are provided, the latter system having its own distributer. G. and A. carburetters are fitted to these engines, and a device is provided for releasing the compression by a handle located near the starting handle. This firm have always employed the pump circulation for the lubricating oil, but now the pump, instead of being enclosed in the crank case, is arranged outside, as it is more easily driven in this position. A gauge is fitted to show the amount of oil in the crank case, and on once tilling up the driver need pay no further attention to the lubrication until the end of the day. A flat plate clutch communicates motion to the variable speed gear through a double universal joint. The gearshift is mounted on roller bearings. The drive is direct on the fourth speed, the final transmission being by cardan-shaft to the live axle. The joints in the shaft are of special construction, of a cross type, and provide for both bending and sliding. Rings are employed to maintain the concentricity of the shaft. The dashboard is dished, mid is fitted with gauges showing the pressure in the •petrol tank and on the lubrication. A limousine body is fitted on a similar chassis, and there is also a covered car of the lighter type. Air. Jolts S. Napier has every reason to be proud of his latest production.
Austin. Features: The new 40 h.p, lour-cylinder and the 60 h.p. six-cylinder. New automatic carburetter; high and low speed magnetos on the 60 h.p.; new wind screen; detail improvements.
The Austin Motor Co., Northfield, Birmingham (84).—It is often the hard lot of the show critic to find that the highest praise is most aptly expressed in the fewest words. We should think it has seldom if ever happened before in the annals of the motor industry that a designer has found his first year's models so eminently satisfactory that no change has been necessitated for the following season. Such a state of affairs is sometimes attained, but only after the passing of a number of yeas. Here we find that the 18-24 h.p. Austin, which was introduced last year, is shown in exactly the same form this year. Further, the hi her powered cars of 40 h.p. and the new six-cylinder of 60 are but reproductions of the smaller model on an enlarged scale, the largest only differing from the others in that it has six cylinders instead of four. On many of the cars parts that bear a direct relation to the driver, such as the steering wheels, control lever, nein-, and so forth are identical throughout. We need, therefore, only remind our readers of a few of the salient features of the Austin car as they have known it in the past. The frames are of pressed steel, contracted forward, for steering purposes, and raised at the back to provide ample spring play. A cross tie at the rear extremity stiffens the frame, and carries the rear ends of the back springs. The engines have separate cylinders, with expanding exhaust joints, and opposed valve pockets. The automatic carburettor is regulated by a governor and also by hand control. Simms high-tension magneto provides the current for the sparking, and in the six-cylinder pattern a second magneto is provided, which is adapted to run at a higher speed than the ordinary typo. On this chassis also the drive is direct on the third instead of the fourth, as it is adapted to carry a heavy body. The final transmission is by cardan-shaft to a well-designed back axle. From our previous remarks, it goes without saying that all the details have been thoroughly considered. Of the complete cars, one of the neatest is no doubt the 18.24 h.p. Park phaeton. A neat detail about this is the manner in which the screen can be raised by means of a rack and pinion. The higher powered cars have concave dashboards, and the lower powered ones f-t.
Badminton. Feature,. Orouvelle and Arquembourg carburetter; plate clutch; spring drive; enclosed propeller-shaft.
TESTE AND LASSEN, 51, Scrubbs Lane, Willesden, N.W. (20). --This chassis is fitted with a 16-20 h.p. engine, the cylinders being cast in pairs and the cylinder dimensions being 9b x 110. The ignition is by the Eisemann high-tension magneto, and carburetter is the well-known G. and A., and the water circulation has the usual rotary pump. The clutch is of the plate type, and contains a spring drive. The gear box contains four speeds and a reverse, and the propeller-shaft is encased, the casing acting as a torque rod. The frame is of pressed steel, and is suspended at the rear on three-quarter elliptical springs, and at the front on semi- elliptical springs.
Bell. Features: Three models. '1.wo gear driven and one chant driven. Dual ignition; mechanical lubrication, with arrangement, to prevent over-lubrication.
BELL BROS, Ravensthorpe, Yorkshire (40).—On this stand are exhibited a 16 h.p. and a 20 h.p. chassis. Both practically the same in design throughout save that the engine of the one is larger than the other. Both engines have the cylinders cast in pairs, all the valves on the 16 h.p. type being on the loft-hand, whilst on the 20 h.p, type the inlets are on the right and the exhaust on the loft. Dual systems of ignition are fitted—the Simms-Bosch high tension and the accumulator led system. 'Clic magneto is mounted on the right-hand forward arm of the engine crank case, and is driven from a distribution wheel. The contact maker is driven by means of an inclined shaft by a bevel drive from the forward end of the camshaft. In the 20 h.p. type the contact maker is rather out of the way at the right-hand rear of the crank case, being driven by a wheel horn the tail end of the inlet camshaft. Lubrication is by means of a plunger pump, which first of ill draws the oil from a tank carried on the lest-hand of the frame, sends it to a sight-feed lubricator on the dash, whence it pauses to lead fed by the pump plunger. Any excess of oil taken past the setting of the sight feed needle is returned to the supply tank. The clutch is of the multiple disc pattern. Three speeds are provided by the change speed gear box, the direct being on top. This gear is noticeable for its small pro-portion, the same time its inner members are all of particularly robust construction. The pedal operated brake behind the gear box is of ample dimensions. Drive is through it universally jointed propeller-shaft to the rear axle. The petrol tank is carried on the rear between the frame members, and supplies petrol to the automatic carburetter by exhaust pressure. All the road wheels are on ball bearings of the Hoffmann type, which type is now very popular on all sizes of cars. The flywheel arms are vaned to induce a draught past the radiator. 1 section front axles are employed. Neat V torque rod and a pair of radius rods serve to distance the rear axle from the gear box. A 28 h.p. single landaulet and a 16 h.p. side-entrance vehicle with Cape cart hood are exhibited, both these bodies being by Mulliner's Motor Body Co., of Bootle. The 30 h.p. four-cylinder double landaulet is a very nice looking vehicle, and completes a most interesting exhibit. This vehicle is chain-driven, and has four speeds.
BELSIZE MOTORS, LTD., Clayton, Manchester (60).- Up to the time of our report closing, this stand was occupied by only one car, the principal items of the exhibit having been delayed by the fog. We hope to deal with them more fully next week. The car on view is one of the 20 1-.p. four-cylinder Belsizes which were driven with such suemss by Mrs. Itiley in the Scottish Trials last summer.
Bentall. Features: 9 h.p. two-cylinder and 16 h.p. four-cylinder Metal clutch running in oil; change-speed lever; and floating gear box.
E. H. BENTALL AND CO., fleybridge, Maldon, Essex (19).--- The following models are shown: A 16 h.p. chassis, 16 h.p. side-entrance car with Cape cart hood, and a similar 16 11.p. landaulet, and a 9 h.p. brougham. The chassis carries four- cylinder engine, 90 mm. x 95 mm., the cylinders being cast, separately. Both water pump and magneto:tie driven off the half-time shaft, the radiator being of the cylindrical type. Simms-Bosch low-tension is fitted with the company's own tappet, driven by mean/4 of skew gear off the half-time shaft. All the firing gear is on the top of the cylinder, and is consequently most accessible. An exhaust pressure sight feed lubricator is fitted. The clutch is fibre to metal enclosed, and runs in oil. The gear box contains throe speeds arranged on the usual plan, but the change-speed quadrant is novel. The lever is carried between two plates which are pressed against it on each side by means of springs, and in both plates zigzag notches are cut. In changing down, the lever is pressed away from the driver, and slides into the next notch without any possibility of running past it; while in changing up the lever is pulled towards the driver. The gear box is supported on hinged stays, so that it follows the radial movement of the propeller-shaft. From the gear box the power is transmitted to the back wheels by means of a propeller-shaft. Both foot and side lever brakes are applied direct to the back wheels, in which there are two drums, one for each brake, and both are of the internal expanding type. The power is applied to the brakes by means of rods, which are, of course, made adjustable. The frame is of channel steel, and is suspended at the back on elliptical springs, and at the front by semi-elliptical springs. The 9 h.p. is fitted with a two-cylinder engine, on practically the same lines as the engine fitted to the chassis we have just described.
Benz. Features: Mercedes electric and Mercedes mixed. The latest Benz and the Mercedes electric car, which has covered sixty-four miles on one charge.
THE CANNSTATT AUTOMOBILE SUPPLY ASSOCIATION, lla, Regent Street, W. (90).— Several interesting cars are on view here, ranging from the Benz petrol cars to the Mercedes-Electric, and including the Mercedes-Mixte as an intermediate. The 40 h.p. Benz is shown both as a chassis and as a complete ear. One of the latest improvements in the Benz is a device for adjusting the position of the clutch pedal. The clutch arm is in two parts, which can he adjusted at various angles to one another by a simple bolting device, which will be readily understood from the accompanying illustration. The four cylinders of the engine are cast in pairs, and dual ignition is provided in the form of low-tension magneto and high-tension accumulator and coil. The magneto and pump shafts are arranged independently, so that the water circulation can be attended to without interfering with the electric generator. The gear provides four forward speeds, actuated by selecting rods, the whole mechanism being enclosed. The final drive is by side chains, but the cardan system is also employed. There are three pedals—one for the clutch alone, one for a gear brake, and the third for controlling both together. The Mercedes-Mixte car was introduced at the Agricultural I-fall Show earlier in the year. It will be remembered that the Mercedes petrol motor drives a dynamo, and the dynamo is coupled up to motors located in the two back wheels, there being no spur gearing of any kind. While the principle remains as before, several detail improvements have been introduced. The Electric car is on much the same system, except that the current is supplied by accumulators instead of by petrol-driven dynamo. In a recent official trial the car ran sixty-four miles on one charge, and a top speed of twenty-five miles an hour can be attained A complete vehicle is shown in the form of a double landaulet, which makes an exceedingly fine town carriage.
Berliet. Features. Four and six-cylinder models. Direct drive on third and fourth speeds on six-cylinder. A 22 h.p. Victoria for town use.
J. E. Hutton, Ltd, 81 and 83, Shaftesbury Avenue, W. (88).— This stand is confined to an exhibit of the Berliet cars - one of the strings to the Hutton bow. Two chassis are shown of 22 h.p. and 60 h.p. respectively. In the former the forward ends of the pressed steel frame are continued to form the dumb irons, while the rear ends are raised, and are carried by full elliptical springs. The engine is on modern lines, with cylinders cast in two pairs, and valve pockets on right and left. The gear provides four fop ward speeds, driving direct on the top, the change being effected by a lever working on a gate quadrant. Forced feed lubrication is employed and Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto. A complete car of 40 h.p. is built on similar lines, and is fitted with a most luxuriously appointed landaulet body. In addition to the usual fittings, we find a water basin, with water laid on from tank in the roof, compartments for brush and comb and other toilet requisites, arid in other lockers are utensils for dining and other meals. It might almost be thought that these are cars of a luxurious order, and, though they excel in this direction, it was a Berliet that secured a second place in last year's Tourist Trophy Race. The 60 .h.p. chassis has a six-cylinder engine and side chain transmission, direct drive on both the third and fourth speeds. One of the prettiest motor vehicles we have ever seen is the Berliet 22 h.p. Victoria. This is essentially a carriage body, being on the curved lines associated with the ladies' carriage. The car shown has side chain transmission, but a live axle can be had instead if preferred. The extra seat of this Victoria is made to fold away under the driver's seat in a very simple and ingenious manner. This car cannot fail to be a great favourite with the fair sex, and it should command a ready sale.
Britannia. Features two models. Hand-regulated petrol jet; ingenious form of clutch brake; provision for easily altering ratios of bevel drive.
THE VICTORIA CARRIAGE WORKS, Ti-., Long Acre, W.C. (30).—Two distinct types of oars are shown on this stand, the 12-16 h.p. fitted with a four-cylinder engine having a bore and stroke of 94 nine by 114 nun., and the cylinders cast in pairs, single coil accumulator ignition with high-tension distributer, change speed lever, gear box containing three speeds and reverse, live axle drive, and side entrance body. The 24 h.p. model is one of the Company's latest productions. A new type of engine is fitted, but the cylinders are still cast in pairs. The ignition is by Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto and accumulator ignition with high-tension distributer; both these forms of ignition are synchronised, and are advanced by one lever. A carburetter is fitted which comprises several novel features; when the throttle is moved the quantity of air admitted is also regulated in the correct proportion, ;out an extra air valve situated on the top of the mixing chamber is also employed. The same movement of the throttle lever also regulates the supply of petrol passing through the jet, so that when it is desired to run slowly a very small quantity of petrol is admitted. The usual type of centrifugal water pump is fitted. Cooling is effected by means of a cellular radiator circular in form. The ordinary type if metal to metal clutch is fitted, but the nut which adjusts the tension and the clutch spring is extended in the form of a sleeve, and has its end shaped conically, which fits into a conical boss on the end of the clutch centre, thus acting as a simple and efficient clutch brake. Another point is that the clutch is removable without disturbing the gear box. The gear box consists of a single casing, and contains three forward speeds and a reverse. Ball bearings are employed throughout. The gate change is also fitted. At each corner of the gate there is a spring stop, so that there is no chance of the change speed lever coming out of engagement. The back axle is strongly made and well designed, the wheel rotating on the axle sleeve. Another interesting point is that it admits of eight different sizes of bevels, so that almost any ratio of gearing may be used. The chassis is of pressed steel, narrowed in front, and suspended on long and wide semi-elliptical springs. A transverse spring is also fitted. A six-cylinder model, which is not on the stand, but is running in the grounds, is practically a replica, of the above. Both types of lubrication are carried out by means of pressure and a hand pump. Knox sight feed lubricator is fitted to the dashboard; this typo of lubricator was referred to in our last year's report of the Cordingley Show, when it may be remembered that the drops of oil rise through glass tubes containing water.
British-Mercedes. Features: A copy of the Mercedes under license. The Starley all-metal artillery wheel.
E. H. JONES, 16, Church Street, Islington, N. (119).— The cars shown here are practically copies of the Canstatt Mercedes, but the copying is properly done - that is to say, the manufacturers work under licence of the patentees, and none will deny that they have taken one of the very best models to work from. The car, we art assured, is British built throughout. Two chassis are shown, one with six cylinders and the other with four, but otherwise they are practically identical. We notice that the low-tension magneto is on the right side of the machine and the pump on the left, thus providing greater accessibility than when both elements are on one side. Another point consists in fitting both the gear brakes to the counter-shaft. They are coupled up by a beam, and so operate equally through the three main pedals, one for the clutch, one for the counter-shaft brakes, and one for the wheel brakes, which may also be operated by the hand lever; but the provision of a pedal allows of the main braking being effected on the wheels without subjecting the gearing to what is, after all, an undesirable and often unnecessary strain. The application of the brake never affects the action of the clutch. We notice on this stand also a specimen artillery wheel built up with metal spokes, which should be advantageous for use on cars destined for specially dry climates. The wheel undoubtedly possesses other advantages, and does credit to its inventor, Mr. Wm. Starley, who has had much experience in these matters.
Brooke. Features Two types of cars - 25 h.p. and 40 h.p.— both with six-cylinder engines. Special features Six-cylinder engine of 40 11.p. model, valves on one side, pump lubrication. New type of hood on 25 h.p. Excellent finish and workmanship throughout all types.
J. W. Brooke and Co Ltd, Adrian Works, Lowestoft (28).- Three very handsome cars are shown on this stand. A 25 h.p. fitted with side entrance body and Cape cart hood. The hood itself is interesting in that it is divided into two portions so that either may be raised at the will of the driver. These hoods can be also raised without the driver getting out of the car. Another 25 h.p. shown is fitted with a double landaulet body. Both these cars are practically unaltered from last year's designs, and both are fitted with six-cylinder engines. A chassis; however, is shown fitted with the latest pattern 40 h.p. six-cylinder motor. All the valves are now placed on the near side of the engine, and the lubrication is an innovation from last year's design. The crankcase is fitted with a sump, whence the oil is delivered to the bearings by means of a pump. The remainder of the chassis is practically the same as last year's model.
Brown. Features: Variable lift to inlet valves; strongly ribbed back axle casings.
BROWN BROS., LTD., 15, Newman Street, Oxford Street, W. (101).— Among other machines this firm are exhibiting is a 20-22 h.p. tonneau car fitted with a Cape cart hood. The vehicle is similar to those used to carry the members of the Royal Commission on Congested Districts in Ireland for some thousands of miles. The cylinders are cast in pairs, both inlet and exhaust valves being placed on the same side. The cylinders are 100 mm. bore by 110 stroke, and give 20-22 h.p. at 1,100 revolutions. A variable lift can be given to the inlet valves. The carburetter is of the ordinary spray pattern, and as regards ignition, magneto and accumulator are fitted, the latter being gear-driven from a shaft on the side of the engine opposite to the camshaft. This shaft is also used to drive the pump for the water circulation. From the engine the drive is transmitted to the gear box shaft by a leather-faced clutch, and on the clutch- shaft provision is made for reasonable flexibility in a longitudinal direction by means of a square sliding sleeve. The gear box shafts run on ball bearings, and afford three forward speeds through gears of the ordinary sliding pattern. These gears are very accessible, and on the top speed a direct drive is obtained. The cardan-shaft, which transmits power to the live back axle, is fitted wit 1- universal joints, having large wearing surfaces, and from this shaft power is transmitted to the driving shafts by means of the usual bevel pinion and crown wheel. The casing of this axle is strongly ribbed, the driving shafts being carried through to the outer end of the axle. An external brake of loco type acts on a drum fitted to the secondary shaft of the gearbox, the hand-operated brakes being of the internal expanding type as usually fitted. Control of the engine is obtained from two hand levers, conveniently placed on the top of the steering wheel. This firm are also exhibiting a handsome 25-30 h.p. landaulet, in which the cylinders measure 100 mm. x 130, and are cast separately with valves on opposite sides. The arrangement of the carburetter control is also somewhat modified, as the act of closing the throttle also shuts off the extra air supply. The circulation pump is driven off the exhaust camshaft, and the magneto of the inlet shaft.
B.S.A. Features: A new live axle car in two models. Carburetter; plate clutch.
THE BIRMINGHAM SMALL ARMS CO., LTD., Birmingham (117).—This being the first introduction of the B.S.A. oars, they are naturally inspected with very considerable interest. The frames are of pressed steel, and carried on semi-elliptical springs at both front and rear ends. The four-cylinder engines are cast with the cylinders in two pairs. The 25 le p. has low-tension magneto and accumulator and coil ignition. The 18-24 h.p. has high-tension magneto ignition only. The carburetters are arranged in the recess formed between the two castings on the right-hand side of the engine, and the throttle is set close up to the castings, so that the gas is admitted to the cylinders without passing through any pipes. This should certainly prevent recondensation, which it is thought is apt to take place when pipes of great length are employed. The honeycomb radiators are of brass, and the water is circulated by a pump. The cooling fan is provided by the flywheel, which is cast with vanes for that purpose. The plate clutch transmits motion to a strong variable speed gear giving direct drive through the cardan-shaft, which is provided with well-designed universal joints at both ends. The live axle is a very excellent piece of work, the design being well considered and the torque strictly provided against. A foot brake is provided in the gear and the side expanding brakes on the road wheels. The change speed lever works in a gate quadrant, which is protected from dust by being made up with complete sides like a box. The timing and throttle are controlled by levers on the steering wheel. The exhaust box is of ample dimensions, so that (inlet running and freedom from choking should be ensured. We observe, too, that the selecting rods for the change speed gear are enclosed in the case, and evidences of careful design are to be seen throughout the whole vehicle. In addition to the 25 h.p. chassis are two landaulets, one on a similar chassis and the other of 18-24 h.p.
Buick. Features: Two types of cars shown-18-22 h. p. and 24 h.p. Special features of the former, two-cylinder horizontal engine, accessible valves, epicyclic gears; of the latter, unit crank chamber, clutch case and gear box, and easily- dismounted back axle.
STERNBERG AND EASON, 15, Poland Street, Oxford Street, W. (14).—Two types of cars are shown on this stand—the 24 h.p. model, which was described in last week's issue of The Autocar, and the two-cylinder model 18-22 'h.p. with epicyclic gearing, One of the 24 h.p.'s is fitted with a light two-seated body, with a dicky seat mounted on a tool box behind. Side doors are provided, and the whole car has a particularly attractive and very racy appearance. The other car of this type is mounted on a side entrance four-seated body. Of the two 18-22 h.p. models, one is fitted with a side entrance body and the other with a particularly smart and handsome landaulet. In the 18-22 h.p. models a two-cylinder horizontal engine is fitted. The valves are carried in a cage, and are so arranged that the valves and cage complete can be removed in a remarkably easy manner. The gears are also very accessible, and can 'be lifted out separately without disturbing the rest of the mechanism. There are several other points worthy of careful examination in these Cars.
Cadillac. Features: Longer springs and wheelbase for the 10 11.p.; simple form of interlocked gate change for 20 h.p.; gear box counter-shaft out of action on direct drive; three-speed epicyclic gear on 30 h.p.; a special method of speed changing.
THE ANGLO-AMERICAN MOTOR CAR CO., LTD., 19-21, Heddon Street, Regent Street, W. (41).—A 10 h.p. Cadillac chassis, practically the same in all respects as those which have been so successfully used by the public for some time past, excepting that the wheelbase is slightly longer, and that the springs are longer, and thus give easier riding over rough roads, is shown. As many of our readers will know, the 10 h.p. type has horizontal engine, and two-speed epicyclic gear, and a single chain transmits the power from the sprocket, mounted loose on the crankshaft to the rear chain wheel, attached to the differential gear box. The 20 h.p. chassis is a standard type, which we fully described in The Autocar some time back. It has not been found necessary to make any modifications in this design, but we would call visitors' attention to the exceedingly simple form of gate change adopted for the gear. This is so arranged that it is impossible to change the gear unless the clutch is taken out. Further, when the gear is in place and the clutch is let in the gear is absolutely locked in its position. A further point in this sliding gear box is the fact that the counter-shaft wheel is taken out of mesh with the main shaft wheel when the high speed direct drive is in action. The 30 h.p. model is shown as a standard touring car with Cape cart hood. This model has a four- cylinder engine, the cylinders separately cast, and the water jacket casing in proper position—a great feature of Cadillac practice. The governor is not fitted in this model, but the engine is prevented from racing when the clutch is withdrawn by the connection of the butterfly throttle to the clutch pedal. There is further control of the throttle from a lever moving over a quadrant above the steering wheel. In this model a three-speed epicyclic gear is employed, and a great feature of this is that any of the gears can be put into action instantaneously by the simple application of the one side hand lever. This is brought about by connecting the hand lever to a bevel sector, which in turn meshes with a bevel wheel attached to a shaft. On this shaft are arranged three long pegs, or cams, which respectively operate the hands of the reverse first and second speed levers, which tighten up the spring bands on the outside of the epicyclic gear drums. On the top gear direct drive a similar peg causes a pull to be exerted on a rod attached to a cam action thrust piece, which serves to press the faces of the high speed clutch together and thus give the direct drive. The drive is by propeller-shaft to rear axle. Another model staged is the 20 h.p. landaulet, which looks a comfortable car for town work or for bad weather. Another 20 h.p. side entrance vehicle and a 10 h.p. with similar body, and both having Cape cart hoods complete the exhibit.
Calthorpe. Features: Accessibility of engine; new carburetter; light acting clutch.
THE CALTHORPE MOTOR CO., LTD., Birmingham (151).- The Calthorpe car, which came into prominence last summer by winning a gold medal in the Irish Trials, by making several fast ascents in hill-climbs held during the Scottish Trials, and by otherwise distinguishing itself in open corn petitions, is to be found on this stand. Only one distinct type of model is shown, the exhibits consisting of a chassis, a car fitted with a standard body, and one fitted with standard body and Cape cart hood and glass screen. The chief points about the car are the accessibility of the engine and general simplicity throughout. Attention is paid to details in that all the control rods are ball-jointed. In the latest model the ignition is by Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto and by accumulator and coil. The carburetter is of new design, and is claimed to act perfectly at any speed of the engine. This carburetter is by the well-known firm of Brown and Barlow, of Birmingham. The latest type of clutch pedal is very easy in action, and the declutching is effected by the lightest pressure of the foot. On the clutch fork a phosphor-bronze cone is carried, which fits on to a coned portion of the clutch- shaft, so that when time pedal is depressed to its utmost it acts as an efficient clutch brake.
C.G.V. Features: A spring (rubber buffer) coupling to convey the power from clutch to gearshaft.
THE LONDON MOTOR GARAGE CO., 33-37, Wardour Street, W. (62).—Both in France and in this country Charron, Girardot, and Voigt bear an enviable reputation for design, material, and workmanship. In the C.G.V. 20-28 h.p. chassis exhibited on this stand, the visitor to the show has an opportunity of inspecting examples of some of the best automobile engineering which comes to us from the other side of time Channel. Few, if any, modifications are found in the 20-28 h.p. chassis for next year. It should, however, he noted that a single high-tension distributer driven off the forward end of the induction camshaft serves both the magneto and the accumulator fed current. The spring coupling between the clutch-shaft and gear box, in which spiral springs were used in the 1907 pattern is now made with rubber blocks in lieu thereof. The lubricating oil tank is now placed within the bonnet, where the warmth radiating from the engine will always keep the oil in a fluid condition. Threo other chassis are;howl), carrying well-finished bodies of various types.
Chenard-Walcker. Features: Carburetter; multiple counter-shaft change-speed gear; single pedal control; spur drive from counter-shaft; thermo-syphon cooling; adjustable steering; system of gear box lubrication; three independent brakes.
CHENARD-WALCKER, 4, Percy Street, Tottenham Court Road, W. (76).—The Chenard-Walcker' cars are always interesting, and we have had occasion in recent issues to deal with their change-sped gear and their carburetter. In the former, by adding to the number of lay-shaft the strains on the main gearshaft are balanced, and freedom of running and ease of gear changing are secured. In the lighter patterns two lay-shafts are used, and in the heavier patterns three, or even four. In the carburetter it will be remembered that as the suction varies with the speed, so the lift of the pistons controlling the petrol and air are regulated. Turning now to the general features of the cars as exhibited, we are pleased to notice that the natural system of water circulation is retained. The honeycomb radiator is no larger than usual, but it is constructed on very excellent lines. Its action is assisted by a fan, and this fan is backed by a plate, which prevents the dust being thrown on to the engine itself. Special attention has been devoted to the steering mechanism, both the rack and the quadrant being now made adjustable, so that it is possible to take up slack in both directions. The engines have four cylinders cast in two pairs, with valves on opposite sides. The engine with the gear box is mounted on an underframe. The Simms high-tension magneto is located in front of the engine, and is coupled up to the sparking plugs by stiff bare wires, the natural insulating properties of the air being relied upon in this respect, instead of the usual rubber and other coverings. The timing is fixed, or rather no control over it is given to the driver, and by actuating the throttle by the accelerator pedal the usual levers on the steering wheel are dispensed with. A gauge showing the quantity of petrol in hand is mounted on the dashboard, and near to this is the lubricator, which has been carefully thought out. Primarily forced lubrication is employed for the motor, but in addition to this is a hand pump provided with a four-way tap. In one position oil can be drawn into the pump from a separate reservoir, in another position communication is opened to the engine, in a third with the gear box, and, lastly, with the t,tik in connection with the forced feed. By suitably manipulating the tap oil that has done duty in the engine can be withdrawn therefrom and delivered into the gear box. Three brakes are fitted. The first is a well-designed clutch brake; the second is mounted at the rear end of the propeller- shaft, and is of the expanding type; the third are grip brakes operating upon drums on the road wheels. The joints between the cardan shafts and the gear bevel pinion respectively combine both universal and longitudinal functions, radial rollers working in corresponding slots. The iirm's double 'back axle with internal spur reducing gear is well known. The 16-20 h.p. type of car is shown -in several forms, perhaps the most favoured being the Victoria with leather hood. The 30 h.p. is shown as a limousine.
Clement. Features: The new 25-35 h.p. model. Special accessible valve gear; combined chain cases and radius rods; effective lubricating system; remarkable accessibility of valve tappets and spindles.
THE CLEMENT MOTOR Co., LTD., 3, Leicester Street, W. (64)The centre of the stand is occupied by a grandly-finished 25-35 h.p. four-cylinder Clement polished chassis, the mechanical details of which were fully illustrated and described in a recent number of The A onea e. The chassis here exhibited enables visitors to observe the great care exercised in the design. It will be noticed that both the fore and aft springs are of unusual length, elliptical springs taking the place of the ordinary solid dumb irons at the rear of the frame. The cylinders are cast and set separately upon the crank chamber, and have gun metal end plates of large size. The valve chambers are opposed. The induction pipe, which rises vertically from the Krebs form of carburettor, is kept well clear of the- valve springs and valve tappets. The same can be said of the exhaust pot and the water delivery pipe from the circulating pump. Indeed, the accessibility of the valve gear in this engine is remarkable. The circulating pump is driven through a roil spring, which should prevent a mishap if some foreign substance should gain access to the pump. The high-tension magneto is driven by a simple form of dog off a wheel meshing with the driven wheel of the indite tion camshaft. The lubrication of the Clement engine is mm special feature, a forced feed lubricator being fitted, and oil being pumped from a lubricating tank on the inner side of t he frame through seven drip feeds on the dashboard. The method of carrying the end of the clutch-shaft in a- single ball bearing with balls of very large diameter carried on a bracket, depending from a cross member of the frame is a special feature of this design. The transmission shaft rear thereof is of considerable length, to bring the gear box as near the back axle as possible, and to keep down the length of the chains. These chains, as our readers know, run in substantially built, well- designed chain cases, which also perform the function of radium rods in an efficient manner. Both engine and gear box are carried on a long underframe running almost the whole length of the chassis. From radiator to the rearward cross member the whole of the frame is enclosed by aluminium sheeting. The chassis is a very taking one, and will assuredly inspire confidence in all who contemplate the purchase of one of these well-known cars. The remainder of the exhibit consists of two chassis similar to that just described, carrying well- designed double landaulet and Clement side-entrance Roi des Beiges bodies respectively. The latter is provided with a smart-looking double expansion ('ape cart hood and folding wind screen.
Clyde. Features: Parallel drive; gears always in mesh. Two, three, and four-cylinder models.
G. H. WAIT, Leicester (149).— This firm make moderate- priced cars their speciality, and with them they have had considerable success during the time the firm have been in existence. In every model shown here the engine is set transversely across the ira-e, and drives by means of flans Itenold Silent chains to a three-speed gear box carried on the back axle. In the long chassis cars a counter-shaft is fitted between the engine and the back axle, but in the short wheelbase cars a single chain is employed. The 8-10 h.p. car is provided with a two-cylinder Mite and Poppe engine fitted with magneto ignition. The 12-14 11.-. is driven by a similar engine fitted with three cylinders, while the four cylinder car shown is of longer whediase than the other two, and has a four- 71inder White and Poppe engine fitted with magneto ignition. 'the general advantages claimed for these cars are the absence of bevel gearing, gear wheels always in mesh, the change being effected by means of (log clutches, adjustable ball bearings, and careful attention paid to coachwork.
Courier and Wasp. Features. One large six-cylinder car and one small four-cylinder model. Mercury dashpot to air valve.
THE EUSTON MOTOR Co., LTD., 124, Easton (toad, N.W. (164).—One Courier and one Wasp cur are to he found upon this stand. The latter car is a 50-60 h.p. six-cylinder limousine, the bore and stroke of the engine being 130 mm. by 140 tam. Two types of ignition are fitted—Simms-Meech high-tension magneto and high-tension electric ignition with high-tension distributer. The carburetter is of the automatic type, the influx of air being controlled by a mercury valve. The clutch Ls of the internal expanding type. The gear box contains three speeds;-ml reverse, and the change is effected through a quadrant. Ball bearings are fitted throughout, and, in addition, an extra thrust bearing. The back axle is well :;toyed, and the wheels run on the axle sleeve. Both radius rods and a torque rod are employed. The Courier cur shown on this stand is a four-cylinder of 15 h. p., and the engine is made by the Coventry Simplex Motor Co. The bore and stroke are 86 min. by 92 nun. The ignition is by accumulator system, with a single coil and high-tension distributer. The carburetter is automatic, and the air is admitted through the valve with dashpot action. The same chassis strengthened may he had fitted with a six-cylinder engine. The Euston Motor Co. are agents for the Coventry Simplex engine, and one of the six-cylinder type is shown on this stand. This engine is fitted with ball bearing crankshaft and rotary pump and high-tension distributer. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and the valves are carried on one sick of the cylinders.
Crossley and Sizaire-Naudin. Feature, The British car built by the great gas-engine manufacturers, and the French small car which so distinguished itself in the race for Coupe de Voiturettcs. New Crossley back axle of particularly accessible design.
JARROTT AND LETTS, 45, Great. Marlborough Street, W. (32).— On this stand is found the latest productions of Messrs. Crossley Bros., Ltd., the world-renowned gas engine builders, of Openshaw, Manchester. The vast experience gained by thorn in connection with internal combustion engines has been devoted to the output of the 40 -.p. Crossley chassis staged here. Crossley knowledge-cum-Jarrott practice should result in something above and beyond the common, and that the example of automobile engineering we are about to describe is in its way something of a chef d'oeuvre no one who examines it will care to deny. The frame, which is of premed cumbered channel steel, is kept low forward, but upswept over the rear axle to afford ample clearance. 'the frame is carried in long semi-elliptical springs forward and three-quarter elliptics at the rear, this being done by Messrs. Crossley in preference to the rear transverse spring Ns hich they account less stable. The engine has not been largely modified over and above the Crossleys of 1907, and the proved metal to metal Crossley clutch is very properly retained, although the adjustment is now simpler. No great departure is noticeable in the gear box, but in regard to the back axle, that is now so arranged that it can be easily withdrawn from the casing which carries the load. The driving bevel and differential gear is also capable of being easily dismounted without removing the body or disturbing the back axle. The single lever gate control of the change-speed is retained, and the gear box, which is made without any joint, is so mounted that it with the gear can be dropped from the frame without dismounting any other unit. It will motor-propet tea u a r be noted that the appearance of this car has been considerably improved by the lowering of the bonnet, which tends to lend fm.artness to the tout enxemble.
A 40 h.p. chassis is shown carrying a limousine body specially designed by H. J. Mulliner for country work. The coachwork is in dark blue, picked out white, and, as to the interior, is most luxuriously upholstered in corded buff cloth. The interior accommodates five.
Another 40 h.p. Crossley is fitted with another H. J. Mulliner body, a double landaulet for town work. It is finished most tastefully in dark blue, and is a fine example of the coachbuilder's art. In face of the astounding perform antes of the Sizaire and Naudin's cars in the late Coupe des Voiturettes, carried out by the French journal I; Auto, the examples of this remarkable little ear to be found on this stand are certain to attract a vast amount of notice. In general design this remarkable mechanical entity has been varied in no great particular since we described it some time ago in 711u,:loom, It should he noted, however, that the engine now turns clockwise, and the eccentric cam operating the original form of change-speed gear is now set above the axle in lieu of below. 'I he particular C-411. Show carries a smart two-seated body in French grey and blue, and, coupled with the reputation which this wonderful little vehicle has lately obtained, is certainly one of the features of the exhibition. The car just described is the racing model 9 h.p., but another type, of 8 h.p., carrying a similar body, is also shown.
Daimler. Features: The new gear-driven model. Enclosed valve gear; four speeds, with direct third; worm-driven counter-shaft on chain-driven models; combined -udius rods noel chain cases.
THE DAIMLER MOTOR Co., LTD., Coventry (54).—Although no bare chassis is exhibited on this stand, nevertheless the interest of the technically minded will centre on the details of the new gear-driven Daimlers, which are shown here for the first, time. These are made in two powers, 30 h.p. and 38 h.p. respectively, but are the same in Mechanical detail throughout. In this case the description of one will serve for the other, and we would, therefore, draw attention to the following particulars The engine design is uniform for Daimler cars throughout, and are, practically speaking, on the same lines as last year, save that the camshaft and the distribution gear are now enclosed. The stroke and bore of the engine under review is 110 by 130, the 38 h.p. is 124 by 130, while the 42 h.p. is 130 by 150, and the 58 h.p. is 154 by 140. The two latter are chain-driven cars fitted with chain cases, acting as radius rods. Etch valve tappet is in the form of a segment, and moves in a radial path, being controlled by a rocking lever. The cover can be removed by unscrewing three bolts, and withdrawing the rocking tappets, leaving the camshaft exposed. The carburetter is as last year, save that it, is placed somewhat lower. The exhaust pipe is of steel with welded branches, and is made in one piece, and kept up level with the bottom of the valve chambers, in order to give free access to the valve tappets and valve spindles. The radiator fan is carried on a spindle with spring tension for keeping the belt always taut. A feature of the Daimler ignitions is the establishment of four high-tension non-trembler coils in a tubular casing immediately over the cylinder heads, from which very short high-tension wires pass to the high-tension accumulator-fed ignition plugs. These wires are less than 6in. in length. In the accumulator system an auto trembler is placed in the primary circuit between the contact wiper and the coils, this trembler being in continual operation. The alternative ignition is by Nilmelior low tension magneto, serving current to another high-tension coil in connection with the distributer on the magneto. A switch is provided on the dashboard by which the accumulators can b. switched into connection with the magneto distributer, and the engine started thereon if desired. No alteration is found in the design of the clutch. This description of the 30 h.p. engine serves for the Daimler engines of all pee, ens pre. vided for the cars of 1908. The drive passe, fries the (•I-te- already mentioned to a gear box affording four forward speeds, with direct drive on third, and interlocking gate change through the well-designed form of gate change sector. The propeller-shaft is made with universal joint at each end. The driving bevel spindle is carried in ball bearings, one bearing being set close up to the root of the bevel pinion. The road wheel driving shafts run in ball bearings, the road wheels being carried on ball bearings on extensions of the live axle casings. The live axle casing is formed of pressed steel in halves and oxy-acetylene, welded horizontally, the joint on the polished axle casing shown on the chassis on the stand being imperceptible. The driving shafts can be withdrawn through the hub without dismounting any other portion of the driving mechanism and the differential gear can ho similarly withdrawn through the front of the axle casing. No torque or radius rods are fitted, the rear springs being specially designed to perform the dual duty. The band brakes on the back wheel drums are applied by pedal from the dashboard, and the band brake at the rear of the gear box is actuated by the hand lever. Ignition, throttle and air are controlled by a single lever set upon the steering wheel.
The 42 h.p. chain-driven car the engine is the same as that already described except for dimensions, which were given in the last issue of The n fora. This car differs from those already described, particularly with regard to the gear box. As described in our issue of last week, a bevel drive does not appear in this gear box, but worm drive is sul.stitated therefor, the direct drive being obtained no third speed, while the drive on first, second, and fourth speeds passes through one set of spur wheels only instead of the usual four. The design of the chain cases fitted to these cars is interesting from the fact that they are made up in three parts—rear semi-circular portions and a forward diagonal portion, the withdrawal of which permits the case to be dropped from position. These cases, in addition to preserving the chains from oil and dust, also act as radius rods, and also carry the rear brake spindles. By the use of these chain cases the objectionable chain clitter absolutely disappears. On a 42 h.p. chassis is a magnificent example of a double limousine body with ample lighting and seat capacity. It is superbly finished and upholstered.
Another 42 h.p. chassis carries double phaeton in cream and red, splendidly upholstered, and provided with a smart Cape cart hood and half front screen on dashboard.
Another 42 h.p. carries a double landaulet body finished in a tasteful manner and most comfortably upholstered.
A 30 h.p. live axle car also supports a double landaulet in dark blue upholstered to match. These bodies are all by the Daimler Co., and are standard bodies of their type exhibits will convince visitors that a complete car of any description can be obtained in a satisfactory manner from this company, who carry out all the work in their own factory.
Darracq. Features: Bevel driving gear, differential gear, and change- speed gear, all contained in one case, mounted on the back axle—one of the innovations of the show.
A. DARRACQ AND Co., Walnut Tree Walk, Kennington, S.E. (871.— The 25-35 h.p. Darracq, both in chassis and complete forms, the latter having a tourist body with Cape cart hood is shown. This is another car that has settled down into a fixed pattern, the only change thought advisable being the alteration of the engine dimensions to 120 mm. for both bore and stroke. The principal item of interest is the new 18-22 h. p. chassis, which was described in our columns a fortnight ago. In this the pressed steel frame is set sharply inwards, with the result of providing a very ample steering lock. The rear end is raised, and is carried well back so as to bear directly over the rear transverse spring. The four-cylinder engine comprises a single casting, with all the valves arranged on one side and opening upwards. The Simms- Bosch high tension magneto provides the single ignition system. Below the radiator are two knob handles. One serves to adjust the time of the sparking, which is not otherwise controlled; the other agitates the carburetter for starting purposes. The exhaust gases pass first into a horizontal pot at the side of the engine, the pot being cast with radiating fins. The throttle of the carburetter is controlled both by a pedal and lever on the steering wheel. The drive is transmitted from the loather cone clutch through a long cardan-shaft to a gear casing which encloses both the differential and the variable speed gears. The lay-shaft is located behind the differential. The driving shafts are not enclosed in a case, but are supported by a deep H section fixed axle which takes the form of an inverted arch. The parts of the driving axles are detachable with the wheels. The advantage of the gear arrangement is not, perhaps, apparent at first sight, as it certainly adds to the amount of unsprung weight considerably. At the same time it tends towards simplicity, and if it increases dead weight, it decreases total weight to some extent, and it remains to be seen whether it is an ill-round better compromise than the usual arrangement. It is well to remember that it has been well tried on Darracq racers for the past three years, and found very successful, as the performances of the cars prove most emphatically. All the Darracq prices are for the car with body complete. We mention this because there has apparently been some misunderstanding as to the cost of the new 14-16 h.p. This is £335 short chassis, and £20 more for the long chassis.
Deasy. Features: Engine cast en bloc; enclosed valve gear; engine braking; method of varying engine timing; single plate clutch; modified form of gate change; rotund bodies.
THE DEASY MOTOR CO., Parkside, Coventry (33).— A very fine example of the 25 h.p. Deasy chassis, with who h most of our readers are acquainted from our previous description.
This engine has its cylinders en bloc, with the covers to valve shrines and spindles. Simms-Bosch high tension magneto is used as a standard. Low tension ignition or accumulator and coil ignition can be fitted if des reel The magneto and the water circulating pump are mounted upon the right-hand side of the engine, and are (Inv- lyian ii h.it, was originally the low tension ignition camshaft by weiiiis of a pair of spur wheels, the magneto being behind and t he pump before the casing carrying the wheels. Advance or retard of the ignition is obtained by lever on steering wheel and serving to operate the camshaft which is moved endwise, a pair of spiral wheels bringing about the desired relative motion of camshaft and magneto shaft. The Rover engine braking system is used on this engine. An imitation honeycomb radiator built up with tubes and a false front is fitted. The carburetter is of the well-known Rover pattern, as is also the plat, clutch. A new arrangement of operating the clutch, how- over, is now employed. This takes the form of a long lever whose fulcrum is carried on a bolt on the left hand side of the frame, whilst a ball race almost at its centre serves to put the necessary end movement on the clutch plate. The remote end of the lever is attached by means of a coupling to the pedal which operates the clutch. The gear is of the four-speed type, direct drive on top gear. The speed changing lover is of modified gate form so arranged that it is impossible to over-run each gear when meshing. Drive to the rear axle is by propeller-shaft, and as regards the rear axle aluminium is now employed in its casing. The foot brake is of the contracting type, whilst the rear bra'-es are the external expanding. The frame is built, up with a pair of flitch plates lining ash members, and forming a particularly strong but light ensemble. All the springs are of a semi- elliptical type. The front axle is of tube bent downwards to miss the martin; handle shaft, and the steering rods are carried behind the axle. A 35 h.p. three-quarter landaulet is also staged. The chassis resembles the 25 11.p. model. There is also staged a 25 h.p. side-entrance touring car with wind screen and Cape cart hoed, and a 45 h.p. two-seated car.
De Dietrich. Features: Governed ignition, with optional hand control; disc clutch; direct drives on third and fourth speeds; finger adjustable brakes; front bull bearings to crankshaft; staggered bad: wheels.
LORRAINE DE DIETRICH DE LUNEVILLE, 45, Great Marlborough Street, W. (61).— On this stand, under the to is of Messrs. Jarrett and Letts, we find a comprehensive exhibit of the De Dietrich Co. The 28-38 h.p. chassis will repay the closest inspection, and in every detail of design and construction bears out the great reputation which this famous firm have so long maintained. Practically speaking, the 18 h.p., 20 h.p. and 40 engines are identical, differing only in bore and stroke. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and have opposed valve chambers. Low tension magneto ignition is provided, with a. particularly reliable, simple, and accessible form of igniting device, with automatic advance controlled by the engine, but inter-connected with hand control in such a way that the ignition point can he set and determined a, desired. The drive passes from the engine through a metallic multi-disc clutch, fitted with adjustable spring tension (a particularly desirable feature in multi-disc clutches), and then by a neatly designed and efficient universal joint to the primary gearshaq. The interposition of this joint permits the clutch '1 to be dismounted without any interference with the gear box. The gear provides both four speeds forward and reverse, with direct drive on third and fourth spends. That is to say of course, direct to the counter-shaft which carries the chain sprockets. lwarings occur throughout, except to the middle ;Lid rear bearing of the crankshaft. Both foot and side lever brakes are extremely powerful, and of good design. Pressure on the brake pedal takes effect upon two brake drums on the counter-shaft, the power applied to the two drums being equalised by a out and efficient compensating device. In the higher powered cars these brakes are water-cooled. The brake drums on the road wheels, forming part of the driven char- wheels, are of unusually largo diameter. Both back and foot brakes can be adjusted by hand—no tool required. Shock absorbers are fitted in all cases. A well fitted, easily detachable sheet steel apron runs from the front of the chassis to the rear of the gear box, affording ample protection against the ingress of mud and dust.
The 14-16 h. p. town chassis is an innovation, and is intended for the carriage of luxurious-bodies. The engine is smaller than the 18 11.p. chain-driven type, being 90 mm. by 120 rum., and has high tension magneto ignition. It is driven through disc clutch, four-speed gear, and propeller-shaft, the back axle being of particularly robust, design, as necessary for this purpose. In order to obtain inclination of the back wheels as desired, universal joints are introduced between the ends of the differential gear-shafts and the shafts rotating the driving wheels. This is a novel feature, and one likely to prove of considerable value in respect to this particular chassis. The frame is made either straight or curved. Here on this stand is an opportunity of contrasting the best French and English coachbuilders' work, for one 21138 h.p. limousine is by Kellner and an 18-28 h.p. limousine is by H. J. Mulliner. Far be it from us to particularise in face of the entente cordiale, but we are satisfied as to which of the bodies we prefer.
De Dion. Features: New 10-12 h.p. four-cylinder car. tine of the two successful 10 11. p. Paris-Pekin cars. Improved form of carburetter. The well-tried expanding gear retained for the 8
DE DION-BOUTON (1907), LTD., 10, Great Marthorough Street, Regent Street, NV. (74).- The two pricipai lines for this year are our old friend the 8 h.p. single-cylinder and the new 12-14 h.p. four-cylinder, both eminently useful models, but, of course, not entirely eclipsing the new 8 the 10-12 h.p., and the 30 h.p. The last remains nindi as before, and is shown this year with a very line limousine body in the well known De Dion green with dark lines. The 8 h.p. with tolndar frame and expanding gears has been lint, little altered, except in the matter of increasing the wheels from 28in. to 30in. in diameter, which we think a considerable improvement. We are glad to see the firm retaining the expanding gear; it is an eminently serviceable device, and the filet that it was selected for the 10 h.p. Pekin to Paris car (which, by the way, is on view) shows the firm's confidence in it. Tile new 8, 10, and the 12 h.p. care are all constructed with pressed steel frames, and have one, two, and four cylinders respectively. Lubrication is on the forced fuel system, and the ignition varies with the different patterns. The I() h.p. has magneto and coil, the 12 I1.p. high tension magneto only, and the 8 h.p. has dry battery and coil. The sliding gears are operated by side levers working in vertical gate onadrant. The plate clutches have been improved. On the 12.14 h.p. the four cylinders are now cast in two pairs. The magneto and circulating pump are arranged on the right and left ends of a shaft mounted across the front of the motor. An improved form of lie Dion concentric carburetter was expected shortly after our visit. It aims at vaporising the petrol as perfectly as possible by warming it as well as spraying it, and securing an efficient mixture by subsequently adding cold air. The whole exhibit bespeaks reliability and keen appreciation of detail throughout.
Delaunay-Belleville. Feature, New six-cylinder cars, including a small model of 15 h.p. Spring hung propeller-shaft tube, forming torque rod; easy clutch adjustment; accessibility of carburetter.
THE BURLINGTON CARRIAGE Co., 315-317, Oxford Street, W. (67).—In visiting this stand the eye is first caught by the grandly finished chassis of the 40 h.p. six-cylinder Delannay Belleville. We have already foreshadowed the general lines of this fine example of automobile engineering, and are now able to examine) it in detail. The frame is of the usual form of pressed steel with cross members and angle pieces of similar section, and a longitudinal underframe also of channel steel, carrying the engine gear box and other parts requiring support. The well-known Delaunay-1isl1cvll is radiator is supported on an under swept transverse member. The crank chamber is supported from the members of the underframe by gusseted webs running the whole length of the chamber. The cylinders are cast separately and set in groups of three on the crank chamber, the crankshaft being carried in seven bearings, a bearing between each cylinder and bearings of exceptional length at each coil of the range of cylinders and between the sets of t lire, The carburetter is carried on the crank chamber web, and emninunicatem with the throttle chamber by vertical tube. The throttle chamber, which is surmounted by the automatic valve with controllable inlet, is placed between the two sets of cylinders and communicates right and loft by horizontal branched tubes with each cylinder. Ignition is by Simms Bose!' high tension magneto. The radiator fan is set eccentrically in a standard bolted to the top of the distribution gear case, and permits the belt to be easily adjusted. The clutch is of the external leather faced cone type, and with the flywheel is built with vaned arms for the purpose of withdrawing the heated -air from the engine space. The throttle is controlled from both wheel and footboard. hate section change is iirovided. A very stiffly designed gear lax contains gear with four speeds forward to the counter-shaft, from which the power is conveyed to the road wheels by chains. Both front and back isle are of stout I section steel. The rear end of the niche, rods, in addition to being set upon the driving wheel spindles, take the form of a disc, enclosing the rear brake drums and carrying the brake pivots;end application cams. The rear of the frame is supported upon three semi-elliptical springs, the back transverse spring being carried by a central du-b-iron pressed from the rear 'mind), of the trams. The bore and stroke are l flu inni. by 1;'0 min. This is as magnificent example of automobile engineering, and will be examined with interest. One of the new 20 h.p. chassis is also found on this stand. The stroke and bore are 110 x 130 respectively. A universal joint is introduced between the clutch-shaft and gear-ox. The foot brake immediately in rear of the gear box is of ample dimensions, the steel segments being formed with deep flanges to radiate heat. The propeller shaft casing is bolted ton flange on the forward socket of the differential gear casing, and performs the duties of the torque rod, being supported beneath by means of an adjustable plunger rod carried on the central transverse member of the frame. The longitudinal springs in the rear of the chassis are carried in fast sockets, the drive from the road wheels passing through them to the frame.
The 15 h.p. six-cylinder Delaunay-Belleville is perhaps one of the most interesting chassis in the show. So far as frame, flywheel, clutch, propeller-shaft, springing, etc., are concerned, this chassis is identical with that already described. A notable departure is found in the engine, in which the cylinders are cast in bloc form, three cylinders in one casting, with valve chambers on one side, and therefore a single camshaft. The magneto and water circulating pump are carried on either end of a transverse shaft placed on the distribution gear chamber and skew driven off the forward end of the crankshaft. A very neat arrangement of locking cones operated by thumbscrews permits the pump to be taken down in a few moments without disturbing any of the water joints. The magneto is particularly accessible, and can be dismounted in at few seconds. A special feature of the carburetter on the 20 h.p. and the car under review is the accessibility of the jet and jot chamber. Quito a third of this is cut away and enclosed by a rotating segmental shutter, which can be opened at will, and the it easily withdrawn for inspection and cleaning. The bore and stroke of the engine are 85 x 120 respectively. Two chassis are shown carrying very handsome limousine bodies finished in a most approved style. The 40 h.p. six- cylinder, 20 h.p. four-cylinder, 15 h.p. six-cylinder, are all fitted with accessible jet chambers.
Dennis. Feature", New engine; worm drive; spring dumb irons; mechanical lubrication; four-speed gear, with free wheel on the three indirect drives.
DENNIS BROS., LTD., ithOrd (83).- -This firm make a handsome display, comprising three of their 35 h.p. vehicles, a chassis of similar power, and a 20 h.p. touring car complete, The firm's well-known features of worm drive, splayed wooden spoke wheels, and spring dumb irons are retained, but one or two interesting departures are now made. First we notice the new engine. This has neatly designed separate cylinders, four in number, with the valve 1,0.•kets on opposite sides. Although the castings are separate they are connected up at their adjacent points in such a way ire to throw the water spaces all into one. The lubrication has received special attention. The oil reservoir is carried at the left- hand side of the frame under the bonnet. It works in conjunction with two oil pumps, one of which delivers the oil under pressure to the bearings, and the other returns it from a well at the bottom of the crank chamber into the reservoir. A very promising novelty is shown in the four-speed gear. This is on the usual lines, hut the gear wheel on the first shaft, which receives the motion from the lay-shaft on the indirect drives, instead of being fixed, is mounted un a freewheel. The result is that when running on the direct third speed the lay-shaft remains stationary. For reversing, a dog clutch is introduced, which couples tip the wheel positively to the gearshaft. This arrangement is particularly useful in hill-climbing, as the lower gears can be changed into before the actual necessity arises, and then, as the speed drops, the engine will gradually pick up without shock at the lower ratio. The bodywork, which is carried out by the trio themselves, does them great credit, both in design and workmanship. The three 35 h.p. complete cars comprise a landaulet and a brougham, both of which are constructed to carry five passengers inside, and an ideal landaulet having a rounded top, which gives the car a handsome and distinctive appearance.
DuCros Mercedes. Features: New low-tension ignition; dashboard cut-out; simplified distribution gear; modified carburetter; compressed air self-starter; improved coil clutch; finger adjustment for brakes.
DUCROS-MERCEDES, Lm., Long Acre, W.C. (46).—The centre of this stand is occupied by tin interesting 45 h.p. Mercedes chassis, in which several notable improvements and alterations are to be found. So far as frame and spring suspension go, there are few differences, but with regard to the 45 h.p. 120 mm. by 150 min. four-cylinder engine this is now fitted with a new form of Simms-Bosch low tension ignition with magnetic pings, an interesting innovation which will be demonstrated by a trial car limning outside the building. 'The steering standard is now made independently of the sector, that remaining stationary. Cut-outs are fitted on the dashboard, by which the engine can be tested cylinder by cylinder when running. The lubricating tank with its enclosed pump has been removed fro] the dashboard and placed between the frame and the crank chamber, in a position where the oil will always be kept liquid. It is driven then, to the various bearings it is intended to serve. An intermediate distribution wheel which used to occur between the crankshaft and the camshaft wheels is now dispensed with. It will be noted that a return has been made to the old principle of piston carburetter with slight modifications. The radiator on this type is the same as that used on the six- cylinder Mercedes, and is mounted on one side of a, rocking joint attached to the frame. The design of the change speed selecting gear box has been improved. The method of carrying the frame and the springs has been improved, the spring hanger being shortened and turned sharply inwards, making a neater and more effective design. This chassis is shown fitted with a Torchon, Munier compressed air self-starter, and this apparatus is also demonstrated on one of the trial cars outside the building. A now feature in Mercedes design is the provision of ample inspection chambers to the off-side of the crank chamber, the door of which is retained by a single dog, easily removable. The coil clutch has been improved in such a way that it is now guaranteed to take up in the sweetest possible manner, and is thereby specially suited for traffic driving. The order of the gate change has been reversed. First is backward, second forward, third back, and fourth again forward. The band brakes on the countershaft are now hand adjustable, the turn screws effecting the same being reached through the small trap formed in the under apron. A 20-25 h.p. chassis is shown carrying a landaulet, a 25 h.p. a limousine, a 40 h.p. Roi des Beiges, and a 75 h.p. six-cylinder chassis a magnificent form of Pullman body finished in coaching yellow and black. Both front and back of the car are enclosed, and most sumptuously upholstered in drab cord, with same trimmings. These bodies are all by .1. A. Lawton and Co., the Pullman being particularly one of the most interesting body exhibits in the exhibition.
Duplex. Feature.: A four-cylinder two-stroke engine.
THE MOTOR ENGINE AND MANUFACTURING CO., LTD., 12.13, Henrietta Street, W.C. (2).— A single landaulet with coach aolk by Benson, of Reading. A four-cylinder Duplex two- stroke engine is fitted. In this engine, which was exhibited for the first time at the last Olympia Show, there are now modifications in that the passage of gas is not now through a valve in the cylinder head, but by way of port to an outer valve situated on the left-hand side of the cylinder. Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto ignition is fitted. The gear fitted is of the sliding type, and a live axle drive is given to the rear wheel. We understand, however, that a feral of infinitesimally variable gear is to be fitted, this taking the shape of the usual double expanding and contracting cones, over which a belt runs. The belt in this case takes the shape of a number of leather washers mostly strung on a strong chain.
E.J.Y.R. Features: A new steam car; Clash generator; paraffin fuel after starting on spirit. Three-cylinder vertical single-acting engine.
THE HIGHCLERE MOTOR CAR SYNDICATE LTD, Highclere, Hants. (162).—A new steam car. On the road in finished form one could hardly distinguish it from a good-looking petrol car. At the front is a condenser, which appears to be honeycomb, but on further examination it is found to have a false front, the condenser tubes being of the gilled type arranged in horizontal layers. From the engine exhaust steam passes by way of a water heater fitted behind the upper rear portion of the generator to the condenser, where the steam is condensed to water, and is returned to the water tank by the small pressure of the exhaust steam in the condenser. In the generator, which is of the flash type, there are nine layers of tubes in varying diameter, the tubes having a smaller core in the bottom layer. Beneath the generator is the burner, which consists of twelve nipples similar to those fitted to the Serpollet steamer. The air to the burners is taken from behind the condenser, and is thus heated, and ',asset; up through gauze below the jets. About the jets are small cups, into which petrol is passed at the commencement. This is ignited by means of a match, and the vaporiser is thus warmed. After a short interval the petrol supply can be turned on, and this is vaporised and burned at the jet. In a few minutes the vaporiser becomes hot enough to light all jets, and the paraffin is turned on and the petrol shut off. Behind the generator is a three-cylinder, vertical, single-acting engine. The front of the second cylinder is about in line with the dashboard. This engine has mushroom tappets actuated by camshafts arranged on the right hand, all the valves being on this side. The inlet camshaft is tapered away, so that variable lift can be given to the inlet valves. It should be said that the lift of the inlet valves is varied by sliding the camshaft endwise. On the left side of the crank mine is a set of gear wheels, which rotate a shaft having two cranks at 180° to each other, the rear crank driving the air pump, which maintains pressure in the fuel tanks, the forward crank driving the water supply pump, which feeds the generator. An air reservoir is fitted above the pump to maintain constant flow of the water. Mounted on the front end of the pump is a by-pass valve operated from the lever above the steering wheel. This practically has the same effect as a throttle of a petrol engine, in that it allows of greater or less generation of steam by the passing of more or less water to the generator. Very ingenious m- hods are employed for controlling the generator in accordance with the requirements of the moment. A clutch is provided, so that the engine can be run independently if required, and from this the drive is direct to a bevel which drives the live back axle.
Electromobile. Features: Electrically propelled cars.
THE ELECTROMOBILE CO., LTD., 7, Curzon Street, Mayfair,. W. (39).—Four models of electrically propelled vehicles are staged, viz., two double landaulets, single landaulet, and a three-quarter landaulet. All are fitted with accumulators partly beneath the driver's seat and the main bodywork, the box containing accumulator being readily detachable, another complete set of accumulators being fitted practically instantaneously. The accumulators have a capacity of 135 amperes, there being a set of forty-five two-volt switches arranged on a charge in thirty-five miles. The car is rated as 8 h.p. and transmits the drive to the rear wheels by a single reduction through a pair of spur wheels, the larger spur wheel being mounted on the differential 'gear box contained in the rear axle casing. All the road wheels run on plain bearings. The control lever is fitted beneath the steering wheel working over a well marked quadrant on the steering stem. There are five positions for the lever on the forward drive, two positions for braking with electric brake and one far reverse. The latter cannot be brought into action until the trigger is depressed to allow of the switch lever to be brought into the reverse position. Facing the driver, at the bottom of the steering stem, is the hand voltmeter. A pedal operated by the right foot first of all switches off the current, and later applies the mechanical brake to the brake drums on the rear road wheels, the brakes being of the internal expanding pattern. When desired to hold the car stationary on a hill, a foot brake pedal is depressed, and also a knob on the left wheel, which has the effect of locking the pedal in position. Pneumatic tyres are fitted to all the road wheels. The suspension on the vehicle is very well carried out, three-quarter elliptical plate springs being fitted, with a front axle and half elliptical springs to the rear, a transverse spring gear being fitted in addition to the usual side springs. The double landaulet bodywork is in aluminium, and is a line sample of the coachbuilder's art.
Enfield. Features: The new 18 h.p. Ball bearings throughout, excepting for engine; cylinders cast in pairs; adjustable steering; Kirkstall Forge front axle; large aler and strainer to petrol lank; gears adjusted to quadrant, not rice versa, as is usual; all cased propeller-shaft joints; careful attention to detail throughout.
THE ENFIELD AUTOCAR CO., LTD., Redditch (92).—This company was some time in finding its feet in motor construction, but having found them—that is to say, having settled upon a good pattern — it is now wisely concentrating its efforts upon that one design. We therefore find that the five cars and the chassis shown are all of 18 and all of practically the same construction. They are improved editions of th2. 1907 patterns. The four-cylinder engines have their cylinders cast in two pairs, with valve pockets upon either side. They are mounted on pressed steel frames, aid fitted as standard with high-tension accumulator and coil ignition, but magneto ignition can be had to order. Ball bearings are fitted to the wheels and gearing, the last providing three speeds forward and a reverse, on the cardan system. Lubrication is by pressure feed. The completed cars include a landaulet, a very taking little two-seater with Cape cart hood, a limousine, and a four-seater. The bodywork is all carried out by the company itself. Separate specimens of the engine, gear box, and other parts complete a business-like exhibit. An inspection of this exhibit shows at once the care which has been bestowed upon the production of these cars. For example, the flywheel is marked to indicate the action of the pistons and valves as the crankshaft rotates. Thus by rotating the flywheel to bring different marks opposite an index finger, the relative positions of the parts of the engine can be determined without removing any fastenings. The actual brake horse-power developed by each engine under test is also marked on the flywheel. The exhaust pot is connected up to the exhaust ports by short branches, whirls are gilled to dissipate the heat. The gear box in of very small dimensions, and the inspection lid is quickly removable on unscrewing four butterfly nuts. The company is certainly now in possession of a pattern which they can push with confidence and profit.
Fiat. Features. High-tension magneto in place of low-tension; governed lubrication, ensuring oil supply being proportionate with the engine speed; propeller-shaft drive; pedal switch. Four and six-cylinder models.
FIAT MOTORS, LTD., 37-38, Long AC,. W.C. (26).—This firm, which was the first to introduce the popular type of Italian cars, the excellence of whose finish and whose reliability is now a household word in the automobile world, has produced two new models for 1908. The first is a 28 35 h.p., fitted with four-cylinder engine, the cylinders of which are cast in pairs. Contrary to the usual practice, the Simms- Bosch high-tension magneto is fitted, and not low-tension type as previously. The carburetter is of the float feed type, the exact details concerning which are not at present forthcoming. The system of governing is interesting, in that the flow of oil is used to control the amount of gas supplied to the engine. The faster the engine runs, the greater the volume of oil that the pump raises, so that when the engine speed exceeds the normal, the oil works against the piston and cuts down the gas. When the accelerator pedal is depressed, the pressure against the piston becomes positive, and the governor ceases to wink. From the pump the oil is driven through the crankshaft, which is hollow, and the flow of oil is regulated by a pump on the dashboard. which controls the direction in' which it is intended to run, that is to say either to the crankshaft., base chamber, or other parts of the car. The gear box contains four speeds forward and reverse, and the drive is transmitted from this to the rear axle by means of a propeller-shaft, which is encased, the casing serving to act as a torque stay. The back axe is strongly built, and is splayed. The ordinary type of propeller-shaft brake and internal expanding brakes are fitted. The brakes are provided with a simple butterfly nut adjustment. A handy fitting is attached to the dashboard in the shape of a button, which may be pressed by the foot for the purpose of short, circuiting the magneto, and thus stopping the engine. The six-cylinder 48 h.p. model closely resembles the car we have just described, with the exception of the addition of an extra pair of cylinders; also the transmission is h wins. These chains are provided with chain- g u adjust themselves when the chain is taken up rhos are also fitted to all four wheels. The other models shown on this stand are the 30-40 h.p., fitted to side-entrance body with Cape cart hood and wind screen, and a la-20 h.p. live axle car, also the same as last year's pattern, fitted with a landaulet body.
Ford Cars. Features Flywheel in front of crank chamber acting as radiator and fan; modified epicyclic gear, no internal teeth; double elliptic springs in rear.
PERRY, THORNTON, AND SCHREIBER, 117-119, Long Acre, W.C. (93).- Five examples of the Ford cars and chassis are on view here. Ali have four-cylinder engines mounted on pressed steel frames. The flywheels are arranged immediately behind the radiators, to which they act as fans. They also drive the centrifugal water pumps. The gearing is of the troditied epicyclic type, no internal teeth being employed. The front spring is transverse, and the rear springs are double elliptic. The lubricating reservoir is arranged at the right side of the engine, and the carburetter at the left. The ignition is by accumulators and trembler coil. For the larger types of bodies the frame is lengthened, and these and other parts are increased in strength. Besides a two-seated car pure and simple, there is another with a third tiger seat, and a victoria with hood and folding back seat. There are also a four-seater and a landaulet, giving a complete range of types of these small but useful cars.
Germain. Features. The new six-cylinder. Ball bearing crankshaft. Disconnecting drive from back axle to gear box when changing gear; governed ignition; brass water-jackets.
THEO MASUI, 1, Hanover Court, Hanover Street, W. (48). - A very striking exhibit of this stand is the 55 h.p. six-cylinder chassis. The engine has separately cast cylinders similar to the 28 h.p. four-cylinder model. The jackets are in brass, which is a feature of the Germain design. The crankshaft is fitted with very large diameter ball bearings. Only one system of ignition is fitted, viz., the Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto. Automatic advance of the ignition is obtained by means of a governor carried in a case at the forward end of the 'distribution shaft. The water circulating pump is of the centrifugal type; a honeycomb radiator of circular design has a belt-driven fin behind it for cooling purposes. The valves are all mechanically operated - exhaust on the left, inlets on the right, and the control is by means of a lever on the steering wheel, which acts upon the variable lift inlet valves. Three-speed gear is fitted. On this model and the 28 h.p. not only does the clutch disconnect the drive from the gear box when it is desired to change gear, but there is also a dog clutch at the end of the primary shaft serves to disconnect the shaft from driving engagement with the propeller-shaft. The gears must be changed with-out any stress being on them at the time. The frame is of pressed steel of exceptionally good design. This is wicknecl as to its horizontal webs from near the dash to a point about a couple of feet behind, so that no buckling is likely to take place. The car is live axle driven, and the foot brake is of the contracting metal to metal external shoe type, the rear wheel brakes being of the external expanding metal to metal type. Semi-elliptical springs are fitted to the front axle, three-quarters-elliptical to the rear. A particularly attractive 28 h.p. limousine finished in chocolate and arranged to carry four inside is staged. This has the four-cylinder engine of similar type to the six-cylinder. The two 14 h.p. four-cylinder vehicles are also staged. One is in single landaulet form, whilst the other is a side entrance phaeton with Cape hood. The general features are the same as the higher power, save that the engine has a leather to metal cone clutch, instead of a disc clutch. Both the 14 h.p. and 18 h.p. are types which have proved themselves to be among the best cars of light weight and medium power of the day.
Gladiator. Features: 37 plate multiple disc clutch; steady bearing to clutch-shaft; chain cases; propeller-shaft drive for smaller model; the G. and A. ball-weighted automatic carburetter.
THE GLADIATOR CO., 134, Long Acre, W.C.—A 35-45 h.p. polished chassis of excellent appearance is a feature on this stand. The engine has its cylinders separately cast, and the crankshaft a bearing between each throw. Simms-Bosch high- tension magneto, driven from the right-hand rear of the distribution wheel casing. The inlet valves are on the left and exhaust on right. Krebs carburetter supplies mixture to a four-way aluminium casting attached to the cylinder inlet port flanges. Lubrication is by a sight feed lubricator served from small plunger pump actuated by an eccentric on the rear of the inlet valve camshaft, taking oil from tank on left-hand side of the main frame. Exhaust pressure feed is employed to the carburetter, control levers for ignition and throttle are above the steering wheel, and an accelerated pedal is also fitted. The clutch is of the multiple disc type, having thirty-seven hardened steel plates in its construction. The bearing is arranged behind the clutch to take the forward end of the transmission-shaft. This bearing can be dropped by the removal of one nut, so that on uncoupling the flanges of the shaft the clutch can be taken out without dismounting the flywheel or the transmission-shaft. The gate change gear gives four speeds, direct drive on top. The gear box and differential casing are all in one piece. Two brakes are fitted to the differential shafts, the right hand one being operated by the right pedal, whilst the left pedal first removes the clutch, and further pressure brings on the left hand brake. The foot brakes arc of the contracting type copper lined. The hand brake is the pull-on type, internal expanding, and is balanced in its application by means of steel wire cables. Chain cases are fitted to keep the mud from the chains. The frame is pressed steel, the engine and gear being mounted on a sub-frame. The frame is carried on semi-elliptical springs at the front, three-quarter at the rear. Fluted I-section front axis is employed and a square rear axle. Ball bearings are used throughout on gear-shafts and road wheels. The clutch pedal can be set in relation to the 'brake-actuating lever with which it engages by means of a small slotted lever in which the actuating pin and the clutch pedal can be moved through a certain arc.
The 14-18 h.p. chassis has a four-cylinder engine with the cylinders cast in pairs, Simms-Bosch high-tension ignition, Krebs carburetter, centrifugal water circulating pump, honeycomb radiator, and fan behind. The valve arrangement is the same on this as on the 35 h.p. chassis. The multiple disc clutch is fitted, and in this model the gear gives three changes of speed, the lever moving over a straight quadrant. Direct drive on the top with a live axle. The live axle is worthy of attention, for the hub caps can be removed and the driving shaft withdrawn, leaving the road wheels and main axle casing in position when the top half of the differential case is removed; the differential, with its bevel, can be taken completely away. The foot brake takes effect on the drum behind the gem box, which is of the contracting metal to metal type, whilst the hand brakes are of the external expanding cable appearance type. The ignition is fixed, there only being one throttle lever on the steering wheel, whilst a pedal accelerator is also fitted. The 12-14 h.p. chassis has cylinders cast in pairs, valves on the left-hand side, G.A. carburetter, Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto ignition, combined water tank and radiator with vertical gilled tubes, and a belt-driven fan behind. The engine and gear box are carried on an underframe of angled steel. The clutch is of the leather faced cone type. This car has a live axle drive, and the gear box is of circular form, carried on the underframe. The courter-shaft is below the main shaft. It gives three speeds with a gate change lever. On this model all the brakes are extern-11 expanding metal to metal. A very fine-looking 18-28 h.p. three-quarter landaulet (the body by Lamplugh) is also staged. A 25-35 h.p. limousine body by Rothschild is set on a chassis similar to that which did so well in the Heavy Tourist Trophy Race this year. In addition an English type 18-24 h.p. Gladiator with side entrance phaeton body, and Austin patent hood, to which we have before referred, is also shown.
Gobron-Brillie. Features: Eight-piston four-cylinder engines and twelve- piston six-cylinder engines. Compressed air engine starter and tyre inflator; double clutch.
SOCIETE COMMERCIALE DES AUTOMOBILES, GOBRON-BRILLIE, 173. Piccadilly. W. (85).— This old-established French firm, having its own branch in London, may be said to be showing direct. The peculiar construction of their engine is well- known to most of our readers. There are two pistons in each cylinder, the upper piston working on to the crankshaft by a cross head and connecting rods, while the lower pistons operate in the usual manner. Thus, while the standard model has four cylinders it has eight pistons, and the newly introduced six-cylinder model has twelve pistons. The smoothness of running should, therefore, be very noticeable. On the larger car a self-starting system is introduced, operating by compressed air It is easily thrown in and out of action, and may also be employed for inflating the tyres. In addition to the clutch pedal there are two other pedals operating brakes, two being fitted to the cross-shaft. The clutch pedal still serves two purposes, but in this case there are two clutches, an inner one of the metal to metal kind and an outer one which is leather lined. This provides for very gradual starting of the car. Another good point of a duplicating nature consists in providing a second shaft parallel to that on which the clutch pedal is centred. The two shafts are bridged together, thus avoiding springing of the parts. The Antoine control levers are employed. A very skilfully designed limousine is shown on one of the complete cars, and is adapted to collapse so that it combines in itself an open hod:- The remaining car is a landaulet by Mulliner. Both these bodies are fitted to a chassis of 40-60 h.p.
Gregoire. Features: Two and four-cylinder models. Ball bearing crankshaft. The two-cylinder model which averaged thirty-six miles an hour in the Coupe de Voiturette. Two-jet carburetter. Excellent specimens of small and medium-powered types.
OSBORN AND CO., LTD., 6, Great Marlborough Street, W. (156).—The Gregoire car, which is one of the most popular lightweight two-cylinder cars in this country, has lately come forward into distinction in the recently-held Coupe de Voiturette, in which the 8 h.p. two-cylinder covered the course at ar. average speed of fifty-eight kiloms. (Thirty-six miles) an hour. The 6-8 h.p. touring model h both cylinders in one casting, and the bore and stroke of the cylinders are 80 by 110 mm. The circulation is by the thermo-syphon system. The control is by throttle only, operated by a foot pedal. The carburetter is provided with two jets, the larger of which is controlled by the throttle. The timing wheels are enclosed, and oil the half-time shaft the two-cylinder Simms-Bosch magneto is driven. The clutch is of the ordinary leather to metal type. The gear box is provided with ball bearings throughout, and gives three speeds forward and reverse. The propeller-shaft is enclosed in the casing, which has two channel section branches at its forward end, which are Pivoted' at the near end of the inner frame which separates the gear box, thus acting as an efficient torque rod. The chassis is sprung on three- quarter elliptical springs at the rear and semi-elliptical springs at the front. The 10-14 model is provided with a four-cylinder engine, 80 by 110 ion. The cylinders are cast en bloc. The crankshaft is mounted on ball bearings. The ignition is by Simms-Bosch high tension magneto, and the same type of carburetter is fitted as to the 6 and 8 h.p., the outer portion of the clutch acts on a fan, and the clutch itself is of the leather to metal type. The gear box contains three speeds and reverse. The shafts are mounted on ball bearings, the drive is by propeller-shaft, and radius rods are fitted extending from a transverse member of the frame to the rear axle. Lubrication is effected by means of a pump driven off the engine, which delivers the oil through sight feeds to the various bearings. The 10-14 h.p. chassis is provided with free elliptical springs at the rear. Other models shown on this stand are a 6 and 8 h.p. fitted with a two-seated body, leather hood 10-14 h.p. fitted with side entrance body.
Hillman-Coatalen. Features. Six and four-cylinder cars; high power in relation to weight; simplicity and lightness without sacrifice to strength.
HILLMAN-COATALEN MOTOR CAR CO., LTD., Pinky, Coventry (115).—We so fully described this very interesting car in our issue of October 12th, 1907, that we can do no better than refer our readers to that number, as any description we could find space for here must necessarily be inadequate,. In addition to the four-cylinder chassis there is also shown a larger chassis, which although somewhat incomplete contains the principal item in its six-cylinder engine, which is built on the same lines as the four-cylinder, but is fitted with two water pumps, each controlling the circulation to three cylinders. Among other points which could be mentioned are the extension of the crankcase in base plate form right to the side members of the main frame. The dual ignition should be noticed, and the construction of the three-quarter springs. By fitting these with shackles at the rear extremities it is possible to join the front ends of the springs directly to the frame, and thus avoid the use of distance rods. The clutch is radial and detachable, and is fitted with stops for checking its action when changing gear. The primary gearshaft is provided with an intermediate steady bearing, and the footbrake operates not upon the gearshaft but the casing of the forward universal joint to the cardan-shaft.
Hispano-Suiza. Features: Direct third and fourth speeds. This car, which is of Spanish manufacture and Swiss design, was first shown at Birmingham last winter. Multiple disc clutch; special forced lubrication system.
WEBLEY AND SCOTT, Weaman Street, Birmingham, and 27, Maddox Street, W. '(98).—Here are shown Hispano-Suiza 30-40 h. p. chassis and 40-50 h. p. car with seven-seated body. The 30-40 .h. p. has' a cur-cylinder engine, with cylinders in pairs, opposed valve chambers, enclosed gears, the engine being carried on the main members of the frame. A multi-disc clutch, short and stiffly carried gear box, and long propeller-shaft with two universal joints completes the drive to the back axle. Gate change, four speeds are provided, direct drive on third and geared fourth. The brakes are of excellent design, and extremely powerful. A trianelar channel section torque rod is fitted; also radius rods. The back axle, which is of clear design, is stiffened by an inverted tension rod. The bore of this engine is 100 mm., the stroke 130 mm. The 40 h.p. four-cylinder carrying the body has an engine of similar design, but with 130 mm. bore and 140 mm. stroke.
Horbick. Features: Four and six-cylinder White and Poppe engines and carburetters; special sub-triune; disc clutch; direct third, geared up fourth speed.
HORSFALL AND BICKHAM, Bridgwater Works, Pendleton, Manchester (75).—The Horbick cars have now been before the motoring public for a considerable time and with ever-increasing favour. This year they comprise two patterns of four and six cylinders respectively. In both models the very excellent White and Poppe engines are employed, with the equally excellent carburetters of the same name. The ignition is by Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto, this having been found sufficiently perfect to be run without any auxiliary system. In the larger pattern, the engine and gear box are carried upon an inner frame of channel section steel resembling a U in plan. The centre of the bend is carried on a bolt passing through the front cross member of the pressed steel frame, the rear ends of the U are suspended from one of the intermediate cross members.
Thus the engine and gear box are carried as one, and the twisting of the main frame is not transmitted detrimentally to the elements mentioned. The disc clutch is ingeniously controlled by a system of face canes operated by a pedal in the ordinary way. The accelerator pedal is the main one used in driving, the hand throttle and timing control being on the dashboard. The gear box provides four forward speeds, the highest being geared up and the third being direct. The change-speed lever operates in a gate quadrant. The foot brake operates on the rear hubs, the hail() lever being coupled up to the propeller-shaft brake, which is of the grip type. This is the reverse of the usual arrangement, but we certainly do not consider it inferior. The bevel pinion is in one piece with the cardan shaft, the forward end of which terminates in a ball universal joint. A finished car of this pattern having a touring body is Town painted white picked out with blue. The four-cylinder car is similar in general construction, but it has only three speeds, and the gear-shafts turn in plain journals, instead of ball bearings.
Horch. Features: Multiple jet carburetter; multi-ring clutch. The new 6() h.p. six-cylinder chassis.
HORCH MOTORS LTD. Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. (136). - One-half of this stand is occupied by a fine example of a six-cylinder 60 Hord' chassis, the frame of which is in Bismar, k 'tee! of cambered channel section with cross members of similar material. 'l Ire cylinders are cast and set in pairs span the crank chamber. The crankshaft runs in four bearings, there being a journal between each pair of cylinders.
The valve chambers are on the left-hand side of time cylinders, the induction valves being over the exhausts, and operated by rocking levers from long tappet rods passing up to the side of the cylinders. The bore is 115 mm. and the stroke 128 mm. The carburetter is placed on the right-hand side of and in the centre of the engine, the induction pipe being provided with three branches, one to each pair of cylinders. In the indiction pot is found a baffle plate, which makes the induction leads all of equal length. An ingenious form of limb iple spray carburetter is fitted; this leis a main jet, being surrounded by smaller jets, which come into operation through the operation of a piston throttle valve in accordance with the requirements of the engine. We trust to be able to describe this carburetter in detail by the light of a sectional drawing in the course of an issue or two. The crank chamber is cast in with plates, by which it is supported by a side member, and which eiko forms an apron preventing the ingress of dirt or mud. High tension magneto ignition by Simms-Bosch is fitted, the magneto being driven through a fibre dog clutch off is pin'on on the left of the crank chamber. Lubrication is by exhaust pressure in the tank up to six force-feed pumps situated under the dashboard, which are operated from the camshaft, and from which oil is served to the various bearings where required. Au interesting form of multi-ring clutch, which is difficult of description without drawing, conveys the drive from the engine to the gear box. This clutch is self- contained, and is carried in such a way that no end thrust results. The drive passes through a well designed gear box giving four speeds forward, to the live axle through propeller-shaft and universal joint of excellent design. These joints are all specially designed, which we hope to illustrate shortly. It should be noted that the gear-shafts are carried in double ball bearings in the rear of the box. The live axle is of strong design, the wheels running on two rows of ball bearings on extensions of the live axle casings. The pedal- applied brake in the rear of the gear box is of the locomotive type. Two sets of internal expanding brake segments are fitted to each brake drum on the back wheel, one set being applied by a pedal, and the other by lever in the usual way. When the side lever brakes are in application an ingenious arrangement locks the gear lever in the neutral position. This chassis is worthy of examination in every point. A well finished landaulet body is shown on an 18-22 h.p. Horeb chassis, which is similar in design to that already described, save that it is a four-cylinder engine of similar dimensions.
Horley. Features: Two and four-seated. Two-cylinder cars driven by White and Poppe engine.
THE HORLEY MOTOR AND ENGINEERING CO., LTD., Horley, Surrey (99).—Here are two 8.5 h.p. Horley, Primus, and Secundus cars, both of which are driven by two-cylinder White and Poppe engines, 80 by 90 mm., through leather-faced cone clutch and propeller-shaft to live axle. With the White and Poppe engine a White and Poppe carburetter is fitted. The rear of the frame is supported by a transverse spring. The circulating pump is gear driven, and the contact wiper is driven by a vertical shaft off the camshaft.
Hotchkiss. Features: The wearing parts of the 15,000 miles' car; new carburetter; slow-running countershaft to obtain quiet indirect drives.
THE LONDON AND PARISIAN MOTOR CO., LTD., 87, Davies Street, Oxford Street, W. (29).— No finer engineering is to be seen in the whole of Olympia than on this stand in the shape of the two Hotchkiss exhibits - 16-20 h.p. chassis and the 40-50 h.p. six-cylinder landaulet. The smaller is one of the well-known French gun-making firm's latest productions. The motor is a four-cylinder engine, the cylinders cast en bloc, the valves all being carried on the near side. The bore and stroke of each cylinder is 95 mm. by 110 mm. The latest type of Eisemann magneto is fitted, and a new type of (,lrouville and Arquembourg carburetter is now employed. The carburetter is automatic in action, the air being supplied by the suction of the engine lifting different size balls from their seatings as the speed increases. The throttle is of the piston type. It is also interesting to note that in each model ball bearings are no longer fitted to the crankshaft. The water circulation is carried out by means of a rotary pump, and the cooling is effected by the same type of radiator as previously. Great attention has been paid to detail, and it is interesting to note that the high-tension leads to the magneto are in different colours, so that any mistake in wiring is avoided. The clutch is leather to metal, and is totally enclosed, and means for adjusting the tension of the spring are situated outside the casing. The gear box contains four speeds and a reverse, and gate change is fitted. An interesting point is that the counter-shaft in the gear box is geared to run slowly, which results in the third speed being nearly as silent as the top. The lubrication of the engine is by a pump worked centrifugally off the engine, which delivers the oil through sight feeds on the dashboard to the necessary bearings. The drive is by propeller-shaft, and the differential casing is shown in section. The pressed steel frame is suspended on four springs, the rear springs being three-quarter elliptical and the front Brings semi-elliptical. Dealing with the six-cylinder model, the chief alterations for this year are the new type of carburetter and the bore and stroke, which are now 120 mm. By 140 min. Considerable interest is attached to the fact that the six-cylinder car took part in the long distance trial this year, the distance being 6,500 miles in France, and 1,500 in England, the latter section of the trial being carried out under the auspices of the Royal Automobile Club and under the most rigid system of observation. Every part is laid open for inspection, and it is impossible to detect any wear at all.
Humber. Feature. Well-considered induction pipe system on the new Coventry six-cylinder car; auxiliary air-pressure pump on Beeston Humber models; access to contact maker on 10-12 h.p.; crank chamber divided laterally; gear box in one piece.
HUMBER, LTD., Beeston and Coventry (163).—Three Beeston cars are shown here. A 20 h.p. is fitted with a very handsome double landaulet body capable of seating four people inside. The body is tastefully finished in green lined with black, and picked out yellow. The mechanism of this car was described in detail in The Autocar of November 2nd. The 20 h.p. Beeston Humber touring car is also shown, fitted with a side-entrance body. The 30 which was also described in the issue above referred to, is shown here fitted with a six- sea ted landaulet body, with I) front extension, which renders the body extremely roomy. A folding glass screen is also fitted. Four Coventry cars are shown—the six-cylinder 30 h.p., the 15 h.p. do Luxe model with single landaulet body, and a 15 h.p. standard model fitted with a side-entrance body. For this season, the 15 cars have been improved by the addition of ball bearing to gear box with gate change speed. Tile new 10-12 h.p. model is especially interesting, as it is one of the cheapest four-cylinder cars in the Olympia Show. The four-cylinder engine has a bore and stroke of 83 mm. bo man. The cylinders are cast separately, and the whole design of the engine has been considerably simplified for next year. The crank case is now divided horizontally instead of vertically, as in former models. The frame is of pressed steel, the engine and gear box being carried on a tubular underframe. All the mudguards are shielded on the inner aide, so that mud is kept away entirely from the body. The Motor-jaropet tea varrtag es frame is supported on four long semi-elliptical springs, while a transverse spring has been added to take the rear of the frame. The carburetter is the well-known and well-tried Longuemare Model II, and the ignition is by accumulator and four separate coils. The contact-breaker is now in a most accessible position, being set horizontally, and driven by means of bevel gearing. The lever and tappets which actuate the valves are easily got at by undoing two nuts, which hold down a brass plate through which the tappet rod passes. The gear box is now cast in one piece, and ball bearings are fitted as well as a very cleverly-designed gate change. The six-cylinder model is provided with cylinders cast in pairs, which are fed by means of a Longuemare carburetter. The inlet pipes are particularly neatly arranged, the three pipes from each set of cylinders being brazed into the leads direct from the carburetter. Two types of ignition are fitted—the Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto and two accumulators and four separate coils. The lubrication is effected by means of a pump, which lifts the oil from a sump in the crank case and delivers it to the various bearings. In addition to this, there is a pressure fed lubricator on the dashboard, which serves to su1iply additional oil to the engine either through one of the drips or through an auxiliary pump, the other two drips serving to lubricate the gear box and clutch respectively. The water-cooling systems on this type of car and on the 15 h.p. de Lase and 10-12 h.p. are practically identical, but in the case of the 15 h.p. and 30 h.p. a new type of radiator is fitted, which at first sight appears to be a honeycomb radiator. It, however, consists of a series of flat tubes about 2in. deep, which are arranged vertically through the radiator.
The 15 h.p. de Luxe is provided with an engine with four separate cylinders, 4in. by in. In the case of this engine, as in the case of the 10-12 h.p. and other 1908 models, the cams do not work directly on the valve tappets, but through levers. These, as with the 10-12 are most accessible. On the six-cylinder and the 15 h.p. de Luxe the engine lubrication is performed mechanically. Two forms of ignition are fitted to this car Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto rind accumulator and coil. In other respects, the car resembles those previously described.
Iden. Feature. Front wheel drive; front wheel braking; absolute freedom from side-slip. A great endeavour!
THE IDEN MOTOR CO., LTD., Coventry (112).—The Iden Motor Co. have on exhibition here a 12-14 h.p. two-cylinder landaulet with a seating capacity for six, and a 12 h.p. chassis, also fitted with a landaulet body, in which the car is driven by the steering wheels, the differential all being found upon the steering axle. It will be easy to comprehend the method in which this car is driven when the reader understands that the engine is placed beneath the seat, the gear box in front of that, and then a propeller-shaft containing the drive to front axle, so that the ordinary car practice is here reversed. Absolute freedom from side-slip is claimed for this arrangement, and, moreover, the car can be turned in a circle of twelve feet diameter. Brakes are fitted to the front axle only, these being of the internal expanding type, and applied by lever through a compensating device. A metal-to-metal band brake is fitted in front of the gear box, and applied by pedal in the usual way. This is a well-considered attempt to solve the question of front-wheel driving, and the exhibitors assure to that a cur which has been running in London for twelve months has performed in a most satisfactory manner.
Iris. Features: Interconnected throttle, air and ignition control on 25 h.p. and 35 h.p.; inlet ports cast through water-jacket from opposite side of inlet to centre port between inlet valves; extreme accessibility to valve springs.
LEGROS AND KNOWLES, LTD., 7, 8, and 9, Bird Street, Oxford Street, W. (421.—T,o chassis are exhibited, one having a 35 h.p. four-cylinder engine, the other having a 40 six-cylinder engine, the cylinders being cast in pairs In b r boorteh catterses. A i m on the the valves are on the anti 1,ft Lure to the cylinders by way of passages cast in the cylinder water jackets, so that mixture is led up between each pair of inlet valves. The 35 h.p. engine has two systems of ignition, viz., Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto and the ordinary accumulator system. The magneto and the contact maker are arranged transversely at the forward end of the crank case. The water circulating pump is fixed in a space at the bottom of the diamond shaped radiator, and is driven from the same shaft which drives the belt of the fan. A very large flywheel is fitted, and embodied in this is the multiple disc clutch. The usual system of inter-connection of throttle and ignition timing is embodied on this design. The gearbox provides three speeds, and drive is by live axle to the rear road wheels. The brakes are of the contracting, type, with metal shoes to the drain behind the gear box, while metalline(' contracting hands are fitted to the rear wheel hub drums. The band brake is balanced by means of a balancing lever; springs are fitted to the front axle, full elliptical to the rear. The front axle is tubular. Dunlop fluted tyres 880 by 120 mm. are fitted on all the wheels. The frame is of pressed steel, the engine being carried on two tubular cross members fore and aft, of the crankcase, whilst the gearbox is carried from three suspension bolts secured to a pair of cross-channel stays. The usual features of the Iris design are embodied in this chassis, which we hire previously described in The Autocar. The six-cylinder chassis is a nolde looking piece of work. On this engine the pairs of cylinders are rather widely spaced, and the carburetter connection to the inlet ports is made by means of an aluminium casting, suitably chambered so that the mixture is equally taken to cad of the pairs of cylinders from the Krebs carburetter. Only one system of ignition is fitted - the Simms-Bosch high tension magneto carried at the forward right hand of the crank chamber. The ignition is not inter-connected with the throttle in this case. To facilitate starting half compression cams are fitted. The crankcase has four pairs of webs cast on each side for supporting the engine to the main side members of the frame. This is a particularly substantial piece of work. The flywheel of the engine acts as a fan, and a multiple disc clutch is fitted. After this the general arrangements are similar to the 35 h.p. previously described, save that the rear axle has only semi-elliptical springs, and the main frame sides are bent down to form eyes for a crossbar which carries the spring shackles of the rear end of the springs. The other vehicles staged are a 25. h.p. and a 35 h.p. finished car, the former being a limousine and the latter a side-entrance Cape cart hooded vehicle, and a 40 h.p. six-cylinder vehicle with limousine body. These complete a very pleasing and beautifully finished exhibit, anct one which is well worth most careful inspection by students of design and construction.
Isetta-Fraschini. Features: Gear box in rear of chassis, allowing of short chains; gear changing mechanism wholly enclosed; auxiliary piston on crankshaft, compressing air in con- Lain, for starting up by compressed air; twin brakes on counter-shaft.
HALL, CAPRIS AND CO., LTD., 15, Riding House Street, W. (106).—The Isotta-Fraschini is shown here in two patterns, neither of them, however, being that referred to in the catalogue. The larger one is the 40-45 h.p., and the smaller the 18-24 h.p. But little alteration has been introduced into these fine vehicles since the last show, and, indeed, but little is required, for one could suggest very few improvements in the design. One alteration that has been made consists in applying both the pedal brakes to the countershaft instead of one to the gearshaft, and the other to the cross-shaft. The present arrangement is more symmetrical, and, being coupled up by compensating joints, the retarding effect should be very even on both wheels. The Eisemann magneto is now fitted for ignition purposes. A small hand pump on the dashboard serves to give the initial pressure (ni the supply for the lubricating nil, cooling water, and petrol, which is subsequently maintained by the exhaust. The 18-24 h.p. chassis shows similar construction on lighter lines, and has the older arrangement of pedal hrd“,
Itala. Feature. 4: Six-cylinder engine with four-speed gear box; dredger system of lubrication. Prince Borgliese's Paris-Pekin car.
ITALA AUTOMOBILES, LTD., 89, Wigmore Street, W. (31).— This exhibit is a particularly interesting one in that one of the finest types of Italian cars are to be found here, including the identical car which Prince lurches drove from Pekin to Paris. The chief novelty lies in the six-cylinder Itala 80 h.p. The cylinders are cast in pairs; the bore and stroke are 140 mm. by 140 mm. The saute type of carburetter is fitted as in previous models, also the same type of lubrication, namely, the dredger system, but three separate oil caps are fitted in the base of the crank case, so that oil may be poured in direct. The same type of low tension magneto is fitted as in previous cars of this type, which have been most successful. Contrary to the usual six-cylinder practice, four speeds are fitted, and the gate type of change. The 40 h.p. models remain the same as last year. About the Pekin to Paris car there is little to say, except that it is a standing testimonial of the power of endurance of Itala automobiles. For excellent workmanship and splendid finish these cars are unsurpassed by any others in the show.
J. and B. and Vertex. Features Horizontal and vertical engines; plate clutch; self- adjusting counter-shaft bearings. Special design combining short wheelbase with large body.
JAMES AND BROWNE, LTD., Westcroft Works, Hammersmith, W. (81-.— The two principal patterns constructed by this firm, which is now one of the eldest, established among British motor manufacturers, are -a landaulet and a saloon. The landaulet is an extremely handy carriage for town work, as, owing to the arrangement of the horizontal engine below the level of the frame, one is able to get is body of ample dimensions, while the wheelbase is comparatively short. This facility of negotiating traffic .has been further increased by the enlargement of the lock for the steering wheels. Otherwise comparatively little alteration has been made, and purchasers have the advantage of a vehicle which is constructed on lines that time has proved to be satisfactory. The larvr body — that is, the one that carries a saloon body — is more suitable for use on the open roads. The wheelbase is lift. 6in., and the body provides accommodation for seven passengers. The oar of this type which was exhibited last year attracted considerable attention, and the present one is a somewhat simplified rendering of it. The same style of machine which is known as the Vertex, on account of the perpendicular arrangement of the cylinders, can be built in other lengths to suit other bodies. The engine has six cylinders, and is fired by a Fuller magneto, accumulator ignition being employed as an auxiliary. The throttle and timing are controlled by Autoloc levers on the steering wheel, and lubrication is on the forced feed system. One distributor is employed for both systems of ignition, and this the firm construct themselves. The great feature about it is the ample proportions upon which it is built, many of the smaller distributers -being found to short in wet weather. A plate clutch couples up the engine to the gear box, which is suspended at, three points, and can be detached by undoing five bolts. The forward speeds are controlled by one lever, and an entirely separate one is provided for the reverse. This makes for safety, and also for simplicity of construction, which is a pronounced feature of the whole car. The control of the change speed gear is by a gate lever. The final transmission is by side chains, end two points are noticeable about the front sprockets. tine is that these ends of the cross shift are mounted in self-adjusting journals, and are fitted with grip brakes. These act directly on the rear wheels by the chains. -are independent of the differelitial gear, and thus again make for safety. Expanding brakes are also fitted to the hubs of the driving wheels. Although the patterns shown are few, the exhibit is interesting to I he visitor and a credit, to the firm.
Junior and O.T.A.V. Features: The O.T.A.V. air-cooled engine; epicyclic gear; belt drive.
JUNIOR, LTD. 10 Jermyn Street, Piccadilly Circus, W. (16).—Two types of 0.T.A. V. cars are to be seen on this stand and two types of Junior cars. The first of these is a small light voiturette fitted with a 54 h.p. air-cooled engine, !sore and stroke being 90 x 120. On the crankshaft is a fan which forces the air into ;in a lumin inm coiling chamber, fitted over the cylinder head. From the engine-shaft, to the counter-shaft the drive is transmitted by means of chain. The change speed gear is of the eincyche type, giving two speeds. From the counter-shaft to the rear wheels the power is transmitted by means of two belts. The next model is the 10 h.p. fitted with two cylinders, 90 by 120, Simms-Bosch high-tension ignition. The ordinary type of float feed carburetter with piston throttle is fitted, while the cooling is on the thermo-syphon system. The clutch is of the internally expanding metal to metal typo. Three-speed gear with gate change is employed. The chassis in sprung on three-quarter elliptical en the back and semi-elliptical springs on the front. Of the two Junior cars, one is a 30-40 h.p. chassis, bore and stroke 130 x 150 mm. The car is a good piece of work throughout, but it has not been greatly altered for 1908. The 20-24 Junior is fitted with a landaulet body, and its engine has a bore and stroke of 100 x 120. Four speeds are fitted, with gate change, and the ignition, like the larger model, is by Simms-Bosch low- tension magneto, has tappets arranged on the top of the cylinder, following the practice, observed on two or three well-known ears. We shall shortly be illustrating and describing this car in detail in our columns.
La Buire. Features: Vulture de Course type of chassis. Air supply controlled by movement of piston throttle; two sets of driving bevels fitted to back axle.
THE HOLLINGDRAKE AUTOMOBILE Co., LTD., Stockport (18). - This is a stand which certainly should not be missed, as several interesting and very finely finished models are to be seen here. These include a 24-30 h.p. six-cylinder chassis, a complete car of the same type fitted with side entrance body and Cape cart hood and wind screen. A 10-14 h.p. chassis, four-cylinder, and the same type of car fitted with landaulet body and a th-20 h.p. V-tture de Course. Dealing with the six-cylinder ear, this has an engine having a bore and stroke of 93 mm. x 120 mm. The cylinders are cast in sets of three, the valves being situated on the off side of the motor. These are supplied with gas by means of a single jet, pressure fed carburetter taking hot air from round the exhaust pipe, and fitted with a piston throttle operated either by the foot accelerator pedal or by the hand lever on the steering wheel. As the throttle regulates the supply of gas, the extra air inlet situated at the extreme top of carburetter is also actuated, and is set to time the right amount of air in accordance with the amount of guts let in by the throttle. There is also an extra air valve fitted with a very strong spring situated at the side of the mixing chamber, wide)) only comes into operation when the throttle is closed, and is used when descending steep hills to cool the engine, when the engine is used as a brake. The ignition is by Simms-Bosch high tension magneto. ,The water circulation is effected by means of a pump driven off the half-time shaft, and a cellular type of radiator is fitted. The clutch is of the Hele-Shaw type, and when withdrawn the clutch-shaft slides into a collar, at the same time the act of pressing against the end of this acts as a clutch brake. The gear box contains gears for tour speeds, and from it the transmission of power to the back axle is by means of a propeller-shaft. The axle is bridged. The axle brake contains several new features. The differential is set at right angles to the axle, aid two sets of driving bevels are fitted, one driving the crown wheel on the rear of the differential casing, and the crown wheel on the off side. The ordinary type of countershaft brake is fitted, and two internal expanding side brakes. The chassis is of pressed steel, narrow in front and raked br hind, and is suspended on full elliptical springs behind, aid on semi-elliptical springs in front. The rear springs are particularly well designed, and merit (-lose inspection. As regards the control, spark advance and throttle levers are fitted on the steering wheel. There are three control pedals which operate the el itch, foot brake, and the rear brakes. The latter can also, if desired, be applied by a side lever, which in this car is fitted snide the change-speed lever, so that it is nearer the driver's hand in the case of are emergency. To the particular type of car shown here a high and narrow curved in dashboard is fitted which carries four d -rp lubricators, fed by a simple type of rotary pump driven off the engine. A limid pressure pump is provided for the petrol supply, and a small foot control switch for stopping the engine. 'raps are aI40 fitted on the dashboard for turning off the petrol and for relieving the pressure. The steering is particularly well carried out on the latest principles. The whole car is excellently thought out and exquisitely finished.
We now come to the 15-20 h.p. Voiture de Course, a type of car which acquitted itself very well in the Coupe Sportive this year. The engine has four cylinders, cast in pairs, the bore and stroke being 95 mm. by 120 nun. It closely follows the lines of the six-cylinder engine we have just described. The transmission, however, is by means of aide chains. (hily three speeds are fitted, the second and third being direct. The 10-14 h.p. four-cylinder chassis is a well thought out job. It is practically a small replica of the six-cylinder. There are only three speeds, the lever working in a quadrant, but the same arrangements are carried out as re ands the drive in the case of the gears. Rods instead of cables are used for the application of the brakes.
Lanchester. Features: The new 50 h.p. engine, with camshaft below the crankshaft; special system of springing; all weight inside wheelbase; engine between front seats; wick carburetter, with float feed.
THE LANCHESTER MOTOR CO., LTD., 311, Oxford Street, W. (68).—Two complete vehicles are on view here, both landaulets, one to carry two and having a four-cylinder engine, the other to carry four and having a six-cylinder. In addition to the four inside passengers accommodated by the latter, there are three other seats, one for the driver, one by his side, and one in front at the left for the chauffeur - a very neat way out of a rather pronounced difficulty. In both cars the engine., have vertical cylinders, and they are arranged along the centre line of the footboard, thus economising space, and allowing of ample proportions of bodywork without snaking the chassis of unwieldy length; in fact, we think the door of the larger landaulet is the widest we have seen. The other retained features are the tiller steering, single lever control, the worm drive, and wick carburetter. This last now has a float feed supply, so that the pumping which was necessary in former times is now dispensed with. The four-cylinder car has wood wheels, but the six-cylinder has the Rudge-Whitworth detachable wire wheels — a type that deserves to attain great popularity. Another very interesting exhibit on this stand is the six-cylinder 50 h.p. engine that we described a week ago. It is designed to be fitted in a car according more with popular taste, though the popular taste is not always the most correct one; for Messrs. Lanchester's practice is, as a rule, quite as correct as popular fancy, if not more so. When we look back we see many things in general use today which, when introduced years ago on the Lanchester, were looked upon as quite out of place.
THE LINDSAY MOTOR MANUFACTURING Co., Woodbridge, Suffolk (138).—Three 16 h.p. four-cylinder Lindsay chassis are staged here, carrying double phaeton, landaulet, and brougham bodies. The four-cylinder engine is 80 mm. by 99 mm., with dual ignition, driving through leather-faced cone clutch, three-speed gear box, and propeller-shaft to hack axle.
Lorraine-Dietrich. Features: A French car built on British soil. Automatically governed ignition; four speeds; propeller-shaft drive.
LORRAINE-DIETRICH, LTD., Selly Oak, Birmingham (95.— Here we have an example of work carried out by a French firm on British soil. Only one typo is made at present, and only one chassis is shown. The frame is of the usual form, but long and low, and Mr. Letts tells us that the car has been designed throughout to suit English users and English roads. The cylinders, 110 mm. by 130 tam., are cast in pairs, and are fired by low-tension magneto current automatically controlled in consonance with the speed of the engine. Lubrication of the engine is performed by a pomp driven off the camshaft, which lifts the oil to sight feeds on the dashboard, and then drives it under pressure to the various bearings in approved quantities. The flywheel is of unusual diameter, and a multi- disc clutch is used with non-torsional joint between it and the gear box. The latter provides four speeds forward, and has interlocking gate change. The drive is conveyed to the rear axle through a propeller-shaft, which passes through a steel casing bolted to the differential gear casing, and which is employed as torque rod. The road driving wheels run on extensions of the axle casings. On each side of the differential gear box, and connecting the differential gear-shafts with the road wheel driving-shafts, are universal joints, which permit of the raking of the back wheels—a feature we have already remarked in the town carriage chassis shown on the De Dietrich stand. The foot brake and side brakes fitted to this car are of unusually powerful description, the former being on the locomotive principle, and the inner internally expanding brakes of excellent design. Although the propeller-shaft casing is employed as a torque rod, the chassis is nevertheless provided with very stiff, well-designed channel steel radius rods, which are produced rearward to take the brake cam spindles. The steering lever is set outside the frame, the steering rod above and the distance rod behind the axle. The throttle is controlled by pedal and hand lever. As we have -already suggested, this is a remarkably fine example of automobile engineering. The back axle, as a whole, is a very fine example, stiff and strong in every particular.
Marchand. Features: An Italian four-cylinder car. Four speeds, third and fourth direct; chain drive; automatic carburetter; mechanical lubrication.
THE PREMIER MOTOR CO., LTD., Aston Road, Birmingham (123).— The Marchand, an Italian production of 18 h.p., is exhibited on the Premier stand, the firm being sole agents for this make of car. It has a four-cylinder engine, 110 by 120 mm. The point which The Autocar has emphasised, namely, the fitting of a fourth speed, has been carried out in this design; not only so, but both third and fourth speeds are direct drives from propeller-shaft to rear axle. The change of speeds is effected with the gate type of quadrant. The engine has forced lubrication, the oil and water pumps both being driven off the same spindle. They are arranged alongside the engine, the half-time gearing part in front. The carburetter is a special Marchand of the automatic type, and the front wheels are 870 by 90 and 875 by 105 back. The car has a multiple disc clutch. The body is of the double phaeton design fitted with the Premier Co.'s Cape cart hood.
Martini. Features: Robust magneto tappets; half-compression obtained by thrust of starting handle.
HILLS-MARTINI, LTD., 43-44, Great Windmill Street, Piccadilly Circus, W. (4).— A 28 h.p. four-cylinder engined chassis and a similar chassis with removable top limousine body are staged. All the well-known features which have gone to make the Martini the reliable car it is are embodied in this chassis. As the principals of the firm say, the Martini has no special talking points, as it has not been found necessary to radically alter the design this year. It is right up to date, and thoroughly tested in all respects. As our readers will remember, the engine is fitted with a most reliable and serviceable low-tension magneto ignition, which is particularly robust in the magneto tappets, so that no trouble is ever experienced at this point. One feature to commend itself to a visitor is the fact that as the starting handle, is pushed into engagement with the crankshaft a lever operates the exhaust camshaft to bring half-compression cams into play, and thus ease starting. Immediately the handle is withdrawn the full compression comes on. Taking the chassis altogether, it is a fine example of really well thought out and solidly designed and constructed piece of mechanism. A good point in the landaulet is that a ventilator is fitted in the roof which can be opened or shut as desired. The rear seats are also sliding, so that a more or less recumbent position may be taken whilst riding.
Mass. Features: Syphon cooling; stayed back axle; forced lubrication through hollow crankshaft. The newest 15 h.p.
THE LANCASTER MOTOR GARAGE, la, Lancaster Gate, Hyde Park, W. (77).—This is a fine exhibit of finished Mass cars. That they can travel well was proved by the performance of the 15 h.p. Mass in Class II. of the Scottish Trials this year. This is the smallest of the three powers made. All have four-cylinder engines by Ballot of similar design, but of varying dimensions. In this car syphon cooling is employed, and a special feature is made of the lubrication. There is no loose oil in the crank case. The lubricant is fed through the crankshaft, which is made hollow for the purpose, and has ducts leading to the various bearings. By dispensing with the ordinary fan the length of bonnet is reduced, and the flywheel is built with vaned arms. A Nilmelior magneto provides the firing spark. A good feature of the cardan drive is the tieing of the back axle. The system employed should be proof against sagging. The bodywork of the cars is carried out in excellent fashion by Messrs. Brainsby, of Long Acre. The special 15 h.p. has a very nicely finished landaulet body in green, the design of the front seat panels being very taking, and the side doors make for comfort. The body can be turned up to give access to the gear. The 40-50 h.p. car has detachable limousine body. When this top is removed a Cape cart hood may be substituted, permanent fittings being provided for the same. The body is necessarily a heavy one, and the back tyres are of 135 mm. on this account. Lastly, there is a 24-30 h.p. landaulet limousine, which may be converted into a completely open car if desired. In the last twelve months the reputation of the Mass cars has undoubtedly been deservedly strengthened.
Maudslay. Features: Overhead camshaft; magneto on dashboard; divided cone clutch; most accessible differential and bevel driving gear to the new live axle.
THE MAUDSLAY MOTOR CO. (1907), LTD. Parkside, Coventry (73).— The overhead valve gearing of the Maudslay engine still retains its unique position, and is the admiration of many, not only among motorists, but among motor manufacturers. The magneto gearing is co-axial with the hinge carrying the camshaft. The magneto itself is carried on the dashboard in a well protected and easily inspected position. Throwing back the valve shaft disturbs the driving gear of the magneto in no way at all, the one wheel simply rolling •on the other, and when the camshaft is replaced the magneto is ready to do its work as before. Dual ignition is fitted in very complete form, even to separate sparking plugs. The gear box has been remodelled on this pattern — the 35-45 h.p. car — and is set further forward. To provide for ready adjustment of the clutch the cone is divided into two parts diametrically. This car has a cardan drive, and the back axle is on a par with the other ingenious and excellent practice associated with the Maudslay makers. The rear axle easing consists of a simple forging comprising two tubular extensions springing from the sides of a rectangular frame. Aluminium closing plates fit on to the back and front of the loop, and so make up the differential casing. By detaching these plates and removing one or two bolts the whole differential and bevel gearing can be withdrawn from the car without even jacking up the wheels. The 25-30 h.p. car with chain drive remains very much as last year, but the new system of carrying and driving the magneto is adopted. The complete cars include a touring phaeton, a limousine by Thorn, and a commodious landaulet, altogether making up as fine a show as one could wish to see.
Metallurgique. Features. 10 h.p. to 45 h.p. models. Metal to metal expanding clutch; half-compression device; spring drive; specially set steering.
METALLURGIQUE CARS, 36, Lorne Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W. (156).—This stand is a most interesting one. Four chassis are shown which are conspicuous for their excellent points and splendid workmanship. Dealing with the highest power first, the 40-45 11.p. has a four-cylinder engine, bore and stroke 125 x 140. and the cylinders cast in pairs. The inlet and exhaust valves are on the same side of the engine, and the inlet valves are arranged on the overhead system, means being provided to prevent the valves from falling into the cylinder in case of a coupling becoming detached. The carburetter is water jacketed, and is provided with a small valve which renders the admission of the air perfectly regular. The engine is fitted with a. half-compression device, which is controlled by a lever situated in the front of the radiator. Two ignitions are fitted, Simms-Bosch high tension magneto, accumulators and four separate coils, the accumulator system and contact breaker being carried in front of the radiator in a most accessible position. The lubricator is of the sight-feed type, and is worked mechanically by means of a belt. The clutch is of the metal-to-metal expanding type, and is of particularly neat design. It is in two halves, which are contracted or expanded by means of right and left-hand screws. The gear box contains four speeds and reverse, and the gate system of change is provided. The transmission is by propeller-shaft, at the after end of which is a spring drive arrangement. The outer casing of the latter forms a drum for one of the brakes; the other brake is situated on the forward end of the propeller-shaft in the usual position. The back axle is exceedingly strong and well designed, both torque and radius rods being fitted. The chassis is of pressed steel, and is suspended on semi-elliptical springs in front and elliptical springs at the rear. The steering pivots are set at an angle, which renders the steering particularly easy. The rear brakes are of the internal expanding type, and are fitted with a compensating arrangement.
The 26-32 h.p., the bore and stroke of which are 106 x 106, is practically a replica of the 50-60 h.p. Metallurgique car which acquitted itself so well in the Herkomer Trophy.
The 24-28 h.p. chassis has a simpler form than the 40-45 h.p. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and the valves are arranged in the usual way, otherwis,3 the car is practically the same as the larger model except that there are only three forward speeds and only one foot brake, namely, that situated at the rear end of the propeller- shaft. The smallest type of car is fitted with a two-cylinder engine 100 by 110 mm., rated at 10-14 h.p. Three speeds and quadrant change.
Minerva. Features. Three models, four and six-cylinder, all gear driven. Ball controlled automatic carburetter.
MINERVA MOTORS, LTD., 40, Holborn Viaduct, E.C. (89.) - The Minerva cars are show n in three powers, 18, 28, and 40 h.p., the first and second having four-cylinder engines, and the last a six-cylinder. In general design they are very similar to one another. Thus the pressed steel frames arc raised and carried at the back on three-quarter springs; the engines have cylinders cast in pairs and valves on opposite sides; three speeds forward and a reverse with gate change. A flexible coupling is introduced between the clutch and the gear box, and the moving parts of the clutch terminate at the back in a fibred disc, which on coming into contact with the front of the gear box serves as a brake in gear changing.
This is another firm which has made a success of the simple Merino-syphon system of water-cooling. The radiator is of the gilled type, and has a rearward extension at the top under the bonnet to carry an ample supply of water. The water pipes themselves are of large diameter, giving a free flow to the water as it pursues its course. The carburetter is the well-known G. and A., which is automatically regulated by the lifting of steel balls according to the varying suction of the engine. This apparatus was illustrated and described in The Autocar some time ago. The road wheels are of equal sizes, and carry equal tyres, thus allowing of economical use by interchanging after a certain distance. The under shield is readily detachable, and the joints of the cardan shaft are carefully protected to exclude dirt and wet. The main portions of the live axle casing are constructed from weldless steel tube. Both magneto and accumulator and coil 'ignitions are provided.
The 28 h.p. is an enlarged and correspondingly strengthened edition of the 18 h.p. A complete car with double landaulet body is shown of this pattern, and a very taking side entrance car of 18 h.p. presents almost the appearance of a Victoria.
The 40 h.p. six-cylinder model is built up with a large touring body and Cape cart hood, and provides accommodation for five inside and two -on the front seat. It is a far cry from the little Minerva motor bicycle with its engine of less than 1 h.p. to this fine vehicle, but the experience gained with the former and its successors has doubtless been of use in the production of even these larger motor cars. The Miners-a chassis are fine -examples of automobile engineering.
M.M.C. Features: New 35-45 h.p. six-cylinder chassis. The latest effort of one of the pioneer motor manufacturing companies in this country. Independent dual ignition.
THE MOTOR MANUFACTURING CO., LTD., Manor Street, Clapham, S.W. (139).—If only by reason of their lengthy connection with the industry, visitors to the show will turn with interest to the exhibits on this stand, and we may say at once that in the six-cylinder 35 45 h.p. M.M.C. chassis they will not be dissatisfied. From outward and visible signs there is not a better mechanical turn out in the exhibition. The pressed frame is straight. The engine and gear box are carried directly from the side members. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and have all valves on the left-hand side, and the valve spindles are enclosed by covered plates. High-tension magneto and accumulator ignition are provided, the systems being independent, and all being capable of being switched out by rocking switches over the centre of the cylinders. The distribution gear is enclosed, and the radiator fan is belt driven off the end of the crankshaft. The high tension distributer of the accumulator-fed system is driven by skew gear off this spindle. The magneto spindle is produced, and passing into a small gear chamber on the centre of the crank chamber bracket, drives through 2 to 1 gearing the water circulating pump. Oil is served to the engine bearings by one of Noake's self-feeders, through which the oil globules from the lubricating -tank are seen passing upwards through a column of water in each case. The drive passes from the clutch through two universal joints, to the gearsliaft. The gear box, which is of unusual strength and compact design, provides three speeds forward and reverse operated through a gate change and case, enclosing automatic locking selection gear. The propeller-shaft casing, bolted to the end of the differential gear casing, serves also as a torque rod. The back axle is of excellent design, the wheels running on the casing and ball bearings being fitted throughout. External blnd brakes and internal expanding segmental b•ak s take effect upon large brake drums. All braking stress is removed from the gear box, propeller-shaft, and bevel drive. A three-way air pump fitted on the dashboard allows air to be pumped to the oil tank or petrol tank with a release cock for both.
Mors. Features: Coil clutch; three-point suspended gear box specially swept and splayed frame members.
MORS (ENGLAND), LTD., 45, Great Marlborough Street, Regent Street, W. (3).—The 20 h.p. chassis, a noble exhibit, has a four-cylinder engine, cylinders cast in pairs, and high-tension magneto ignition fitted. The carburetter is of the automatic type. The clutch is very simple, and consists in simply coiling a steel band upon the periphery of a ring forming part of the flywheel. This band s connected to a double arm, which transmits the drive to the primary shaft of the gear. Four speeds are given by the gate change gear box; the direct on top awl the drive to the rear is by live axle. The gear box is practically three-point suspended, having an arm at its forward end, which is bolted on to a bracket attached to a cross member of the frame. At the rear end are two side arms, which also bolt on to a pair of brackets attached to a down curved pressed channel plate. A substantial torque rod and long propeller-shaft with a well-designed universal joint are fitted. The pressed steel frame is inswept at the front to give a wide steering lock, then slightly out about the dash, and again out about the position where the back of the driver's seat would come. Then it is bent upwards to give large range to the rear axle. The 50 h.p. six-cylinder Mors chassis is remarkable for the fine looking engine fitted thereto. The cylinders are cast in pairs, a bearing being arranged between each pair, 114 mm. by 150 Trull.
The induction pipes are on the right hand of the engine, and are so arranged that the mixture is equally fed to the centre of each paw of inlet ports. Low-tension magneto ignition is fitted, the tappets being arranged at tire right-hand forward and rear side of each pair of cylinders. Exhaust valves on the left. By the arrangement of the piping and distribution of the accessories about the engine a very accessible valve design is obtained. The water circulating pump is placed in rather an unusual position at the left-hand lower portion of the crank case, midway between the fourth and fifth cylinder. The circulation water pump spindle is drivers by means of an inclined shaft operated by a wheel from the exhaust camshaft. Similarly, a vertical shaft projects from the crank case a little behind the water pump shaft, and skives the oil pump bolted to and in communication with the well at the bottom of the crank chamber. In this design tire sixth and part of the fifth cylinder are behind the dash proper, there being a second dashboard fitted, and a metal cover connecting the two. On the rear dashboard the sight feed lubricator is fitted. A gripping band clutch is employed, similar to the smaller model. This model has a four- speed gear, the final drive to rear axle being by means of side chains. A feature of the gear is that whilst the direct drive is obtained by one pair of bevels the indirect drive and other speeds are obtained through an extra pair of bevels, each of the driven bevels being attached to the sleeve of the differential box. Two powerful foot brakes are fitted to the differential box sleeve, one being on each side of the gear box. On the 15 h. p. single landaulet by Thrupp and Maberly, the four cylinders are cast en bloc, the valves being all on the left-hand side. Mors high-tension magneto ignition is fitted and live axle drive. This model has a three-speed gear with gate change. A finely finished 45 h.p. limousine, with bodywork by H. J. Ail 'Miner and Co., completes the exhibit.
Motobloc. Features: Flywheel between second and third cylinders; variable valve lift; lubrication system.
THE CRITCHLEY-NORRIS MOTOR Co., Bamber Bridge, Preston (17).—Two Motobloc chassis, one of 25 h.p. and the other 45 h.p. The first of these is fitted with a four-cylinder engine with the cylinders cast in pairs, and between them and enclosed in the crankcase casting is the flywheel. The inlet valves are operated on the overhead system. The rod which carries the rockers which operate the valves is mounted eccentrically in a phosphor bronze tube, so that by moving a lever on the steering wheel the lift of the valves is regulated, and also the throttle in the carburetter. The valves are interchangeable with the exhaust valves, which is by no means a common procedure in the case of inlet valves worked on this system. The bore and stroke of each cylinder is 100 mm. by 120 mm. The carburetter is provided with a single jet and piston throttle, and has a shutter over the jet, which allows the air to be completely shut off for starting up cold. The spray chamber is water jacketed, and the amount of hot water is controlled by a tap fitted on to a union screwed into the bottom of the water jacket. The petrol supply is pressure fed from a tank carried at the rear end of the chassis. There is no pressure pump, but a small auxiliary tank is carried on the dashboard, provided with a gauge to show the quantity of petrol therein. A certain quantity of petrol is always carried in this tank, so that the carburetter may be fed by gravity. After the engine has been running for a short time, as petrol is delivered by pressure from the main tank to the small one, consequently there is always an even head of petrol, and in case of anything going wrong with the pretpure system, there is always a small quantity of petrol remaining. The system of lubrication is decidedly interesting. A reservoir is carried outside the chassis, and the oil is delivered from it through a pump worked off the half-time shaft into the drip lubricator on the dashboard. From this the plunger forces the oil down each pipe into the required bearing. The cooling is effected by means of a honeycomb radiator, into which the water is delivered by means of a pump driven off the half-time shaft. The shaft which drives the pump spindle is connected on its opposite side to the universally jointed rod which drives the high tension magneto and high tension distributer for the accumulator ignition. The power is transmitted from a metal clutch through a gear box which contains three speeds (in future these cars will be provided with a four-speed gear box), and from the gear box to the hack axle by means of a propeller-shaft. The universal joints are well designed. The inspection lid of the gear box is quickly lifted off as soon as the nuts which hold it down press upon a wedged piece engaged to the box by means of small chains. As soon as these are removed the cover may be lifted over the nuts themselves, owing to the holes being large enough for this purpose.
Another car shown on this stand is the 40 h.p. Critchley-Norris. The motive power is a 40 h.p. Crossley engine. A four-speed gear box is fitted with gate change, and the transmission is by means of side chains. The 45 h.p. car is similar in many respects to the type we have just described. The engine is 130 mm. by 130 mm. The gear box contains four speeds, with gate change, and an ingenious device in the selector renders damage to the gears impossible, and prevents the reverse from being inadvertently engaged. The transmission is by means of side chains. The chassis are of pressed steel on wide semi-elliptical springs.
N.A.G. Features. A simple form of low-tension ignition; variable hot-air feed to carburetter.
NEUE AUTOMOBIL GESELLSCHAFT (The Connaught Motor and Carriage Co., Ltd.), 28-29, Long Acre, W.C. (163).— The N.A.G. car is one which is not so well known in this country as it deserves, but it has performed well in Germany— the country of its origin. It is now handled by the above firm. The 28-32 h.p. chassis comprises several interesting features. The cylinders of the four-cylinder engine are cast in pairs, the inlet and exhaust valves being opposed. The ignition is by Simms-Bosch low tension magneto, and the carburetter is of interesting design. An ingenious hot air chamber encircles the exhaust pipe, and is controlled by a shutter, which divides the chamber into two portions. The shutter is controlled by a ratchet lever, which when vertical cuts off the hot air altogether, leaving free ingress for cold air. At the further end of the pipe is an auxiliary shutter, controlling the fixed air supply. Both petrol and lubricating ail are supplied under pressure from the exhaust, and the lubricator on the dashboard comprises an auxiliary pump, two drip feeds, and a pressure gauge. There are also two taps which serve to cut off lubrication altogether. Two drips are provided with glass funnels held in position by a spring, which allows the glass to be removed instantly. The radiator is of a special type, and the cooling portion is separated from the tank altogether by undoing the bolts which hold it in position. The radiator pipes and gills may be withdrawn in their entirety from the tank, so that in case of an accident the pipe may be replaced on the road. The ordinary leather-faced metal cone clutch is fitted, and the gear box, which is provided with gate change, has four speeds. From the gear box to the road wheels the transmission is by side chains. The chassis is suspended on full elliptical springs at the rear and semi-elliptical springs at the front. The steering is well designed, and embodies the latest improvements. The same type of chassis is shown with a handsome double landaulet, with folding seats facing forwards. A small single landaulet is also staged closely resembling the larger model which we have just described. The engine is 16.20 h.p., bore and stroke 90 mm. by 110 mm., and the transmission is by propeller-shaft, live axle, the change-speed lever working in a quadrant.
Nagant-Hobson. Features: A model fitted complete in every detail for the road. Special chauffeur's seat. Fitted tool boxes. A practical type of driving screen.
H. M. HOBSON LTD., 29, Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W. (86). —The Nagant-Hobson is shown as a bare chassis in 20-30 h.p., and also as a touring car completely fitted up ready for the road. This gives the buyer an opportunity of studying the vehicle in a very thorough mariner, and, further, it also enables him to ascertain straight off what the car is going to cost him before he begins to use it. As a rule, it is one thing to purchase a car and quite another thing, so far as price is concerned, to begin to use it. We think Messrs. Hobson have done wisely in making this innovation. The fitting out of the cur is done in no niggardly fashion, two spare tyres being carried, and so forth. The mechanism of the car has been very little altered since last year, though one or two little improvements have been made, and the finish is as excellent as ever. The touring car is fitted with a chauffeur' seat on a toolbox mounted on the left-hand running board. The equipment of tools and spare parts is not only complete, bit very well arranged, the parts being carried in fitted cases after the manner of jewellery. The hood is of the Cape cart type, and the adjustable wind screen is of that serviceable kind in which the lower part is continued in the form of a flexible sheet joined to the dashboard. The remaining car is a 16-20 h.p. four-cylinder Decauville, with a landaulet body.
The coachwork of this is by Laurie and Marner, but the touring car body is by Messrs. Hobson themselves, and does them every credit.
Napier. Features: Six-cylinder cars. The new 30 h.p. Special finish; new bodies; carburetter; clutch; change-speed gear; and lubrication.
S. F. EDGE, LTD., 14, Now Burlington Street, Regent Street, W. (43).— Amongst the extremely attractive features on this stand that which first draws attention is undoubtedly the superbly finished 40 h.p. Napier, which is found at the left-hand top corner of the stand. This magnificent example of finished automobile engineering, which has been so lately described in the columns of The Autocar, that there is no necessity to enter into minute detail in the present report. So far as show finish goes, we have seen nothing better either in Paris or in London at any previous show. The manner in which this particular example is prepared for inspection is earnest of tire extremely fine mariner in which Napier work is turned out. We note that the side members of the frame carry wide jagged steel footplates for the full length of the footboard. Napier shock absorbers are fitted, and the frame is lightened in one or two places by drilling. Rudge-Whitworth wheels are shown on this chassis. The appearance of the exhibit is greatly enhanced by the tasteful browning on back axle casing, brackets, etc., the bluing of nuts and bolts, and the high polish taken by tire various copper and brass members. The carburetter fitted to this chassis is of the type that has been in use during the past year, and differs somewhat from that shown in the accompanying sketch. It is impossible to turn away from this exhibit without feeling complete conviction that, as an example of automobile engineering, it is unequalled by any exhibit of the kind which we have seen in previous foreign or home exhibitions. The 30 1-.p. chassis, which was described in detail in our issue of Oct. 12th last, is shown carrying a standard type of Napier double phaeton body, which, notwithstanding the substitution of wood for German silver in the matter of dashboard, and brass for nickel plate in the matter of radiator with sundry differences of that description, nevertheless presents the appearance of a thoroughly up to date, smart, and comfortable car.
The body is finished in the usual well-known Napier colours, i.e., Napier green with black edges lined white, and is upholstered in dark green leather. It carries one of those ingenious Ideal hoods (Hopper's patent), which we illustrated and described in The Autocar of 26th October last. Including this hood, Bleriot head lamps, side lamps, and tail lamp, together with the known quality and reputation of the make, this car is marvellous value at £750. On the other side of the stand we have a 60 h.p., carrying a most luxurious arid tastefully fitted Pullman limousine body, finished in the usual Napier colours. There is ample accommodation for seven passengers, and any amount of luggage earn be transported on the roof. The car is completely fitted with Jones's speed recorder, retromirror, tyre carriers, speaking tubes, etc. Like all the higher priced Napiers, the metal parts are finished in nickel plate, which give it a refined and tasteful appearance. The exhibit is completed by the 43 h.p. Napier, carrying a most sumptuously finished and upholstered Pavilion landaulet body. It is finished in dark green, lined vertically black and light green, with nickel metal fittings as usual. The interior of the body is upholstered in exquisite silver cream silk, specially designed and made for the Regent Carriage Co., who are responsible for this really most luxurious body. No more sumptuous interior has ever before been seen in connection with an automobile. The roof of the Pavilion landaulet extends from the back of the door to beyond the vertical screen on the dashboard, and is arranged with luggage rack for baggage. The vehicle will accommodate three on the rear seat and two vis-a-vis, and specially comfortable seats to fold down when not in use. A thick pile carpet covers the floor, and all windows are arranged to drop. In the roof is an electric light, and the interior fitments comprise mirror and note book, cigar tray, electric cigar lighter, elbow rests, and arm sleeves. Padded steps for access to the roof are provided, and the driver's seat is extremely roomy and convenient, and he is well protected against the weather. Napier Pavilion landaulets on exactly the same lines as this beautiful carriage have been supplied to Field-Marshal Lord Roberts, Viscount Curzon, the Viscountess of Portarlington, and many other members of the nobility. This exhibit was ready for press inspection by eleven o'clock on Saturday, 9th inst.
N.E.C. Features: Opposed horizontal engine; hinged steering wheel, so that driver can mount from right side; special springing; all weight inside wheelbase; worm drive; large space for body without lengthening wheelbase; special types of bodies.
THE NEW ENGINE (MOTOR) CO., LTD., Acton, W. (44.)— Three models are exhibited here, the smallest being a 20 h.p. two-cylinder engined vehicle fitted with double landaulet body, the front inside seats being hinged so that they can be turned up out of the way and free exit given to the remaining seats. The 20 h.p. vehicle is remarkable for the width of door entrance, and it can be immediately opened out both in front and sides, and the hood let down, so that practically an open carriage is obtained. The seats are upholstered in a striped Bedford cord, with silk laces to match. It is a vehicle which should particularly appeal to doctors and other professional men who require a smart looking conveyance, and one which should prove eminently serviceable. The usual features of the firm's design are embodied in the chassis of the vehicle, principal among which may be noted the horizontal opposed cylinder engine with starting lever on the dash and half compression lever between the front seat footboard. The petrol and lubricating oil tanks are carried behind the raised dash and the honeycomb radiator which makes up the lower part of it. The car should ride particularly smoothly, owing to the special method of springing adopted, this consisting of four overhanging inverted plate springs, the front end being above the front axle, whilst the rear is below the rear axle. Four-speed gate change type of gear is adopted with direct drive by means of the propeller- shaft to the rear axle. The final drive is by means of worm and wheel. The point of novelty is the steering wheel, which can be hinged so that the driver may get in from the right side of the vehicle just as easily as from the left.
The 30 h.p. four-cylinder landaulet is fitted with a fine D fronted body, this being a magnificent specimen of the coachbuilder's art. The same features as to engine and transmission generally are on this chassis, the only difference being that the engine is a four-cylinder one instead of two.
The 40 11.p. limousine which is staged has probably the finest lines of any body in the exhibition, and is well worth seeing. This vehicle has been built to the order of Sir Thomas Brooke Hitching, Sheriff of the City, this being a repeat order. An inspection of the interior shows that it provides seating accommodation for five people, the upholstery being in a grey cloth, and fittings generally being on a most elaborate scale. The usual speaking tube for communicating with the driver is not fitted, but in its place is a movable disc of glass which can be slid away to give an opening communicating with the driver. The front wind screen can be adjusted to any angle from a hinge at the top by means of sliding rods, which can be set in any position. Ample luggage can be carried on the top of the vehicle. We must say that the lines of this vehicle and the finish generally are such that criticism, even from the most exacting coachbuilder, is absolutely disarmed. A careful examination of the exhibits on this stand will prove that the New Engine Co. must be classed among the leading manufacturers both as regards chassis and body work.
New Leader. Features: Ball bearings running on sleeve of back axle; easy detachability of clutch.
NEW LEADER MOTORS LTD., Apsley, Nottingham (150). One type of car only is shown, and four examples of this are to be found on the stand—a polished chassis, a four-seated side-entrance phaeton, and two two-seated cars. The chief improvements lie in the hack axle, which is now so designed that the wheels run on the outer sleeve. An Oldham joint is fitted between the clutch and gear box, so that the former may be easily withdrawn. It will be remembered that the Leader car gained highest in its class for petrol consumption during the Scottish Trials.
Niclausse. Features: Desaxes cylinder setting. Leather-to-metal cone clutch running in oil; fixed ignition; cambered back axle. A most interesting chassis.
J. AND A. NICLAUSSE, 24, Rue des Ardennes, Paris (sole concessionaires, Victoria Carriage Works, Ltd.), 24-26, 121122, Long Acre, W.C. (1).— The Niclausse car, which was one of the attractions of the last Paris Salon, is shown at Olympia in two models, alike in general design, but differing slightly in detail. Both cars have pressed steel frames, inswept in front and raised at the rear; back wheels splayed. The 15 h.p, chassis ham a four-cylinder engine with separately cast cylinders, 84 by 110 nun., Simms-Bosch high-tension ignition With fixed firing point, the control being by means of a handle on the steering wheel, in addition to the clutch throttle con section. The method of control is rendered possible by the extreme flexibility of the spray type carburetter fitted. The clutch is of the leather-to-metal cone type, enclosed, and kept saturated with oil. Three speeds and reverse are provided, the power being transmitted to the truck axle by a propeller-shaft. The axle, which is slightly splayed, we hope to deal with in a subsequent issue. The 20 h.p. car has a four-cylinder engine (cksiix(,^), 100 by 130 nun., fitted with regard to the ignition and similar details in the same manner as the 15 h.p. It has an enclosed multiple disc clutch, transmitting power to the four-speed gear box and splayed rear axle. Starting is rendered easy by the fitting of a half compression device. Both brake pedal and side brake lever declutch when moved beyond a certain point, the clutch pedal throttling in a similar manner. The throttle connections are provided with a compressed air cylinder to damp a too rapid operation of the throttle. The now 35 11.p. chassis, which is fitted with a 120 by 140 mm. engine, has not arrived in this country up to the present.
Nordenfelt. Features: Driven by the Barriquand and Marre engine. Four-speeds; gate change.
THE BRITISH BARIQUAND AND MARRR ENGINE CO., LTD., 10, Poland Street, W. (8).— The 20 h.p. Nordenfelt chassis with B. and M. motor is staged. The B. and M. engine is now well known, and needs no further comment than to say that it is very substantially designed and extremely well made. Eisemann magneto ignition is fitted in addition to the ordinary accumulator-fed ignition. Only one set of plugs is employed, the same Eisemann distributer serving the two systems. The points which may be noticed on the chassis are that the clutch is leather-to-metal cone type, fitted with adjustable spring pads for easy engagement, and is arranged for easy dismounting. The gear is of special steel, four speeds being obtained by a gate and quadrant change. The brake drum behind the gear box is exceptionally large, and has two metal shoes applied by the action of a rotating cam-fitted bolt. The shoes are separated by means of a strong spring inserted between the bosses, through which the cam bolt passes. We noticed that the rear hand applied brakes were not balanced, a point which we think should receive attention. The carburetter is pressure fed, the tank being arranged behind the rear axle. Semi-elliptical springs are fitted at the front and to the rear, with the addition that a transverse spring is there employed. The pressed steel set members are good examples of excellent work in this direction. The 20 h.p. Nordenfelt chassis, fitted with a coupe body by Withers, is a very good example of a comfortable touring or town carriage.
Orleans. Features: Four and six-cylinder models. Four-cylinder 46 h.p., 136 x 150; six-cylinder 45 h.p., 48in. x 44in. Nilmelior high-tension ignition, and accumulators; two- jet carburetter; inside cone clutch; four speeds and reverse, direct on third; nickel-steel frame.
THE ORLEANS MOTOR CO., Carlton House, Regent Street, W. (50).—A very fine exhibit of three Orleans cars. Two 45 h.p. six-cylinder models are staged, also a 46 h.p. four cylindered detachable limousine. In mechanical design these cars are, speaking generally, very much the same as those shown last year, save for various refinements in detail and finish. The six-cylinder engine has its cylinders cast separately, but set in pairs on the crank chamber. It will be noted that considerable attention is paid to the induction and water leads. The double limousine body carried on one of the 45 h.p. chassis is a grand example of finished body work. Particular thought has been taken in affording ample seating accommodation across the car. The side entrance door is of unusual width, giving the readiest access to the interior of the vehicle. The limousine is glazed all round, the side, back, and front panels being in handsome bevelled glass. The interior is handsomely and most luxuriously upholstered in green corduroy, and the driver's scat is in dark green leather, divided by a central arm. Ample luggage accommodation is provided on the roof of the limousine, which is produced forward as a canopy over the driver's head. Tasteful electroliers are fitted to the roof, and the interior of the body of the car is handsomely finished in green and black, lined white, and cannot be surpassed as an example of a comfortable and closed touring car. On the 45 h.p. four-cylinder chassis we find another double limousine body, the lower portion of which is made practically in the form of a double phaeton, but with limousine top, and canopy over the driver's head, which are easily and quickly detachable. On the side of the double phaeton portion of the body studs are provided for the carriage of a double Cape cart hood. A car of this design was built for Lord Cairns, and was eminently successful. This car is luxuriously finished in dark blue, lined white, and upholstered in dark blue leather to match. A very fine vehicle. It should be noted that in this power the cylinders of the four-cylinder engine have been somewhat altered in form, and are now all made with valve chambers on the left- hand side and one camshaft. Exhaust and induction pipes are kept well up out of the way to give ready access to the valve tappets and spindles. This exhibit, although numbering only three ears, is an extremely interesting one, the third car being a standard six-cylinder, with handsomely and comfortably upholstered double phaeton body in the standard New Orleans colours, light and dark French grey. The car is fitted with a smart double Cape cart hood and folding wind screen to the dashboard.
Panhard. Features: New gear-driven models. Clutch contained in change-speed gear box; improved Krebs automatic carburetter; engine compression brake; compressed air starting device on 18-24 h.p.
PANHARD AND LEVASSOR, 14, Regent Street, S.W. (79).- Two chassis are on view here—the 15-20 h.p. and 18-24 h.p. Panhards in their latest forms. There is also an 8-11 h.p. three-cylinder car, which is equipped as a single landaulet, and has not been materially altered for the coming season. Another landaulet is fitted with 18-24 h.p. engine, and finally there is a cabriolet with 25-35 h.p. motor. Dealing first with the 15-20 h.p., it has pressed steel frame, with wooden members secured along the sides for the purpose of body attachment. The flywheel, instead of forming part of the clutch, will serve as a fan only, there being no fan immediately behind the radiator, nor any clutch within the fly-wheel. The clutch itself is enclosed within a separate case behind the flywheel and immediately in front of the change speed gear bdi 'as Illustrated. The clutch connections from the pedal include a spring, which prevents any harshness of action. The carburetter, while still being fitted with the Krebs automatic air adjustment, is now governed by the pressure in the water circulation system. Ignition is by Nilmelior high tension magneto. The plugs over the valve's in the cylinder heads are now of the screwed type, instead of being held down by bridge pieces working on twin bolts, and locking catches are provided to prevent their unscrewing. A small pedal lever is coupled up to the -camshaft, which is movable so as to bring a second set of cams into operation, thereby causing the engine to work on compression, thus giving very powerful braking effect. The live axle is well designed, and is driven direct on top speed. The back end of the frame is set up, and is supported on three-quarter elliptical springs. The 18-24 h.p, model is very similar to that just described, but the clutch is in the flywheel, and the transmission gear includes side chains instead of a cardan-shaft, and the radiator fan is retained. This chassis is fitted with a compressed air starting device. An air pump worked from clutchshaq compressed air into a cylinder from which it can be admitted to the cylinder of the engine in proper order by means of a rotary valve. We are glad to see such an important firm giving its attention to the question of self-starting, which in our opinion has been sadly neglected.
Passe Partout. Features: The Passe-Partout small car--one of the new French small cars which took part in the Coupe de Voiturette.
THE MOTOR SUPPLY CO., LTD, 111, Piccadilly, W. (161). -Three types of cars on their stand: 15-20 h.p. Spyker, side- entrance body, Cape cart hood, and wind screen; 15-20 h.p. Mors, limed with coupe limousine body by Rothschild, most luxuriously fitted. Later there will be staged an example of the new 8 h.p. Passe Partout car, the car which acquitted itself 84) Well iii the recent Coupe de Voiturette, France. The engine is an 8 h.p. De Dion. It has a three-speed gear box, live axle, and transmission.
Pilain Features. Petrol feed; auxiliary tank; compression, not exhaust pressure; single lever control on steering wheel; direct drives on third and fourth speeds.
A. PELLANT AND CO., 74, Shaftesbury Avenue, W. (6).- Three Pilain car models are on view—a chassis, a tonneau fitted with a Cape cart hood, and a limousine. The four cylinders of the 24 h.p. chassis are cast in pairs, 124 mm. by 140 mm. At 1,000 revolutions per minute it gives off 24 The valves are opposed, and on the inlet side is the magneto, gear-driven. For the ignition, a modification of the low-tension Simms-Bosch system has been adopted. In the design in question the tappet gear and plug are so arranged that they can be withdrawn and examined together, and the trip gear is designed as to give movement to the tappets in a horizontal plane. This movement is transmitted through vertical shafts, which obtain motion from cams on the inlet valve camshaft, but instead of these cams being of the ordinary shape they arc circular, and cut with a projection on the side instead of the rim. Where the tappet gear passes through the walls of the cylinder mica insulation is adopted. The Pilain patent carburetter is so design ii that cool air is admitted to the engine when all gas is shut off. When the throttle is open the air supply to the mixture is regulated automatically by a valve controlled by a spring. This air goes right up through the centre of the carburetter, to permit of which the float is annular in shape. Petrol is supplied to the carburetter normally under pressure, but a small supplementary petrol tank secured to the dash at a point well above the level of the carburetter permits the engine to be started up on gravity-fed petrol. As soon as the engine is started a three-way cock just beneath the supplementary tank is turned, and the engine s compression, not the exhaust, is then utilised for pressure-feed to the petrol. The amount of air to the carburetter can be reduced for starting purposes. As soon as either oil or petrol is exhausted, the engine stops automatically, and so calls attention to the fact. A single lever on top of the steering column is used for the regulation of the engine. The clutch is formed of fifty flat steel plates, and no springs beyond the usual clutch spring are used. The gear box is not immediately behind the clutch, but a cardan shaft runs from the clutch to the front end of the gear box, in which the mechanism affords four speeds and a reverse. The first two speeds are obtained by means of sliding gears, the third and fourth give direct drives, and are transmitted by dog clutches, the shaft of the bevel wheel transmitting the third speed being formed by a sleeve encircling the solid shaft of the fourth speed bevel shaft, for the fact that the direct drive is obtained on the two higher speeds necessitates two bevel pinions and two crown wheels on the balance-gear shaft. This shaft, which lies transversely across the chassis, is comparatively short, and ends in two universal joints connecting it on eat-h side with a short cardan shaft. These at the other end are jointed with a spare pinion in mesh with a spur wheel secured to the road wheel of the car. These act as reduction gears. No radius rods are fitted, but a foot brake of the external type is fitted on one side of the differential shaft, and the brakes on the rear wheels are of the external expanding pattern. The frame is of pressed channel steel, the cross members, of two channels placed back to back, being somewhat unusual. The 40 h.p. car is identical with the smaller vehicle except for engine dimensions, while the 60 h.p. car is also very similar, except that the cylinders are cast separately, and an extra foot brake is fitted,
Pilgrim. Features: One type of car oeiy shown, fitted with various types of bodies. Many interesting features: Pump lubricator of special design, epicyclic gears, method of chain adjustment, and water circulation on thermo-syphon system.
PILGRIMS WAY MOTOR CO., LTD., West Street, St. Martin's Lane, W.C. (2.5) —The Pilgrim Co.'s exhibits consist of a three-quarter landaulet, a double landaulet, a chassis, and a separate engine. The latest type of engine has been simplified a good deal. The camshaft is driven by skew gearing contained inside the crank chamber, and the shaft driving the camshaft is divided into two portions, so that by undoing the coupling the timing of the valves may be altered with a minimum of trouble. The high-tension and low-tension distributers are combined, and are driven off the half-time shaft, the latter device being interesting. On the collector of the distributer is a square, against a corner of which the roller of the low-tension wipe rubs. In the fibre case of the distributer is a small screw provided with a locknut, which adjusts the amount the roller is allowed to project against the corner of the square above referred to, thus enabling the ignition to be timed in the simplest possible manner. The shaft which carries the collector and the square is driven by means of two dogs, ant is kept in position by its own weight, so that it may be withdrawn by simply lifting it out. The low-tension contact breaker runs in oil, and in the bottom of the chamber formed by the fibre case there is an overflow pipe, which takes the surplus oil into an aluminium box carrying the camshaft at d valve tappets.
The lubrication system is particularly simple, carried out with an ingenious form of ',amp made on the system of the old osoHsating model steam engine cylinder, which conveys the oil to a distr outer, which delivers it to the necessary bearings, This pump is driven off the side shaft which drives the half-time gear. The lower half of the crank case forms a sump, which encloses the puma and the whole of its attendant piping. The water circulation is on the thermo-syphon system; the carburetter also remains as before. The transmission and gear, however, are a distinct innovation. From the crankshaft power is transmitted by means of Morse silent chains to the counter-shaft, on which epicyclic gears are fitted, giving two speeds forward sin I one reverse. The counter-shaft and gears are suspended on a bracket which hangs on a cross member of the frame. Two radius rods are fitted to the lower ends of the brackets, so that if it is required to adjust the chains these rods are expanded, and serve to move the whole set of getris further away from the engine. All the wheels inside the gear box and the countershaft run on ball bearings from the counter-shaft to the buck axle. The power is transmitted by means of Hans Renold's roller chain-3. The back axle is now carried in a hollow nickel steel forging. The petrol is pressure fed to the carburetter, and a cap similar to the filler cap is screwed immediately underneath the latter in the bottom of the pressure tank, and thus serves as a drain plug. This is an exceedingly useful fitting, since it enables any sediment in the tank to be easily removed.
Porthos. Features: 1-1,4 water jacket to jet; petrol vapour led by long tube to mixing chamber, mixing thence by straight distributing tube to cylinders; air pump for air pressure and oil worked off camshaft; back axle driving-shaft solid right through.
COLIN DEFRIES, LTD, 2, Denman Street, Piccadilly Circus, W. (154).—Messrs. Colin Defries, Ltd., who have succeeded in establishing an excellent reputation for their newly introduced Portlier.; cars, show two examples at Olympia — a 50-60 h.p. six-cylinder and a 24-32 four-cylinder. Both types of cars have b.-en recently described in detail in The Autocar, but we think it will not be out of place to reiterate a few of the excellent points which are embodied in these vehicles. in these new lines no less than five are patented—the carburetter, oil pump driven off the half-time shaft, the air pump beside it worked on the same principle, which pumps pure air and does no foul the tank with exhaust gases, the back axle (ii bleb is so easily dismounted), etc. Messrs. Colin Defries, Ltd., take the trouble to consider customers in every possible detail, e.g., the dashboard, which is composed of seven-ply wood, can be cut to nut owners' desires. Some people prefer that the foot brake should withdraw the clutch, and some that the side brake should act in a like manner, while others prefer that brake and clutch should be totally independent. In the case of the Porthos either one or both of these &tails may be retained, or they may be all done away with if desired. Of course, the mime good points found in the six-cylinder are also included in the car.
Pullcar. Features: Front driving 4ital steering engine, and all mechanism carried on front wheels.
THE PULLCAR MOTOR CO, LTD., London and Preston (271.- The Pullen, is an interesting vehicle, in that it is fitted with an attachment comprising engine gear box and transmission, which drives the front, wheels only so that, any type of body can be fitted to it. The model shown is attached to a handsome Victoria by Nli-liner, of Northampton. The engine is a four-cylinder 14 h.p. White and Poppe which is fed by a White and Poppe carburetter. The ignition is on the accumulator system. The power is transmitted from the engine through spur wheels, giving a reduction of 2 to 1, and from the shaft of the large spur wheel to the differential by means of a single chain. An epicyclic gear is fitted giving three forward meet's and reverse which nre controre I entirely by pedals. In the case of the Pullcar the drive is, of course, by the front axles, the power being transmitted to the wheels through small universal joints, all there being enclosed from mud and wet. It will he interesting to see whether the advantages of the type will be appreciated.
Renault. Features: Three-way oil control to crank chamber; compreesed air pump for starting engine and inflating tyres.
RENAULT FRERES LTD. 19, NeW1111L11 Street, ()Kinn! Street, W. 1681.— The ,rent favour into which the Renault cars have ;town &trill,_ the last two years more than accounts for the Interest taken in this stand on the opening duty, not withstanding that the side classic exhibit thereat was an example of the 35 ht. four-cylinder Renault of standard pattern. No alteration in details aio,trs in this chassis for the present exhibition, save that the control of the oil to the crank chamber is placed in an accessible position to the right of the forward cylinder, and by merely turning a cock the oil is cut off, drained out, run down to level, or turned on. tit, an extension to the distribution ch-ntly.r roman] of the transverse shaft driving the magneto and pump is lived a small flanged air pi--ping cylinder, the piston of which is driven off an extension of the camshaft. Air is pti-ped from this cylinder into n container placed on the right-hand inside of the frame, in which air us stored to the prem. are of 69 lbs. to the aqua.) inch. By means of a by-pass this air when desired is admitted to the cylinder and used for starting Pp the engine, and also for initiating tyres when required. The air pumping is so arranged that it maintains the pressure of air in the container and cuts out when the pressure is exceeded. Separate leads rum front the container to the cylinder for the combat of the air and the pressure. A 3'6-45 h.p. chassis is shown with a handsome limousine body by Messrs. Cuckshoet, and a 20 30 h.p. chassis with a landaulet body will finished and upholstered are also staged.
Reno. Features. One type only shown. Simplicity of design; adjustability of differential and driving pinions.
THE REX MOTOR MANUFACTURING CO., Coventry (21) - The car is shown on this stand for the first tine. This car is driven by a 13-16 h.p. four-cylinder engine, tire bore and stroke of which are 86 mm. by 110 min., tire cylinders leirg cast separately. The rogue is a remarkably clean job, Icing free from all obstructions in the way of -ipe., itt d consequently most accessible. The water circulation is effected by means of a pump driven off the half-tine shaft, whet ce tire water enters the cylinders at the hotto- of the water jacket round the valve chambers, thus keeping the valves cool. A small but important 'mint is that all the compression taps are protected by means of dust caps. The ignition is by Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto only, which is driven off the half-tires shaft 111,1 rues at engine speed. Both it and the pump are provided with universal joints on the driving-shafts. The 'I'. and M. carburetter is fitted, which the petrol reaches by gravity, the tank -eirg placed on the dioli-oard. The lubrication works by exhaust pressure. The clutch is leather to metal, and the gear box co-(airs three speeds forward and one reverse, and is fitted with ball bearings throughout. From the front of the radiator to a point between the gear box the whole mechanism is enclosed. The back axle is well stayed, and is provided with torque rods running from the top nod bottom of the differential casing to a spring support IM II transverse member of the frame. The driving pinion in the differential is 'vomited on ball bearings top and bottom, and iin. ball hearings are fitted to the bahince guar cage. Nleaus are provided for adjusting both the balance go tr and the bevel pinions, so that as soon as any wear takes place it can be easily taken up. The counter-shaft 1)1,, is of tire extorted villein, end the side lever brakes are of the internal expanding type. The control is by foot throttle only. The exhibit consists of a chassis and a complete car fitted with a side-entrance body, Cape cart hood, awl wind screen.
Reynold-Jackson. Features. Large, long bonnets, over single-cylinder engines; well-constructed frames. Speedy looking cars.
R. REYNOLD JACKSON AND CO., LTD, 11 and 13, High Street, Notting Hill (late, W. (107).- Here are exhibited four single-cylinder cars of interesting aspect. 111 the case of the 8-9 h.p car, the engine is placed under n bonnet lung enough to accommodate n four-cylinder ergit e of equal din elusions, and drives through ar Henault type of gear to the back axle in the usual WI1V. The frame and details are well considered, and we understand that these little cars have been performing most satisfactorily upon the road; indeed, Messrs. Macrae and Ormorod, of the Chelsea Garage, have taken up the entire output so far as the 8-9 h.p. vehicles toe concerned. Two other Jackson cars with four-seated and two- seated bodies are shown.
Riley. Features. V-cylinder engines; improved springing; syphon cooling; easy gear changing.
RILEY CYCLE CO., 1,1n., City Works. Coventry (133). — The 9 h.p. Riley ear i5 a most attractive little velti-le, and we have no doubt, has attracted it large amount of interest. The makers have pro"ted by experience. which time alone can bring, and have introduced such (loaf( improvements as have been found advisable. kor example, the springing has been improved, the petrol tank enlarged, the very comfortable front sloping dashboard !nude even more comfortable, the radiating surface has been extended, and altogether everything has been done that has been found advisable in order to make this little runabout thoroughly reliable and satisfactory. A new model is introduced in the shape of the 12-18 h.p. This has, like the 9 h.p., a V engine, but in this case it is arranged in front, and the cylinders are set at 90°. The bonnet is of a horizontal oval shape and accommodates the engine in a very satisfactory manner, and presents an excellent appearance. The details have been well considered. For example, the oil pump delivers the lubricant through a distributer direct to the big-end bearings and to the pistons, splash lubrication not being depended upon for these important parts. The water circulates on the thermo-syphon principle. The wheels on this, as on the smaller vehicle, are of the Riley detachable type with wire spokes. The frame is of pressed steel, and the change speed gear is of very compact form. It gives a direct drive on the highest speed, and works through the two lay shafts, one at a time, for each of the lower speeds. The live axle is well designed, and twisting is provided against by a V-shaped torque rod, which is supplemented by distance rods. Lastly, we may refer to the -expanding clutch, which is of so gradual a nature that it is possible to start the car with a full load on the top gear. Among the complete cars we notice a tourist type with Cape cart hood and side entrant's on the 12-18 h.p. chassis, and a very row fortable embodiment of the 9 h.p. also with the well extended Cape cart hood.
Rochet-Schneider and Picard-Pictet. Yeah/rm.. Two interesting makes of car; one member crank case and gear case; exceptional length of propeller-shaft on Picard-Pictet.
DONNE AND WILLANS, LTD., 29a, Gillingham Street, South Belgravia, S.W. (101.—A fine example of 18.24 h.p. four- cylinder engined chassis by Picard Pictet et Cie., Geneva, is staged. The engine has its cylinders cast in pairs, the bore 100 min., stroke 120 mm. islet valves to the right, exhaust to the left. The carburetter is arranged so that it is under governor, pedal or hand lever control, as desired. Opening the throttle introduces extra air through the piston throttle barrel. Ignition is by means of a Simms-Bosch low tension magneto, which supplies current to electromagnetic plugs screwed into the inlet valve caps. Cooling is by honeycomb radiator with fan behind, the water being circulated by a centrifugal pump positively driven. For testing the ignition a five-way plug switch is fitted to the dash. The engine crankcase and the gear box are practically one member, being bolted up together by means of a casing in which the flywheel runs. The flywheel contains a multiple disc clutch. 'I he gear is four-speed operating on the gate change system. There is an internal expanding metal to metal brake behind the gear box, and the same type of brake to the rear road wheels, the latter hand applied and balanced. Owing to the gear box being built very close with the engine the propeller-shaft is almost twice the usual length, and is fitted wit h very neatly covered universal joints fore and at. A very long pressed steel torque rod reaches from the back axle to the left hand side of the gear case. The frame is of pressed steel, and is mounted on semi- elliptical springs at the front, and three-quarter elliptical at the rear. This chassis is a fine example of good design and excellent workmanship. A 16 h.p. Rochet-Schneider limousine landaulet to seat six persons, the carriage work being by Million Gillet, and a 16-20 h.p. four-cylinder Rochet-Schneider landaulet to seat five persons, carriage work by Messrs. Sayers and Co., complete an excellent exhibit. The carburetter is pressure-fed, the petrol tank being carried at the rear beneath the frame.
Rolls-Royce. Feature,: New refinements of the " Silver Ghost" design in springs, steering, torque rods, universal joints, brakes, clutch, carburetter, lubrication, and silencer.
ROLLS-ROYCE, LTD. 14 and 15, Conduit Street, W. (51).-- The 40-50 h.p. Rolls-Royce chassis for 1908 is not varied in any conspi•nous feature, but a careful study of it, particularly under the guidance of its talented designer, as was our pleasant lot during our tour of the show, reveals its numerous delicate refinements, which reflect the greatest possible credit upon the engineering genius responsible for the production of this remarkable car. It will he noticed that the transverse spring hitherto a feature of this frame has disappeared, and in substitution we have the rear of the chassis carried upon three-fourth elliptical springs, the upper quarters forming the spring irons and under-hung shackles from the rear of the lower springs. All the moving and wearing points are served by pressure lubricators. The front axle has been dropped slightly in the centre to give extra clearance. The steering jaws and steering wheel pivots and shafts having been redesigned in such a way that the steering pivot is now inclined slightly outwards at the bottom so that a line produced downwards through its centre cuts the ground very nearly at the impact point of the tyre. This inclination of the steering pivots is to cause a return of the steering wheels to the straight line when the pressure on the steering wheel is released. Means are provided for lengthening or shortening the coupling rod in order to ensure absolute parallelism of the steering w heels. Ball-headed studs are used throughout, and these in each case are easily replaceable if necessary. The steering axle boss is made oil-retaining in such a way that while oil cannot escalm or water obtain entry, the oil feeds downwards to the lower end of the steering pivot. The torque rod is formed with spherical ends, which are adjustable and are lubricated. "file adoption of the spherical ends permits the wheels to rise and fall independently of each other without putting any cross stress upon the torque rod itself. The joints at the end of the torque rod are lubricated through the end of the gear case.
The brackets carrying the forward ends of the laminated spring dumb-irons are box steel castings particularly designed to stand twisting stress. At the rear end of the-opellersha ft we find an ingeniously designed universal sliding joint made oil-retaining with all wearing surfaces case hardened. Coming to the pedal-applied brake at the rear of the gear box we And a refinement in design which is peculiarly an attribute of this chassis. Every car owner is cognisant of the unequal wear and the unequal braking which takes place in connection with block brakes taking effect on brake drums when a certain amount of wear has taken place. Not only are the brake segments unevenly worn, but in that condition they throw an unequal strain on the ball bearings on the shaft on which they are mounted. To overcome this Mr. Boyce has designed a form of pendulum anchorage for the fulcrum of the brake segments. All moving points in the brake are lubricated. As the pendulum arm from which the brake segments are hung are capable of a certain amount of lateral movement, it ensures the absolute embracing of the brake drum by the brake segments, and their equal wear and equal pressure on the ball bearings already mentioned. The accompanying illustration fully depicts this refinement. The forward universal joint propeller-shaft is also made oil-retaining, and wul contain suitic-e.it oil for 1,000 miles. Another refinement is the manner in which the fulcrum of the clutch lever is attached from a cross member hung from the frame, but anchored to the crank chamber. The result of this arrangement is such that the clutch must always enter the cone 'rst the fly wheel, unel naive III relation thereto altsesiately correctly turd centrally with the crankshaft nod crank c'liitWi-et without regard to Hoy ((hick may take place in I he frame itself. A dual jet carburettor is provided, with tinaller and larger tutrmit. 'I he suction of the ettgitie telitim lir.t to °Iwo the smaller throat. and then to give •,(ia air alien required. The engine i• ,,t,t,d with 'he small throat, nod rims on it for slow •licedt, 11.e I.. vet. let cm• tv, arm., lion as the speed of the ent!i-so 1,1thrield ion to the critilks'llaft in by hi-rienting pump delivering oil to all the bearings at in pressure of 10 lin, to Ow square inch. The injector form of silencer now lilted is;oleresting. It is neatly btsed on the lit es of a ladle,. water injei tor, the forward ex-ati t chainher (wing divid,1 into two, nod the alternative disi largo of the exhanst in Hie, elmiohers erecting a vacuum in the chainher immediately behnol or in "root thereof. The 14.11.1 heed through the .let is s"nl1nnable for slow speed—weal( mishit,. for high speeds nod strong our tore for low 'Teed:, by means of n lever Net Oil it narked scot,. t he (hishhomil, fVe do mit ehter flu III, into details of this chassis, for the reason that in other points it is absolutely It`t the 40.50 h p. chassis nr hilt (hell) is eriotifh wit...110118 and n.sveltiet( to at trset the nitwit ion of all \\•,,,1 am% well 'maltose(' mechanism. All the ports of the Sifter Ghost ,ohjeited to wear, together ((lilt the chassis of ',tow( ed r carrying hotly, are dint, on the stand, and tho pima. net nut ill t Ito ',port of the Alit ntnt)1,11, Club after rite conclusion of the troll a.-.1 the ,flini.rilion by tho cc:m.1111We of exports ran be followed on Om spot.
Rothwell. Feature., Two models - 25 h. p, and 15 h.p, In the case of the former the engine is made in the company's works, while the hater is provided with it motor by the Aster Engineering Co. Double artillery wheels with st4igg•red spokes.
THE ECLIPSE MACHINE CO, Oldham. (15). - A 25 h.p. chassis lilted with it four-cylinder engine, the born and stroke of which are Ain. by Sin. The cylinders are cast in pairs, and the inlet valves are worked on the overhead system. The rmliator is mmposed of gilled tubes, and cooling is effected ulani the thereto-syphon ,system, the tan hong on the periphery of the flywheel. The ignition is by S6111118. Itomeh high tension magneto, and by accumulators and coil. Three speeds forward are provided, and the drive is by pro pellet' shaft and live axle. The frame is of pressed steel, narrow in front and strengthened by gussets at the rear end. Both 10111110 11)&4 and 1.11(1111S rods are fitted. The wheels are of the artillery type with staggered spoken. The other chassis shown is fitted with it four-cylinder Aster engine of 15 h.p. The cylinders are rant separately, avid each has a bore and stroke of 8,1 hy 110. The water circulation is by pump, and the ignition is high tension magneto and accumulators and coil. The gear box contains three slieds, and the transmission is by propeller-shaft. Of the two complete ears shown one is fitted with side entrance body with an engine of 20 hi, p while the 01 her 15 it 111111111(11a fitted " h 2 engine.
Rover. Features. The new i3O h.p. four cylinder four-speed car, o facsimile of the Tourist Trophy winner, Side change lever. Improvements in detail to 8 h.p. and 6 h.p ears.
THE ROVER CO LTD, Meteor Works, Coventry (54— Rover cars have had a remarkably successful year, and the makers have wisely adhered to what they know to he good, iosteol of striving alter the unknown, which may not lie so successful. This does not mean that no alterations have been made; on the contrary, where improvement hits been foam' advisable it has been introduced. Taking the large cars first, we find two specimens of the 20 h.p four-cylinder pattern. These are slimvii ill till Opt, touritig Vill' 1111,1 is 11110 Veil lies ill WII v. This typo of car is built in two forms Al light one with three speeds and accumulator ignition, and it 11,111 hilt heavier with four speeds and magneto ignition, together with larger tyres. Among other points that have received attention is the bawlentom, which is now supplemented by it supply from the dash. 'Three samples of the 13 h.p. are on view, including a neat little rms lie for doctors' use. This has it door at the side of the driver' seat, and, among other advantages, enables 11 clear view t1/ be obtained ahead by the occupant of the left inside seat, 'I los initterit of car is even mote complete than of yore. The Change-speed lever is now arranged at the right side instead of 1-11 1he Mtetninkt e01111i111. 'I he timing wheels aro remleted more accessible by biodifyiti- OW fan rapport. The remaining car is one of the popular little 6 h.p, Rovers, and very smart it Iuohs with its Cape cart hood. This has also been improved by the addition of running boards tilted on either side, the right hand one carrying the accumulator ease. None of the cars can be considered expensive. Theo It Ii. p. at is extremely good value,
Roydale. Features: Improvement to prevent the carburetter flooding; cylinders cast en bloc.
THE ROYDALE ENGINEERING CO., Trafalgar Works, Huddersfield (1521.—These cars appeared at the Cordingley Show in the spring of this year. and we then commented on them most favourably. The example now shown at Olympia con be said to be even better. A 25 h.p. chassis is one of the finest examples of British workmanship to be seen on any stand. The main Roydale features are retained throughout. The cylinders are cast en bloc. 1 he neat dashboard is fitted with ingenious sight feed lubricators, etc., but a distinct innmation has been introduced in the shape of a new double jet carburetter. A separate throttle and choke tube are provided for each jet, and when the small throttle controlling the smaller jet is fully open the lareer throttle comes into action, and eventually both jets are brought into play. It is a positive fact that when a car slows down for an obstruction or when taking a corner, the How of petrol does not instantly stop, but a considerable quantity overflows and hangs about the vaporising chamber, and gives too strong a mixture, and renders the engine liable to misfire. 't his is prevented in sue new Roydale carburetter, as there is an overflow or receptacle at the bottom of the carburetter. We are informed that after a day's ruin the quantity of petrol taken out of the receptacle i. considerable, amounting on occasions to almost a quart of liquid. The other exhibits consist of an 18-22 h.p. Chas is and an 18-22 h.p. complete car with side entrance body.
S.C.A.T. Features. The new 22 h.p. car which was described in The Autocar last week.
NEWTON AND BENNETT, King Street West, Manchester (1531.—The 22 h.p. S.C.A.T. car was dealt with in our last issue, and it may he safely said that no finer Italian car can be seen in the show. It may not be out of place to dwell further upon the gear box arrangement, in which the whole working mechanism is enclosed in the box itself. It therefore keeps free from dirt and other deleterious foreign matter. The cars shown on this stand are a 14 1-.p, side- entrance with Cape cart hood and glass screen and the 16 h.p. landaulet.
Scout. Feature, One two-cylinder, two four-cylinder, and one six-cylinder, all gear driven. Cork insert cone clutches.
SCOUT MOTORS, LTD., Salisbury (135).--The cars shown here are of four types, viz., 12, 15, 20, and 30 h.p. The 12 h.p. has a two-cylinder engine, and is a new introduction this year. As shown, it has a four-seated side-entrance body, and is a well-constructed vehicle of the small useful class. The 15 and 20 h.p. cars have four-cylinder motors, while the 30 h.p. has a six-cylinder. In all cases cardan shaft drive is employed, and an interesting feature consists in the construction of the clutches. These are of the cone type, but the inner member is provided with cork insets, which make the frictional contacts, and by all accounts do so very satisfactorily. Hollow dashboards add to the appearance of the vehicles. The 20 and 30 h.p. have both Nigh-tension magnetos and battery ignition. The 12 h.p. has battery only, and so has the 15 h.p. as a standard pattern, but provision is made for fitting a magneto to it if desired. The cars are British-built throughout, except the magnetos.
Sheffield-Simplex Features: Simplified ignition wiring; pedal throttle control; torque bar construction; bridge back axle. A new model throughout.
SHEFFIELD-SIMPLEX MOTOR WORKS, LTD., Tinsley, Sheffield (82) — Four complete examples of the Sheffield-Simplex and one chassis are on view. All are of the latest 45 h.p. six-cylinder type, and contain, besides the well-known features with which this car under its present and previous naives is associated, several special features, which are introduced for the first time at this show. The six cylinders of the engine have equal bore and stroke of 40mm. They are cast in three pairs, and the engine, as a whole, is mounted on brackets extending directly to the sides of the main frame. 'These are of pressed steel, and are connected cross members of large diameter tube. A smaller tube brAged across the extremity of the front dumb :rune, vi hoe the rear end of the frame is mounted on a transverse spring. All the spring joints are fitted with serviceable lubricators. Dual ignition is employed in the form of the Eisemann magneto and accumulator and coil, one distributer serving for both. The six sparking plug leads are made up into a single cord on the principle of a submarine cable, and are very neatly encased and led to their various destinations. The tinning of both gears is regulated from a lever on the top of the steering wheel, while the throttle control is effected LI a laterally moving pedal as of vole. A Hele Shaw clutch, transmits the motion to the variable speed gear box, which is suspended on faults hung from two of the tubular cross members. The re, one of these is modified in the centre to form a substantial ring, which encloses the universal joint of the propeller-shaft, and also supports, ball and socket fashion, the forward end of a tubular extension from the differential case. The extension thus forms a torque rod, which is powerful in itself, and powerfully supported. The other pelt of the d Orel en tia 1 casing is readily detachable, and the drivirgo•o, (+rod slightly, so that the (hiving wheels are splayed somewhat outwardly. The steering wheels are splayed also as usual by canting the steering heads so that the steering centre lines pass through the centre, of the treads. The brakes are concer truted on the rear wheels themselves, concentric drums being einpinyed within which expanding Instal to metal brakes ale fitted, two mi each wheel. Of the complete cars, two are in the landaulet form with canopy tops, art the third is a touring car with Cape curt hood. The exhibit cannot fail to add to the firm's already high reputation.
Siddeley. Features: The 18 h.p. De Luxe - a medium-powered car with every mechanical refinement of the most advanced type. The new 14 h.p. four-seated model; clean design through out.
THE WOLSELEY TOOL AND MOTOR CAR CO., LTD., York Street, Westminster, S.W. (66).— In visiting this stand one is first attracted to the 18 h.p. four-cylinder Siddeley Type de Luxe chassis with live axle drive. It is undoubtedly one of the best show finished chassis in the exhibition, and quite a delight to examine. The frame is of the usual type, in swept and up-swept at front and rear. The engine is carried directly iron, the side member, of the frame, and the gear box is three point suspended. singe point from the tubular C1,1, nie•liilier all 111,1t 1,11,1 rum the chaenel steel crow mrodu, in renr. From this member the rear of the box is hung by sling bolts. The cylinders are cast in pairs, wills all valve chambers on the left-hand side. The induction chambers are placed in the centre of each pair of cylinders, the valve caps carrying the sparking plugs. The centrifugal circulating pump is on the left of the engine, and is driven off the cam belt, the magneto being similarly operated through an intermediate wheel. The fan is rotated from a pulley on a forward projection of the driving pump wilt el spindle. Alternative accumulator ignition is provided, the sparking plugs for this 'within' Icing accommodated in the exhaust valve cap:. The exhaust induction pipes are kept up level with the tops of the cylinders, the latter being inside the former, giving great accessibility to the pump, valve taps, etc. The throttle valve is placed in the centre and top of the induction pipe, and the carburetter on the other side of the engine. Compression tap, project from cylinders on this side of the engine. The drive passes from the vaned arm flywheel through a well designed metal-to-metal clutch and untorsional joint to a neat gear box containing gears and shafts of ample size, with gear teeth of unusual width and strength. A neat form of inter-locking gate change is fitted. The universal in rear of the gear box is of correct design, exceedingly well made and oil tight. '111e gear change give., four speeds forward. The foot brake is unusually powerful, being of the locomotive type, with broad drum and faced segments. The design of tine back axle inspires confidence, and a stout torque rod of the V form runs forward to the cross members supporting the gear case, and is there carried in fL spring controlled rocking arm. The rear wheel brakes are of the internally expanding order, fitted with lubricator spindles, and easily adjustable. Both back and front spring, are of universal length and should afford most comfortable riding. A two-dr.p controllable lubricator and a switch are the sole ornaments of the dashboard. The throttle is controlled by loot and band. In applying the qualification "Dc Luxe" to this chassis, the Wolseley Co. have not misused the term.
In the 14-20 h.p. Siddeley, another introduction for 1503, we have a car which will assuredly meet with the approval of the man of moderate means, or the car owner who is in want of a tender. The frame is of the dual type, the engine being carried upon the side members, and having cylinders cast in pairs, with valve chambers on the left side. The position of the valves is similar to those of the 18 h.p. Do Luxe. Two ignitions are fitted, high tension mignon an I accumulator stand-by. The drive passes through a leather-faced cone clutch and universal joint to a neat and t-ree-point suspended gear box, and on through tolivenal joints of similar design to that of the 18 11.p. De Luxe. Indeed, the chassis., save for the clutch, is almost n replica of the 18 h.p. model. The work in ;ill the essential parts is in every way equal thereto, superfine finish and power alone distinguishing them. The stroke and here of the 14 h.p. car are 3 9-16:n. by Qin., and that of the 18 It p. De Luxe are 4in. by qin. The new 40 11.p. live axle chassis is also shown, and this, so far as design and form are concerned, is a bigger brother of the two cars already described. It is a fine example of automobile engineering, and well worth inspection. On a standard 18 h.p. is a standard evil designed, well upholstered side entrance double phaeton lealy, which the Wolseley firm themselves have equipped w it Ii a light Cape cart hood and folding vertical screen on dashboard.
Simms-Welbeck. Features Six and four-cylinder cars. Fixed timing to magneto; flitch plate frame; filter to water pump.
SIMMS MANUFACTURING CO., LTD., Welbeck Works, Kilburn, N. W. 1351.- A fine specimen of the Simms 30-35 h.p. six-cylinder chassis forms the centre piece of this stand. One is immediately struck not only by the fine finish, but by the neatness of design. The frame, while presenting the appearance at first s _-ht of pressed steel, is really mainly of wood, with steel filter) plates. The inner !dates ale continued some distance inward to form a partial apron. It goes without saying that the Simms high-tens on magneto is employed, and we observe that the timing is not controllable from the driving seat; provision is made on the magneto itself for it t- the best position, and there locking it. Accumulator and coil ignition can be fitted as an auxiliary if desired, and a distributer is shown for use in this way, and the timing of this system is adjustable, an usual. The magneto driving shaft passes throw fli the pump of the water circulating system. A filter is fit led at a short distance be fere the pump, am that the trouble with this part of the mechanism, which might be erratic in its behaviour, is avoided. The drive is on the cardan system, and luny forward speeds are provided, with direct transit-6,4m on the highest speed. The live axle is well designed, and has a forward extension enclosing the propeller-shaft, and serves as a torque rod. The clutch is of the ordinary leather mile variety, but springs are introduced below the leather to ensure a gradual take-up. A second chassis is provided with a limousine body. The four-cylinder cars are on the same lines, except that they are of 20-25 h.p.,:ii.,tetid of 30-35 and the two specimens show+) are a Liodaidet and side entrance car respectively. This 'is one of the finest and most practical exhibits that the Simms Co. have ever made.
Singer. Features: New 20 11.p.; improved 12.14 h.p. Interlocking gate change; three-quarter elliptical springs.
THE SINGER MOTOR CO. LTD., Coventry (52).— It is not remarkable, having regard to the satisfactory job presented by the new 20 h.p. chassis, that we find this exhibit difficult of access on account of the interest it excites. The show does not boast a more compact engine. The frame of the car is, ns usual, of compressed cambered channel steel, in- swept forward of the dashboard, and upswept at the 'ear to give axle clearance. The transverse members are of similar section, and between the first and second transverses is supported the underframe of channel steel, which carries engine and gear box. The sustaining brackets of the aluminium crank chamber are thereby rendered very short and stiff, and in this particular the Singer car closely accords with our idea of chassis design. The engine has its four cylinders cast and set singly and equidistant on the crank chamber. The valve chambers are all on the left-hand side, FO that one camshaft only is employed. The stroke and bore are 100 and 110 mm. respectively. The salve chambers are closed by valve caps,' carrying the sparking plugs and the compression taps. Cap nuts are inserted in the centre of the combustion chambers. The gearing driving the magneto and water circulating pump and contact breaker is contained in a steeple gear casing on the right of the forward part of the crank chamber. The forward end of the wont, spindle carries the driving fan belt pulley. It will be seen that provision is made for both high-tension magneto mid accumulator led ignition, though if the system are to be used singly and independently it would appear that the place of the compression taps would have to be taken b another set of sparking plugs. The water is delivered at the top of the water jacket of the cylinder and passes thence cylinder by cylinder to the rear of the water jacket of the rear cylinder, whence it returns overhead to the radiator. The throttle and ignition are controlled from the steering wheel, the drive passes from the engine through a leather faced cone clutch to the gear box, affording fog speeds forward and reverse, thus us (Ii. gear box and shafts are kept particularly short, the latter running in ball herrings. The gears are of excellent width, with well-formed, well-cat teeth, and should wear most satisfactorily. A neat form of interlocking gate change is provided. The drive passes to the back axle through propeller-shaft and tali- veNal joints as usual. The propeller-shaft casing is neatly designed to form a toripie rod, and centrally with the forward end of this member long radius rods are fitted in the usual way. The rear of the frame is carried on three-quarter elliptical springs. Very powerful foot and side lever applied brakes are fitted. The back axle is of substaead din enp!ions, the differential gear casing 'Ting in alurriniiim of large diameter, and all admirably strengthened by ribs and flanges. The driving wheels run on extensions of the back axle casing, which is transversely tensioned by a tension rod. A very neat arrangement for the adjustment of the worm steering characterises this design. It is a feature which is not too prominent even in cars of the present day.
We find the 12-14 h.p. four limier car revised in several important details, while a new 12-14 h.p. with rather longer wheelbase, enclosed driving shaft, gate change, springs of increased length, and improved steering, is also shown. The 12-14 h.p. chassis are staged with well finished, taking, double phaeton, single, two-seated bodies. A very smart, single landaulet, smartly finished and upholstered, occupies one end of the stand.
S.P.A. Features: Well-designed Italian gear-driven car; accessibility of engine
H. E. HALL AND CO., 15, Riding House Street, W. (114).— On this stand is a fine example of 60 h.p. six-cylinder S.P.A. chassis, 130 by 145. It is a very fine example of a very powerful car, and is, we are told, from the design of Signor Ceirano, who was originally responsible for the design of the Itala engine. The special features of the engine are the disposition of the induction pipe, in which care has been taken to obtain equal leads to each cylinder, and the accessible positions of the make and break cams, tappets, and igniters, which is ensured by the ignition spindle passing up between and through the valve chambers. The valve caps over the induction valves are detachable by undoing one nut securing a dog. The drive passes from a multi-disc clutch to a well designed gear box and propeller-shaft to the back axle. Gate change with enclosed selection gear is fitted. Two powerful band brakes are placed fore and aft of the gear box and applied by one pedal. A V-shaped torque rod and channel section radius rods are used. The 20 h.p., 30 h.p., and 40 h.p. chassis on similar lines will be staged here in the course of next week, but at the moment of the opening of the show they were still on the sea.
Speedwell. Features: Mechanical lubrication; Nilmelior magneto; airtight under casing; support of rear axle centre casing on solid axle; easily removable differential propeller-shaft and rear driving axle; cross girders carrying engine and gear box.
THE SPEEDWELL MOTOR CO., LTD., 151, Knightsbridge, S.W. (65).—On this stand we find a 24-30 h.p. chassis fitted with a four-cylinder Aster latest type engine. This has forced feel lubrication, the oil being taken from o well in the crank base and circulated by means of a plunger pump with ball valve to the main bearings, and so returns to the well. Nihnelior high-tension magneto is fitted, and, in addition to this, an accumulator is used for the coil, so that two systems of ignition can be employed. Behind the vertical tubular gilled radiator of the pattern peculiar to the Speedwell designs is a belt-driven fan, and, in addition to this, the flywheel has its arms cast to form vanes, so that it also acts as a fan. The casing is fitted beneath the engine, extending to the rear of the gear box, and it is made practically air-tight, no that the whole of the air has to pass by the radiator and engine surface. A leather-coned clutch is fitted, the arms of the metal portion also being cast as vanes. Easy assembling of the clutch is arranged for by the removal of the universal joint between the clutch-shaft and the gearshaft. The gear box provides three speeds, these being operated by gate change lever. The brake behind the gear box consists of two contracting shoes, whilst the rear wheel brakes, hand operated, are of the internal expanding type, the application being balanced by a steel wire cable. The drive is by propeller-shaft to the rear live axle. There is a forward bearing in the propeller-shaft casing, which is staved by means of a couple of links from a tubular cross member. The differential can lie bodily removed after removing four bolts from the rear portion of the axle casing. The driving bevel shaft can also be removed through the same opening. The axle casing is supported on a solid rear axle bent down so that the feet and the casing may be bolted thereto. The solid axle ends are drilled through, and furnish sleeves on which the ball races are carried. The rear axle driving members can also be removed while the wheels are on the ground. Semi-elliptical springs are fitted to the front of the frame, and the same to the rear, with the addition that a transverse spring is also fitted. This spring is carried by an extension of the side members. It is interesting to note that the gear box is carried on two cross girders, as is also the engine crank case, these girders being so rounded that the metal shield before mentioned fits nicely up to their underside.
In addition to this excellent production, which exhibits many interesting points of design, distinguishing it from many other exhibits at the show, we have two 25 h.p. finished chassis, upon which are mounted two well-finished, luxuriously upholstered, double phaeton side- entrance bodies. One of these carries a well-constructed double Cape cart hood, and is equipped with a Morgan protector screen on the dashboard, with Lucas head lights, Speedwell side lamps, large coiled horn, Stepney spare wheel, and luggage-rack at rear.
The other 25 h.p. chassis has a good serviceable, comfortable, standard, double phaeton side-entrance body, with such appurtenances as mentioned above.
Standard. Features: 20 h.p. and 40 h.p. six-cylinder cars. Mechanical lubrication on 40 h.p.; single plate clutch; accessibility of carburetter and all parts requiring occasional attention.
THE STANDARD MOTOR CO., LTD., Coventry (38).— This firm exhibit a 20 landaulet with a finely finished body by Milliet Guillet, 78, Rue des Hils, Paris. This is a standard car in every respect, save the body work. A 20 h.p. chassis very finely finished is also staged, in addition to which is .a side-entrance phaeton with Cape cart hood and wind screen, the paint work being a maroon or dark red, the upholstery black in fine leather. This vehicle will create a very good impression in the minds of those who go to the show with the intention of securing a fine medium-priced vehicle. A 40 h.p. chassis is now taking the place of the 30 h.p. type. Needless to say, the engine is a six-cylinder one with the cylinders cast in pairs. The valves are all on the left-hand side of the engine, and are mechanically operated, the cylinders are in pairs, and the mixture is fed to the centre of each valve pocket by means of exceedingly neat and effective elbows and worked copper piping from the plain carburetter, which we illustrate. We understand that this carburetter is exceedingly efficient, and has given excellent results in practice. The exhaust leads are carried practically level with the top of the engine away to a single connection at the front, whence the pipe is taken to the rear to the exhaust box. This arrangement makes the accessibility of the valves quite the best that it is possible to devise. The lubrication is by means of a rack feed mounted on the right-hand side of the crank case. 'The oil is supplied to the trough of the feed by means of the plunger pump attached to and communicating with the centre of the bottom half of the crankcase. The pump is operated by means of a crank connecting rod and shaft in turn, the connecting rod being driven from the crank secur-1 to the end of the inlet and exhaust camshaft, this working at camshaft speed. On the right hand side of the crankcase is mounted the centrifugal water circulating pump a continuation of the pump shaft giving the drive to the Simms-Bosch high tension magneto. The forward end of the pump shaft is driven by means of a positive drive jaw from the distribution wheel case. The same driving shaft immediately behind the case carries a pulley which serves to drive the fan behind the honeycomb radiator by moans of a belt. The crankshaft is carried in bearings in the top half of the crankcase, there being four bearings to the crank, that is, one at the front, one at the rear, and one between each pair of cylinders, the lower half of the crankcase simply forming the oil well. Both the engine and the gear box are carried on a channel underframe. The clutch is of the single plate friction type, and a good feature is the fact that an extraordinary small amount of pressure is required to disengage it. The gear box gives three speeds, direct drive on the top. Its shafts are furnished with ball bearings throughout. Drive from the gear box to the rear axle is by propeller-shaft. In this model the foot-applied brake takes effect upon the mar wheel brake drums, the brake of this type being internal expanding metal to metal. A push on side lever gives braking effect to the large diameter and wide drum behind the gear box, loco type metal shoes being here fitted. We should mention that the application of the foot brake is balanced by means of a balancing lever such as is now coming very mocha in vogue. The torque due to driving or braking stress is taken up by means of a V brake rod which anchors on to a swivelling member attached to a cross tubular stay, the anchor centre coming a little behind the forward propeller-shaft joint. The frame is of pressed steel of section well calculated to withstand the roughest roads. Semi-elliptical springs are fitted to the front, semi-elliptical to the rear, but with the addition that a transverse spring is also fitted. The control is by means of two levers placed above the steering wheels and working in slots in a box, the top of which is well marked so that the novice can see exactly what the levers do. This is also a good feature. Two gauges are mounted on the (lash, these being sunk therein and protected by means of brass rings. One is to indicate the engine lubrication pressure and the other petrol tank pressure. The switch above these completes the whole of the dashboard fittings, which thus gives a very neat appearance. All the road wheels run on ball bearings, and parts of this vehicle give one the impression that it is designed for real hard work. Visitors to the show should make a point of inspecting this chassis.
Star. Feature: Direct third and indirect geared-up fourth speeds; high-tension ignition only to the smaller model; magneto positively driven.
THE STAR ENGINEERING Co., Wolverhampton (103).—Two chassis are staged, viz., the 12 h.p. four-cylinder and six- cylinder 30 h.p. In both of these models the cylinders are cast in pairs. The 12 h.p. is fitted with Simms-Bosch high tension magneto only; all the valves are on the left-hand side of the engine, being operated from one camshaft. The magneto is now driven by gear instead of by chain. The centrifugal pump is also attached to the left hand rear side of the crank chamber, and is positively driven by means of fibre pinion from another on the tail end of the camshaft. The standard typo Star carburetter is fitted, this being under the control of the centrifugal governor operated from a wheel on .the left-hand side of the distribution gear rare. The lubricator is mechanical, driven by means of a leather belt from the tail end of the camshaft. A honeycomb radiator with a draught-inducing belt-driven fan is fitted. On this model is a four-speed gear with direct drive on the third, and a geared up indirect fourth operated by gate change lever. Roth engine and gear case are carried on an angle stool underframe. Hoffmann ball bearings are fitted throughout both to the road wheels and the gear case. The drive is by live axle, the propeller-shaft, joints being neatly cased in to protect them from mud. The front springs are three-quarter elliptical, the rear semi-elliptical. The frame is of pressed steel channel section. Roth foot mid hand brake are of the internal expanding metal to metal type. The front axle is I section. The six-cylinder engine has no accessories on the right hand side, but, on the left is fitted the Simms-Bosch high tension magneto and the carburetter, together with the centrifugal water circulating pump. This model has dual ignition, the accumulator-fed system having synchronised ignition by the E.I.C. Co. The distributer of this is driven by a chain from the tail end of the cam shaft. The coil and distributer box is mounted on the dash. A honeycomb radiator with draught-inducing fan is fitted.
The clutch is of the cone leather to metal type, and can be readily disconnected by removing six flange bolts. The four- speed gear box gives a direct drive on the third with a geared up indirect fourth. A gate change lever is fitted. Three pedals are fitted, the left hand one taking out the clutch, the centre one applying a brake to the right hand sleeve of the differential gear, and the outer right hand one applies a brake to the left hand sleeve of the differential. A hand-applied brake acts on internal expanding blocks on the rear wheel. This model is chain-driven. It is pressure- fed to the carburetter, the petrol tank being arranged behind the axle between the rear spring horns, which are carried out some distance and bent outwards to sustain the rear of the back axle semi-elliptical springs. Both axles are of I section steel. Semi-elliptical springs are fitted at the front, the pressed steel side member of the front forming the anchor for the front spring eyes. The front axle is set forward of the spring centres. Like the smaller model, the engine and gear box have an angle steel underframe, but the rear of the box is carried on two suspension bolts in addition to the side bearings supporting the outer portion of the differential shaft, to which the chain sprockets are attached. Both the chassis are excellent specimens of the Star work. On the same stand is also shown one of the light type live axles with the casing off to show the interior.
Straker-Squire. Features: Three distinct types of cars, including a four- cylinder two-seated small car. Frame design; ignition accessibility; Grouvelle and Arquembourg carburetter; Combined propeller-shaft and torque rod; accessible differential; the C.S.B. gear-changing system.
SIDNEY STRAKER AND SQUIRE, LTD. 75-77, Shaftesbury Avenue, W. (63). — In the interesting 16-20 h.p. four-cylinder Straker-Squire, we have something out of the general run. This is particularly the case with the frame and engine. The forward portion of the former is formed with an unusually wide top flange, the lower flange being turned inwards to form the engine bed plate. The engine itself is of the moteur bloc type, the cylinders all being in one casting, with opposed valve chambers and two half-time shafts. The ignition is by low tension magneto, the ignition shafts being set across the top of the induction valve chambers and driven by a single shaft passing upwards in and between the cylinders to a worm drive. This make and break contacts are operated by side cams on this shaft, and advance and retard are obtained by rotating the shaft itself from the steering wheel independently of its drive from the vertical ignition shaft. This ignition system is obviously most accessible, and is enclosed by a rectangular aluminium casing secured by two wing nuts screwed on to studs on the cylinder heads. The adjustment of the make and break tappets and the aim contact are easily and immediately performed by the slacking or tightening of a nut which secures the quadrant upon which the spindle is mounted. Thermo-syphon water circulation is adopted, extra tank space lining formed under the bonnet. The magneto is set across the end of the crank chamber on the right-hand side, and is bevel driven off the crankshaft. It is held in position by one wing nut, and is readily detachable. The whole arrangement gives an exceedingly clean engine, affording very few surfaces for the lodgement of dust and dirt. A Grouvelle Arquembourg carburetter, with the well-known multi-ball suction arrangement, is used. An internally leather faced cone clutch conveys the drive from the engine, the flywheel being vaned between the clutch drum and the flywheel rim. A double universal joint connects the clutch shaft and gear box. The latter is carried on the inner extension of the side members of the frame, is short, and has both shafts running on ball bearings. The gear affords three changes of speed, with a simple form of gate change, the selecting gear being entirely enclosed. The propeller-shaft casing is made to perform the duty of a torque rod, and this is effected in a particularly clean and neat manner. The back axle, too, is a clean engineering job, the casings being formed of tapered steel forgings, which are produced to carry the bearings of the road driving wheels. The car is controlled by foot and hand. The foot brake is of locomotive type, and the rear brakes are of the internally expanding order, with neat compensating arrangement. The price of this exceedingly well considered chassis is a remarkably moderate one. All bearings, including road wheels, except the crankshaft, are ball bearings. These include the bearings of the steering pivots.
Those of modest means should not omit the inspection of the 15 h.p. four-cylinder Straker-Squire car, called the Shamrock, which is shown carrying a very smartly designed and finished two-seated phaeton body, with vertical glass screen, brass fittings, and everything complete for £250. Thermo-syphon cooling is adopted. Commonsense padded-side doors are fitted to the footboard. The engine has its cylinders cast in pairs, with the valve chambers on the near side. Bore 85, stroke 85. The drive passes through a leather-faced cone clutch and gear box, giving three speeds forward with gear change lover on sector on steering standard. The rear end of the differential gear casing is formed of a disc which may be detached, and the condition of the gearing- inspected and the differential withdrawn without dismounting the axle if desired. The stand also boasts a very interesting latest form of 25 h.p. C.S.B. (Cornilleau St. Beuve) car, which attracted a considerable amount of attention at recent Paris Salons, and was then described at considerable length in our report. It is shown here in a very similar form, but with detailed improvements, which are both interesting and efficient. For instance, the valve caps and the induction valves when unscrewed bring with them the make and break tappet spindle and igniter without further trouble. The valve spindles and tappets are enclosed as before by aluminium casing lids. In this car, also, we find the propeller-shaft employed in an ingenious manner to serve as a torque rod. By ingenious arrangement of sliding sleeve and positive clutches the wheels which are intended to be meshed are brought into mesh for a certain portion of their width before the drive passes through them, and when so meshed the locking clutches move into position and the drive becomes positive, so that the wheels are meshed without stress or sound. On a 25 chassis is mounted an exquisitely designed and finished double phaeton body for the Maharajah of Bekanair.
Sunbeam. Features: Wood-cased steel frame on double elliptic rear springs with sway preventer; built-up axle; natural circulation; crank case oil level indicator; improved Sunbeam oil bath for chains; slam locks to doors.
THE SUNBEAM MOTOR CAR CO., LTD, Moorfield Works, Wolverhampton (70).—A fine specimen of the new 35 h.p. chassis is well displayed on the end of this stand. The frame is of a new type, being of pressed channel steel throughout, supplemented by an outer wooden casing. At the rear it is supported on double elliptic springs, while the front am semi-elliptic, as usual. Roller guides are provided to prevent rocking of the body at the back. Both the front and rear axles are of the built-up channelled type. The four cylinders are cast separately, with ample water jackets, and the seater pipes are also of large dimensions, as the system works by natural circulation. Magneto and battery ignition are both fitted, and the control of both is operated simultaneously from a handle on the steering wheel.. The other handle regulates the additional air supply to the carburetter, the throttle of which is foot controlled only. Both the lubricating oil and the petrol are supplied under exhaust pressure. In the crank case are four vertical pipes set at the correct level for the oil, and a small hand pump is fitted, by whirl' the fact that the oil is at the correct height can be verified from time to time. The four speeds are controlled by a lever moving in a gate quadrant, and the direct drive is on the highest speed. The final transmission is by side chains, which of course on the Sunbeam are enclosed in cases. These cases have been further improved, and are now readily detachable. A specimen of this pattern is shown as a limousine. The well tried 20 h.p. is on similar lines, but of course somewhat lighter. It is shown both as a landaulet to carry four, and a touring car with Cape cart hood. The fitting of side doors to the footboard is a good feature in these cars, and the slam locks are more convenient to manipulate than the ordinary handle. The Sunbeam is more than holding its position.
Swift. Features. Two new two-cylinder and two four-cylinder models. Swift double-acting carburetter; fibre heads to valve tappets; new gate change.
THE SWIFT MOTOR CO., LTD., Coventry (53).- Perhaps the most interesting feature on a stand which presents several attractive exhibits is the 18-24 h.p. Swift chassis, which strikes those who examine it with attention as a remarkably fine example of automobile engineering. The frame is of pressed channel section cambered steel, inswept at the dashboard, with cross members of channel and tubular section. The cross members also sustain an underframe of channel section, on which are carried the engine, clutch and brake spindles, gear box, etc. The cylinders are cast and set separately on the crank chamber, 162 by 110 mm., and have valve chambers on the left-hand side, so that <oily one camshaft is used. The water pump and magneto are driven through an intermediate wheel off the crankshaft. The distribution gear is enclosed in a neat gear ease in front of the crank chamber, and provided with an easily detachable casing. The indto•tion pipes and exhaust pives are arranged in such a way that access to the valve raisers and valve spindles is an easy matter. In addition to being mails adjustable, the valve tappets are provided with fibre heads for the reduction of noise. The contact-maker is driven by bevel gearing off the rear end of the camshaft, that the primary wires which pass through the dashboard the coils are kept as short us possible. A good lift is given to the water delivery pipe from the top of the combustion chambers, and from the disposition of the water pipes it is probable that should a mishap overtake the pump thermo-syphon cooling would ensue sufficiently to run the engine in safety. The engine is fed through the well-known Swift double-acting carburetter, with which the Swift car did so well in the Tourist, Trophy Race and both the last Scottish Itch ability Trials. The drive passes through a well-designed leather-faced cone clutch and a flexible joint to the three-speed gear box. The gear box is east in one piece A neat form of locking gate change is provided. The propeller-shaft is of the leading sliding type, having universal joints at each end. These joints are dust and oil- tight. The (hiving bevel spindle rains in one long plain hearing, and is produced at. the rear side of the le,e1 iv) ef‘'. where it is curried in a spigot end hearing. The live axle runs in long plain bearings, and the differential gear box cast in one piece. The Iran.) is carried on long springs, shackle hung, with lubricators fitted to ;ill t he weal Mg points. A well-designed torque rod and radius roils are also provided. The brakes are of excellent design, the pedal brake drum being of ample width and embraced by well-made shoes fitted with brake blocks. The front wheels run on Hoffmann ball bearings, and are also provided with ball thrust hearings. The front axle is tubular, and has the steering connecting rod set in front of the steering cud below the axle. The control is by pedal and hand lever. This remarkably mart, car, carrying double phaeton side-entrance body of excellent design and finish, is offered at £100 complete.
A 25-30 h.p. chassis is also shown. In this car we have a channelled steel frame with underframe connected by riveted sheeting, and forming an extremely stiff engine anti gear box bed. The cylinders arc cast in pairs, 110 min., 150 mm., with valve chambers on the left-hand side and one camshaft. The crankshaft is carried in three bearings of unusual length. Dual ignition is provided, the well-known magneto being driven off a continuation of the pump spindle. The accumulator fed ignition leads past the two sparking plugs over the induction valve chambers, the magneto ignition lead being attached to the sparking plugs on the right- hand side of the combustion chambers. The contact-maker is driven by a bevel sear off the rear end of the camshaft at an angle of 115a, and is in a very accessible position. Compression taps are provided above the valve caps over the exhaust valve chambers. A multiple disc clutch conveys the drive through a flexible joint to the four-speed gear box, and to by floating propeller-shaft, as in the previous model, to the back axle. The driving bevel spindle runs in ball beatings forward and tail bearing behind. Ball bearings are fitted to the live axle. A torque rod, bearing shaft, and radios rods are also provided. Springs of exceptional length, and lubricated at each frictional point, carry the chassis. The brakes are of excellent design, and easily adjusted by means of a wing nut. The rear brakes are of the internal expanding order. The petrol tank, which contains about fourteen gallons, is shaped to the rear portion of the frame. To those in sear,' of It small, satisfactory, light car we can cordially recommend a 9-10 11.p. two-cylinder Swift, which is practically a reduction in the number of cylinders and scantlings of the 18-J4 h.p, chassis already described. It should be mentioned, however, that a distinctive feature of the two-cylinder tinned, however, that a distinctive feature of the two-cylinder car is the neat manner in which the pump is carried distinctly apart from the crank chamber in an aluminium casting of its own, so that the leakage of oyster into the crank chamber becomes an impossibility. It is priced at £265, with side- entrance hotly, as shown.
Talbot. Features: The new 25 h.p. and 35 h.p. models, all well as the latest 16 11.p. Mechanical lubrication; interconnection of pedal with extra air valve; adjustable steering; steering details throughout.
CLEMENT-TALBOT LTD, Barlby Road, Ladbroke Grove, NN. (49).- Here are a 15 h.p. side entrance phaeton, with Cape hood and wind screen to the dash, 25 h.p., with no fittings, similar to the 15 h.p., save that the cylinders are cast in pairs, instead of singly. A 35 h.p. landaulet is also staged. The chassis is fitted with a 35 h.p. engine, 120 nom bore and stroke. The cylinders are cast in pairs, the inlet valves being on the right hand, exhaust on the left. Admission of the gases to the inlet valves is by way of a twin aluminium casting, one elbow of which serves each pair of cylinders at, the centre of the valve pockets. The exhaust outlet casting is fitted with a pair of flanges, so that the gases are taken away from the centre in the same manner as the inlets. There are three bearings to the main crankshaft, these being carried by the top half of the case. All the bearings are white metal lined. The bottom part of the crank case is detachable, and only serves as an oil well. At the right-hand rear it the crank case in the upper portion is fitted a plunger pump, eccentrically operated from the tail end of the inlet camshaft. This pump lifts lubricating oil from the well at the rear of the crank case, and serves the sight- feed lubricators on the dash, whence it is distributed to the engine bearings. The crank is drilled so that oil p.m, from the main bearings along the shaft and crank webs to the connecting rod big end. The clutch is of the leather to !octal cone type, with adjustable spring pads. The ignition is in duplicate, a Simms-Bosch high tension magneto being driven from distribution wheel case. The magneto is arranged on the right of the crank case, immediately behind the distribution casing. The high tension distributer is mounted at the top of a vertical shaft, and is bevel driven from the forward top of the engine crankshaft. Both systems are inter-connected. As regards advancing and retarding the spark of the magneto ignition, this is brought about by a collar, which moves a sleeve carrying a peg operating in au inclined groove on the distribution wheel. The carburetter is of the well-known Talbot automatic type, but in addition has fitted an extra air cock at the centre of the inlet pipe. This cock is under the control of the throttle lever, so that on fully opening the throttle the fullest amount of air can also be given to the engine; also on de-clutching the throttle the air cock is closed. The water circulating pump is of the centrifugal type, the forward end of the shaft driving this pump carries a pulley, driving by means of a belt the radiator fan. The engine and gear box are mounted upon a channel steel underframe. The change speed gear gives four speeds, gate system. The top is the direct drive, and all the gear-shafts run in ball bearings. All the brakes are of the internal expanding metal-to-metal type. The application of these brakes is balanced by means of a balance lever situated on a shaft., to which the short locking levers are attached. The springs are of the semi-elliptical type, but a transverse spring is fitted to the rear of the frame. The frame is of the pressed steel type, inswept forward and up-swept at the rear, and stayed by pressed channel cross members. The road wheels are of the artillery type, and carry 880 min. by 120 min. tyres. The landaulet chassis is similar, excepting that the wheelbase is about eight inches longer. The drive of the chassis is by live axle and propeller-shaft, which passes beneath a cross member of the frame, but above an exhaust tube, which connects tip the two silencers arranged one on the inner side of each frame member respectively. We notice that the adjustment fur end play on the steering stem is now arranged beneath the footboard, and takes the form of a ball bearing cup. The main steering rod is fitted with a fluted piece on the ball socket joint, so that if the should by any means come out of place the rod could not drop away, a suggestion that we made in " Hints and Tips" sonic time ago. The front axle is of H section. Taking time exhibit generally, we must say that it is one of the best in the show.
Thornycroft. Features: Six-cylinder 45 h.p. aid four-cylinder 30 h.p.; underframe done away with; forced lubrication; simply adjustable air supply; interlocking gear change.
J. I. THORNYCROFT AND Co., LTD., 2, Allientarle Street, W. (55).— Prominent on this stand is a remarkably attractive show-finished chassis of the six-cylinder 45 h.p. Thornycroft, shown with considerable modifications over last year's pattern. It will be seen that now the underframe carrying the original and gear box has been done away with, and in place thereof* transverse members are substituted. 'The crank chamber is- sling from the side members by steel brackets which keep the aluminium brackets of the chamber as short as possible. 'ilea cylinders are cast and set in pairs on the crank chamber, and have large cover plates enclosing the water- jacket spacing, giving easy access for core extraction an cleansing. The crankshaft runs in four long bearings, one between each pair of cylinders. The bore is 40n. and tt stroke 5in. Valve chambers occur on each side of the engine. The water-jackets are carried in a sufficient manner round the exhaust valve chambers and the guides in order that the latter -nay be kept as cool as possible. '1'he carburetter and induction pipes are set on the rig-t-hand side of the engine, and the exhaust nit the left, a flanged tubular exhaust pot being used. A hot, air jacket is neatly cast on the exhaust pot, tendering an additional fixture unnecessary. The magneto and large circulating_ pump are driven off a. spindle across and above the end of the crank chamber. The pump is intentionally coupled up to the magneto spindle for the sake of running as steady t the latter. Both magneto and pump are in a particularly accessible position.
Messrs. Thornycroft and Co., who were among the first to int 'wince forced lubrication in connection with internal combustion engines used for road traction, of tours continue the practice. The lubricating pump is situated on the upper part of the crank chamber, and is driven by a vertical shaft off the distribution gear, which is continued upwards and above the distribution gear case for the purpose of thriving the contact-maker and the distributer for the accumulator ignition. An oil bypass valve is placed in the top of the distribution gear case, and any oil passing there- through is delivered to the top of the distribution gearing, which is thereby plentifully lubricated. The throttle valve is an ingenious system of piston throttle, and upon opening the throttle it opens an additional air valve proportionately. The piston can be rotated to adjust this extra feed of air as desired. The drive passes from the engine through the vaned arm flywheel and multiple disc clutch of excellent design to the gear box, which gives three speeds forward and reverse, with a neat form of interlocking gate change. '1'116 selecting arrangement is placed most conveniently outside the box in a special casing, an arrangement of which we cordially approve. The very large diameter ',rake drum, interchangeable with 'the brake drums on the driving wheels, is found in rear of the gear box. Through this drum internally expanding segments take effect, actuated by the pedal on the dashboard. The brake segments taking effect on the back wheels are of the same design, and interchangeable. In examining this chassis, it is well to remember that Messrs. .1. I. Thornycroft and Co. first used plate clutches on their steam waggons in 1897. The method of carrying the gear box is particularly worthy of notice. It has three points, suspended in such a way that the gear-striking spindles, etc., are all carried with the box. We hope to be able to illustrate this in an early number of The Autocar. The drive passes to the back axle by propeller shaft with universal joint at each end. The back axle is a remarkably fine job, and is composed of an aluminium channelled gear casing with stamped steel axle casings. The driving bevel pinion spindle runs in ball bearings widely separated, with two ball thrust bearings in addition. The live axle is formed of a differential gear casing in aluminium and axle casings in steel, upon which the road wheels are carried in hearings ingeniously disposed. The driving- shafts are fast in the road wheel hubs, these latter being flanged inwards to bear upon a ball bearing which is carried on the end of the casing. The rear of the frame is supported by three-quarter elliptical springs, the springs being placed in the spring tables at points on the lower springs which utilise the " give" of the springs. The portions of these springs forming the dumb irons are held as to their anchored ends in a spring carrier, and tapered forward to a bracket to which they are anchored. This forms a perfect method of securing these members.
The 30 h.p. four-cylinder is in every respect similar to the car above described, save that it has an engine of four cylinders in lieu of six. Three chassis are shown carrying well-executed and upholstered bodies by H. J. Mulliner. They serve to show that the Thornycroft chassis of both powers will build up into smart, up-to-date, and attractive cars. Messrs. Thornycroft r" inform us that they have taken Messrs. Hoffmann and Co. into consultation, with the result that their ball bearings are guaranteed for a number of years.
Turner-Miesse. Features: Steam car using paraffin fuel. Flash generator. Three-cylinder single-acting engine.
TURNER'S MOTOR MFG. CO., LTD., Wolverhampton (91).- The chassis of the 10 h.p. type is a good example of thorough construction and design. Both this type and the 16 are of practically the same construction save for the difference of power. In the 10 h.p. and 16 h.p. models a burner vaporising tube is situated at the left-hand side of the generator. A feed water heater is provided, no that the heat of the exhaust steam is utilised to warm the supply water to the generator, and thus economise fuel. The three- cylinder engine is horizontal, and is situated beneath the driver's floorboard. There is a reducing pair of gear wheels, on the crankshaft and counter-shaft differential box. From the counter-shaft ends sprockets serve to transmit the power by means of side roller chains to the rear road wheels. A strong point of the Turner-Miesse cars is the control. A lever is mounted above the steering wheel, and this practically performs the same function as the throttle lever on a petrol car. The movement of this lever in one direction or the other gives increased or decreased water supply to the generator, and so increases or decreases the amount and pressure of steam.
Visitors should examine the cleverly arranged by-pass valve which serves to perform this function. In forward gear running the inlet valve travel can be varied by a lever beneath the steering wheel to give more or less opening as desired, this being equivalent to notching up with a link motion. It should be noticed that the engine on this vehicle is a three-cylinder one, single acting, so that as each cylinder provides an impulse at each crank revolution the action is equivalent to a six-cylinder petrol motor acting on the Otto cycle; thus very sweet and elastic running is obtained. Another point which will appeal particularly to Colonial motorists is the fact that the burner uses paraffin as fuel in a very efficient manner. The starting up operation is first by means of a small petrol pilot light, but this is quickly put out of action, and the paraffin main supply brought in, only the smallest amount of petrol being required for starting purposes.
The new pattern 10 h.p. vehicle is exhibited in a side entrance tourist body form, and to many people's minds has a considerably improved appearance to that of the pattern with the tubular condenser set out separately in front. In the car now mentioned the condenser takes the form of a combined tank and horizontal tubular gilled pine type, resembling the radiator of the petrol car. Two 16 h.p. finished models are shown, one being a landaulet and the other a limousine. The new 30 vehicle is shown for the first time. This we illustrated and described in the last issue of The Autocar, so that a detailed description is not now necessary.
Unic and Brasier. Features: New 16-20 h.p. type Unic with Georges-Richard carburetter.
MANN AND OVERTONS, LTD., 7, Lower Belgrave Street, S.W. (113).— Two Unics are represented here, one a 10-12 h.p. chassis, which is similar to the cabs running about London, except that the two-cylinder engine has high-tension magneto ignition, and the body is of the coupg type, having entrance door at the side of the driver's seat. The 16-20 h.p. is a new pattern, with four-cylinder engine on the same lines as the two-cylinder. The Georges-Richard carburetter is fitted, and the drive is by cardan-shaft. The change-speed lever works in a gate quadrant, and actuates four speeds, the top one of which drives direct. The popular three-quarter elliptical springs are fitted at the back, and shock absorbers are fitted to all the wheels. The 30-40 h.p. Brasier car has a fine side-entrance body by Vincent. The 8-10 h.p. Demester four-cylinder voiturette had not arrived at the time of our inspection.
Valveless. Features: Two cylinders; one combustion chamber; no valves; twin-geared crankshafts; perfect balance.
CRAWSHAY WILLIAMS, LTD., Ashtead, Surrey (132).— On this stand is a chassis of the Valveless motor car, the design of the engine and drive of which is described and illustrated in another place in the present issue. It will only be necessary to point out that this interesting description of engine is the only one of its kind in the exhibition, and by means of its design that particularly desirable feature of parallel drive throughout is obtained. We understand from the exhibitors that cars fitted with this engine and drive have been running most satisfactorily in London for some time past.
Vauxhall. Features Metal-to-metal cone clutch; four speeds; mechanics.) lubrication; synchronised ignition; linable crankshaft, gear shaft, and propeller-shaft.
VAUXHALL MOTORS, LTD., Luton, Beds. (72).—This firm now concentrates its efforts upon a single type of car having a 12-16 h.p. engine, which, as our readers know, we consider one of the most useful sizes. The pressed steel frame is of neat construction and light weight. It is extended both front and rear to form the dumb irons, and the back extremities are tied by a cross bar. The cylinders of the engine are four in number, and cast separately, and the motor and gearing are mounted upon an underframe, which is enclosed by a metal apron. High-tension accumulator ignition is employed with single coil and distributer. Both the water and the lubricating oil are circulated by pumps. The control levers for the sparking and throttle are mounted below the steering wheel, and are coupled up by external rods. An accelerator pedal is al. employed. The clutch is a metal to wild coned clutch, and the gear box, though of small dimensions, gives three forward speeds and a reverse, the changes being effected by the usual side lever working in a gate quadrant. The live axle easing is supported by tie rods, and the torque is taken up by V rods. A remarkable feature of this well-designed and well considered car is the lining of the crank, gear and propeller-shaft, the engine and gear box being set at a suitable rake backwards to effect this. This scheme tends largely to reduce the movement, and consequently the wear of the flexible and universal joints. The finished cars comprise a landaulet, a two-seater, and a standard pattern four-seater. The makers have now had considerable experience, which will benefit themselves and their customers alike.
Vinot. Features. New chassis with live axle; Vinot gate change system; torque rod pressed from sheet, steel.
W. COLE AND SONS, LTD., 92, High Street, Kensington, W. (134).— This stand is devoted to the Vinot cars, one of the latest 16-24 h.p. chassis being shown in the centre. It is the first built by the makers on the live axle principle; hitherto side chain transmission has been always employed. Four forward speeds are provided, and the lever works in a vertical gate quadrant in the system introduced by this firm several years ago. The torque rod is pressed from sheet steel, and the rear end of the frame is carried on three-quarter elliptical springs. The new Simms-Bosch magneto is employed for ignition purposes. The timing is not adjustable, but the throttle can be operated by a handle on the steering wheel. The two other cars have landaulet and limousine bodies built by Messrs. Wm. Cole and Sons, who are showing for Messrs. Harman and Co., the British concessionaires.
Vulcan. Features: Two models 14 and 25 h.p. A very simple chassis. Independent magneto and accumulator ignition.
THE VULCAN MOTOR AND ENGINEERING CO., Southport (37). — The feature here which impresses the observer is the exceedingly clean and well thought out design of the 14 h.p. and the 25 h.p. Villein chassis staged. 7dre whole design is eminently practical, and there is not a single part employed that can be dispensed with. The result is simplicity in its highest form.
The 25 h.p. chassis has a four cylinder engine with the cylinders cast, in pairs. The inlet valves on the right, the exhaust on the left, and the automatic carburetter supplies mixture to the particularly neat double branch induction pipe. Duplicate plugs are carried in the inlet valve caps, so that two systems of ignition can be employed, arid either brought into play immediately. At a slight angle with the right-hand end of the crankcase is arranged a contact maker, and high-tension distributer to the accumulator fed ignition, a Simms-Bosch magneto positively driven being arranged behind this, and clipped to the crank case web. The centrifugal water circulating pump is driven by means of a shaft from the rear of the left-hand distribution wheel case. On the same shaft is mounted a pulley, which serves to drive the fan behind the honeycomb radiator. The clutch is of the coned leather to metal type, and is arranged so that it can be easily dismounted if desired. Change-speed gear provides four speeds, and is operated by means of a gate change lever. The drive to the rear axle is by propeller-shaft, suitably provided with universal joints of substantial design. Both foot and hand brakes are of the internal expanding ,metal to metal type. The foot brake acting upon a drum behind the gear box, the pull on hand brake taking effect on the rear wheel drum. Both and gear box are carried on an angle underframe, the crank ease and gear box having a web east throughout their length, thus providing strong and ample carrying surface. pie:* frame is of pressed steel, following usual lines. The springs.,1 are semi-elliptic as to the front and three-quarter as to the rear.
The smaller type 14 h.p. follows the same lines as the 25 h.p., save that the gate change only gives three speeds instead of four. It should be noticed that the high tension distributer casing does not move, and thus the wires remain stationary, although the operating shaft can be relatively moved. A tubular section front axle is fitted in this model,: I section in the two larger side entrance vehicles. A 14 Roi des Beiges body and a 25 h.p. similar vehicle are staged,o these being very tastefully, though quietly, finished.
Weigel. Features: The new 25 h.p. and the latest 40 h.p. Accessibility and simplicity of the ignition tappets. Specials pedal for braking the clutch-shaft to facilitate gear chang-4. General attention to detail throughout.
WEIGEL MOTORS, LTD., 90. Doswell Road, E.C. (9).- A 40 h.p. polished chassis which this firm are exhibiting afford many points of interest. It is of their standard type with the cylinders (130 bore by 140 stroke) cast in pairs, with" opposed valves. Ignition is by low-tension currenti4 from a magneto driven by gear off the inlet camshaft. The ignition mechanism is peculiarly accessible, and can be withdrawn in two minutes, the ignition tappets and it plugs being arranged so as to be drawn simultaneously. A+ All ignition tappets are fitted with hardened rollers pressing,' on cams fitted to a vertical shaft, skew-gear driven from the inlet camshaft. The skew pinion on the camshaft is of sufficient length to allow it to he moved in a longitudinal direction, and thus advance or retardation of sparking can be obtained by moving the driving skew gear longitudinally, the skew being moved in the one direction by hand, and brought back in the other direction by a spring. The method of fixing the cams to the vertical shafts which operate the tappets is also worth noting. Each shaft serves for the pair of cylinders, but each cylinder has a separate cam, the lower one being fixed to a taper on the shaft, and the upper one secured on a projecting taper made solid with the lower cam. This enables the cams to be adjusted independently of each ether. Half-compression is obtained by raising the exhaust valves by means of a small cam, the projection of which is placed opposite that of the ordinary working cam, and lifts the valves when at the compression point. Additional air as required by the speed of the engine is introduci•i through V-shaped ports opened by a spring-controlled valve, the tension of which is easily and immediately adjustable. The V-shaped ports admit of a graduated air supply. The petrol to the carburetter is exhaust, pressure fed, Ina, the exhaust gas, before reaching the petrol, is first carefully filtered, as is also the petrol before reaching the carburetter. From the exhaust camshaft, by means of a gear, the circulating pump is driven, and this is fitted with a test cock to show whether or not the water is circulating properly. Megevet-Marston radiators are fitted. The lubricator is of the dredger type, with adjustable drips, driven by a spring belt and pulley elf the exhaust cam-shaft. A that plate type of clutch is adopted, which works in oil and paraffin. Three pedals are fitted, the two outside fines operating the brake and clutch in the usual way, while the middle one is used to brake the primary-shaft of the gear box in order to allow of easier gear changing. This brake can be adjusted very easily by means of a locking wing nut placed in an accessible position. While dealing with pedals, independently of the hand control, an accelerator can be used to open the throttle. Hoffmann ball bearings are fitted throughout to the gear box mush axles. In fact, the only shafts not running on hall bearings are the crank and camshafts. The gear box gives four forward speeds through sliding gears of Ubas steel. They are operated by a gate change, the selector of which is contained within the gear box. On the gear change lever a decent is fitted to prevent the gear being put into reverse unintentionally. The brake fitted behind the gear box offers exceptionally wide wearing surfaces, and is of the external type; these on the rear axle are internally expanding with metal-to-metal surfaces. The frame is pressed channel section. The spring shackles are fitted with a separate lubricator. The 25 h. le fully-cylinder chassis is quite a new 'wide!, which for the first time will be exhibited on this stand. This is the first example of its type, and we regret that;-t the time of our visit it was not on view, it is somewhat similar to the machine already described, but the suspension is by semi-elliptical front and three-quarter elliptical back springs. Moreover, three speeds instead of four will be provided. This car will be on view before these lines are read, and from what we have seen of it in progress of construction, we expect it to prove as great a success as its larger sister the 40 h.p. We shall be illustrating and describing it at length in an early issue.
West-Aster. Features: Three models. Four cylinders; four speeds; live axles; ball bearings throughout.
West Ltd, 85, Shaftesbury Avenue, W. (24).- The West-Aster cars this season have met with remarkable success. On their stand three types of cars are shown. A 14-16 h.p. four-cylinder is fitted with Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto ignition, gate change speed, live axle, and hall bearings throughout. The type of body fitted is side- entrance phaeton with Cape cart hood and glass wind screen. There is also a 35 h.p. landaulet resembling the former type of car in practically every detail except, of course, as regards engine power. At the time our report was made, the 30 h.p. had not arrived, but we understand that it very closely resembles the other types of cars previously referred to.
Westinghouse. Feature, The 20-30 h.p. Westinghouse, recently described in our columns. Ingenious automatic carburetter; adjustable steering; mechanical lubrication; chain cases.
A. GAAL, AND CO., 17, Hanover Square, W. (137).— The 20-30 h.p. Westinghouse chassis was fully described in our issue of October 26th. We now have presents' for our inspection a 35-40 h.p. chassis, which in many aspects is on new lines. The engine has four cylinders cast in pairs, and ignition is provided by low tension magneto. The carburetter shows several ingenious features. Automatic action is provided for in such a way that in ordinary running a valve needle is drawn down towards the jet by the suction of the pistons, but for higher speeds this action is reversed, and both more petrol and more air are admitted. The chamber and jet are readily detachable. The same ingenuity is expressed in the steering gear; not only are the working parts adjustable, but one of the plates can be removed, admitting a ready inspection of the interior. The joint between the first arm and the forward rod is forked, and the other joints have bolts passing right through the bolts to prevent accidental disconnection of the parts. The forcing of the lubrication is effected by several pumps, one delivering up to the sight feeds, and from these there are individual eccentrically-driven pi-ips delivering the oil to the various bearings. The edges of the plates constituting the clutch are split and set slightly to assist in separation when the clutch is released. The gear box is provided with a vertical partition which shuts off the pair of wheels which permanently couple the primary and secondary shafts, this being done with the object of reducing noise. The selecting rods are not only held by vertical spring plungers when not in use, but a shifting plate provides a positive lock, preventing their accidental disturbance. The side chains are enclosed in well considered chain cases, thus getting over one of the principal objections to this form of transmission. Altogether, the Westinghouse cars as exhibited fully justify the reputation attaching to the name.
White. Features: Engine and generator slightly lowered; new compression pump; sight action of thermostat. In the main the White chassis is unaltered. The special feature of the new cars is the magnificent bodywork.
WHITE STEAM CARS, Kingly Street, Regent Street, W. (71). –The striking feature of the White stand is the magnificent bodywork fitted to the standard 20 h.p. and 30 h.p. chassis. It is quite an education to go through the points of the various limousine landaulets and the phaeton shown. Before treating these we will give a few notes on the chassis. It may be pointed out hero that it has not been found necessary to make any really radical alteration to the general principle of the vehicle. What alterations have been made have been dictated by past experience. The engine and generator have been dropped lower, although the actual road clearance of the lowest part of the car remains the same. The fact of dropping the generator has considerably improved the accessibility of the burner, and also makes for less liability to scorch any part of the frame or woodwork. Also the propeller-shaft is now practically horizontal, and gives a snore efficient drive. In the engine the piston valve to the high pressure cylinder has been modified and improved. The compression pump has been entirely remodelled, and now only one gauge is fitted with a black hand showing the pressure in the fuel tank, and a red hand showing the pressure of the fuel as it passes to the vaporiser.
The 20 h.p. car has the generator tubes increased in diameter, and therefore has now greater reserve than before. The footboard has been improved, and the engine is supported differently. Further, there are modern oil shields fitted. Another feature which is to be introduced on all the 1908 cars, but which had not come to hand at the time of our visit to the stand, was the fitting of a visible lever whereby the action of the thermostat could be noticed. This was to be fitted on the casing above the fuel governing valve, and will be an important improvement.
Speaking of the bodies, all visitors to the show should inspect the 20 h.p. Louis Quatorze style of limousine which has been made to the order of Mrs. Cosmo Gordon Lennox (Miss Marie Tempest). This vehicle is most elaborately finished inside with special roller blinds, and is upholstered in light and natty looking material, which is daintiness it self. The lines and mouldings of the body are particularly pleasing. All the bodywork on the stand is by Cann, Ltd., Camden Town, and the gold medal design landaulet would also repay long and careful inspection. The limousines have also exceedingly find flowing lines, and in this connection we may say that Mr. Coleman took us to Cann's stand in the Annexe to look at three special types of bodies fitted to White steamers. The artistic ability of the designer of these bodies is admirably shown, most luxurious fittings being embodied, such as no other vehicles in the show can surpass. Altogether the display of the White people does them great credit.
Withers. Features Krebs carburetter; dashboard starting device (Page's patent).
WITHERS AND CO., LTD., 35, Edgware Road, W. (118).— On this stand are three Withers cars, carrying very handsome limousine, landaulet, and well and tastefully finished and extremely comfortable semi-Berlin, also a limousine with detachable body, thoroughly well finished and upholstered.
The Withers chassis carries a four-cylinder 30 h.p. Aster engine with Krebs carburetter, leather faced cone clutch, four speed gear box, and propeller-shaft to live axle. So far as can be seen this chassis is a very strongly finished production. The propeller-shaft casing is cleverly adapted as a torque rod, and radius rods are also fitted. The frame is carried on a transverse spring at the rear centrally supported on a strong projecting bracket. It should be noted that both accumulator and high tension magneto ignitions are provided, the systems being independent and working through the sparking plugs set angle-wise in the valve covers. On one of the cars shown an ingenious ratchet dashboard starting apparatus is fitted. In this arrangement a ratchet wheel running on a free wheel bearing is operated by a top arid bottom ratchet engaging alternately, so that by a reciprocating movement of a short lever the crankshaft can be rotated from the dashboard. (Page's patent.)
Zedel and Spyker. Features. The new Zedel ear. Moteur bloc engine of excellent design and accessibility; carburetter, distributer, and ignition equipment. The Spyker improved in detail, but unchanged in main features.
THE BRITISH AUTOMOBILE COMMERCIAL SYNDICATE, LTD., 97-98, Long Acre, W.C. (94).- Here are exhibited the Spyker and Zedel cars. Although but few Zedel cars have yet entered this country, they have been remarkably well spoken of by experts who have experimented with them, and so far as design and finish go they are well worth the inspection of visitors to the show. Taking the 10-12 h.p. four-cylinder chassis first, we find a pressed cambered channel steel frame, inswept forward, and carried on comparatively long supple fore and aft springs. The engine and gear box are supported on an underframe of similar section to the side members, this frame being supported fore and aft by a transverse member of f-the frame, and stiffened centrally by brackets depending from the longitudinals. The engine is of the moteur bloc type, with verve chambers on each side. This is a particularly neat arid compact design; it has the circulating pump driven off the induction camshaft, and Eisemann magneto off the exhaust camshaft. An extremely simple, but effective, form of high-tension distributer is driven off the magneto spindle by skew gearing. This distributer consists merely of a feeding carbon with a single carbon held in a rotating plate, and traversing over brass contacts in the base of the distributer. To clean and adjust it is merely necessary to lift trie cap of the distributer in the manner of a pill box lid, which can be done instantaneously. The attachments of the high-tension wires are detached in an equally simple manner. The exhaust and induction pipes are kept level with the upper portion to the cylinders, giving ample clearance for the valve risers and spindles. The carburetter is placed low down, which affords 1), long mixing tube. On the upper part of the induction pipe is an ingeniously-designed automatic air inlet valve, the lift of which is controllable by means of a lever outside the casing. The carburetter breeches piece with long mixture pipe and automatic air valve are very easily detached by loosening two cheese-headed studs screwing into the wall of the valve chamber. The stroke and bore of this engine are 70 by 110 mm. respectively. 'the neat rotary pump set on the left-hand side of the crank chamber, and skew driven off the induction camshaft, raises oil to the drip feed lubricator on the dashboard, from which the oil feeds by gravitation through two of the drips to the engine bearings, and the third to the forward portion of the propeller-shaft casing, through which it finds its way by gravity to the differential gear and rear axle bearings. The drive passes from the engine through a multi-disc clutch, the driving portion of which is connected to the flywheel by vaned arms, which serve to withdraw the heated air from the engine spaces, and produce a current through the radiator. The clutch is furnished with clutch brake to facilitate gear changing, and from our practical experience, driving in a similar edition of this chassis, we can testify to the absolute silence of the gear changing on the Zedel car. 'lime change speed gear affords three speeds forward and reverse, and is carried in a box of small dimensions, the shafts of which are of large diameter, carried in ball bearings. A large diameter ribbed brake drum is placed at toe rear of the gear box, upon which expanding segments (operated by the pedal) take effect. The forward universal joint is of excellent design. The propeller-shaft casing is stayed from the centre by two tension rods running from a crosshead to the jointing flange of the differential gear casing. The back axle is of excellent design, the driving wheels being carried on the ends of the driving shaft. Ball bearings are fitted throughout. I3oth front and back springs, which are of unusual length, are fitted with two check plates on their upper surfaces. 'The back wheel internal expanding brakes have a neat compensating device. Taken all in all, there is no better example of design and construction than this little chassis throughout the show. One of these chassis carries a brougham body with the steering wheel taken within the carriage, and another chassis has mounted upon it a neat, well-finished three-seated body.
The 15-20 h.p. Spyker chassis is also shown, but in general arrangement no departure is made from the design of last year, although those who know the Spyker cars will note many detailed improvements, particularly in regard to the steering connections.
A 30-40 h.p. Spyker, carrying a well-finished standard side-entrance body, equipped with Cape Cart hood, is also shown; also a 30-40 h.p. with a luxurious landaulet limousine body by Rothschild. We regret to learn that the B.A.C.S. were unable to obtain the loan of the Pekin-Paris Spyker car for this show.
Zust. Features: Three models of a new Italian car, two of them shown for the first time.
THE FARNHAM AUTOMOBILE CO., LTD., Long Acre, W.C. (23).—Three fine specimens of Italian workmanship are to be found here—two Zust chassis, one of 50-70 h.p. and another of 18-28 and a 28-40 h.p. fitted with a landaulet body. The 50-70 h.p. and 28-40 h. p. are practically similar, except in size. Referring to the larger type, bore and stroke of which are 150 mm. by 160 mm., and the cylinders are cast in pairs, the valves are carried on the near side of the engine and the cylinders are fed by an automatic water-jacketed carburetter. The ignition is by low-tension magneto, and is simply carried out. The flywheel is of very large dimensions and serves the purpose of a fan. The clutch is of the Hele-Shaw type, and the transmissions is by side chains, having two sets of driving bevels. The change-speed is by a gate. The frame is pressed steel, and the radius rods are channel section. The chassis is mounted on four semi-elliptical springs of ample length and width. Two countershaft brakes are fitted, and the rear wheel brakes are internal expanding. Rods and not cables are used for the application of the brakes. The steering is efficiently carried out and embodies the latest improvement in this direction, the forward end steering tie rod joint being carried above the front axle. The whole car is well thought out and finished, and should evoke admiration. The 18-28 h.p. model had not arrived at the time this report was made.
ALFORD AND ALDER, 54, Walworth Road, S.E. (142).— One of the nicest open bodies, with Cape cart hood, to be seen in Olympia is that fitted to a Porthos chassis on this stand. From our personal experience, we ha VC no doubt that this would be an exceptionally comfortable carriage, by reason of the fact that the back seats are in front of the back axle, thus bringing all the seats within the wheelbase of the car. The lines of this particular body are exceptionally neat, and the whole of the finish is of high merit. The adjustable screen on this car is worthy of attention, its feature being that it is adjustable by the occupants of the front seat by the operation of one lover. Four positions of adjustment are provided by the engagement of a spring bolt with teeth cut on a disc on the joint of the upper and lower halves of the screen halves; the top half can, of course, be folded over on to the lower half. The Cape cart hood is essentially a practical covering, and should be easy to erect or lower. Two other enclosed bodies are exhibited, one a seven-seated limousine and the other a seven-seated landaulet. Both are of excellent design and finish.
SIR WM. ANGUS, SANDERSON, AND CO., Newcastle-on-Tyne (144).—Several novelties are to be found on these exceedingly well-designed bodies. The landaulet has a very unique fitting under the back seat, this being a revolving tray, in which luncheon for the car's occupants can be conveniently carried. To all appearance there is a plain panel to the front seat, but on pressing a knob a section of the half-circular tray appears, from a second pressure of the knob a second tray appears, a third pressure produces another tray, and the final pressure returns the whole to its original position. A very neat folding table can be extended across the rear seats. The double joint on the swinging seats is an arrangement giving a great variety of positions to the two adjustable screens, enabling them to be placed in such a position that as far as possible the largest amount of room is afforded to the occupants. A limousine exhibit also has good features. One is the driver's seat, which is placed on a body as in t he horse-drawn carriage type of vehicle. The underpart of the back seats is not enclosed, but provision is made for stowing luggage underneath from the back when desired; when no luggage, it is fitted in a back part of the car, It has a lighter appearance than is usual with these big bodies. For fine weather use, a rear door pillar can be folded back up to the roof, and the side glass and door glass can he lowered into the panels, this giving the advantages of an open car.
THE AUTOMOBILE CARRIAGE BUILDERS, LTD., 90.92, Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall Street, S.W. (125).—A three-quarter landaulet body with special folding pillars, giving an entirely open car when desired, is a feature of the excellent example of the work produced by this firm, which was previously known as Sayers and Co. The body is excellently finished and painted in every respect.
BARKER AND CO. (COACH BUILDERS), LTD., 66, Chandos Street, W.C. (159), exhibit a well-designed two-seated landaulet with two additional seats which normally fold back, giving a clear entrance to the body. The leather hood is lined with pretty grey cloth with a smooth surface, which does not catch dust very much when the body is open. The front windows are .made to lower into the back seat, and are provided with roller blinds, as also are the side door windows. A substantial, yet lightly constructed, luggage grid is fitted behind the boot, and a rail for light luggage runs round the fixed canopy over the driver's seat. The front screen is made as to its tipper half to swing forward, giving a clear view over the lower half, or to fold back to the roof in the usual way. The finish is very good indeed. The weight complete, including long platform steps and mudguards, is about 6 cwts. We find a limousine is also staged, this having two swinging seats, the front halves of which fold back, so as to give plenty of space to the occupants of the rear seats when the forward ones are unoccupied. This folding half of the seats, of course, also makes for easy entrance. The interior fittings are very good and complete. Around the back half of the roof is a luggage rail, where quite a considerable quantity of light luggage can be accommodated. Beneath each of the side platform steps are two 1-axes in which necessary tools and spare parts can be carried with great accessibility. The weight of the limousine body without steps or guards is 54 cwts., which for the size of the body and strength of construction may be regarded as light. In both bodies ample clearance has been given between the mudguards and the wheels.
THE BURLINGTON CARRIAGE CO., LTD., 315-317, Oxford Street, W. (130).—The carriage exhibits of this company consist of two b-dtes on account of t he limited space. One is a three-quarter limousine with extra adjustable and swinging folding seats. This is a large roomy vehicle, and has luggage space provided on the top of the fm-ward canopy. The second body is a single landaulet arranged for touring, the luggage-carrying space being provided by a grid and platform on the rear portion of the frame. Both are excellent specimens of the carriage builders' art, and are worthy of particular attention.
CANN, LTD., 12, 13, and 14, Miller Street, Camden Town, N.W. (140).- The limousine exhibited on this stand is an unconventional and striking design, as the roof, instead of being flat, has a graceful curve running from the back to the front. This gives a most taking outline to the whole vehicle, and with the quaintly-shaped side windows makes a most striking and handsome conveyance. The interior fittings are almost exceptional in their completeness and in the cleverness of their arrangement. A small limousine with detachable top is a particularly neat and useful type of body for all-the-year round work. A departure is made here in the seating accommodation in the arrangement of extra seats, which take the form of a curved box ottoman attached to the back of the front seat. The second, a small limousine having fixed top, is specially designed for town work. All these fine bodies are mounted on White steam car chassis, and the whole outfit comprises an ideal conveyance.
J. CROALL AND SONS, LTD., 126, George Street, Edinburgh (124).—The limousine body built and exhibited by this firm is provided with a neat detachable top, but for the presence of a few small lugs and brass thumbs-crews, it would be impossible to tall either from the interior or exterior dust the top was detachable. This is a feature which will appeal to many, as it provides a handsome open body car, or comfortable enclosed one, as may be desired. 'rase swinging seats fitted to this body are exceptionally neat, and extremely useful, in that while they are hinged to the side of the body, they can be swung to any convenient position. In fact, when they are occupied they come back up to the side doors, so that the occupants of these two seats are provided with comfortable corner accommodation facing the passengers in the back of the car. There is no danger attending the use of the seats in this manner, as should the door fly open, there is a back rest to support the occupant, and the seat itself jams in the doorway. When not required for passengers, the seats can be detached and packed in their special cupboard underneath the front seat. A landaulet body also occupies a stand, and a new ferns of screen is shown in connection with this. So far as the front is concerned, it is an ordinary divided swinging :oven, but there is a short panel which runs at an angle sideways from the edges of the screen, so that protection from a cross head wind is afforded.
W. COLE AND SONS, LTD., 92, High Street, Kensington, W. (134).—A particularly graceful three-quarter landaulet, with six seats in addition to the driver's, in a body attracting considerable attention, on account of its sweeping lines and beautiful curved panel work. The two extra interior seats are so constructed that they fold up right into the back of the front seat, so that their presence is not noticeable when not in use, the bark of the front seats having the appearance of an upholstered panel. An equally handsome limousine is also exhibited, meeting all requirements expected in this type of body. It is not surprising to find good and conscieiltious work on this stand, for Messrs. W. Cole and Sons, Ltd., of Kensington, etc., are amongst the oldest coach-builders in the country.
F. A. HANISHAW, 37, I lionlierstone (late, Leicester (122).- A very pretty small limousine body is well worthy of special mention, as for tile accommodation it affords it is light in comparison with the usual run of this type of vehicle. The fittings are particularly good, and go to make it a vehicle for every day and all t he year round use. When used as a two-seated car a frame rest folds down from the back of the seats. Till, when folded back affords quite as comfortable a seat as the ordinary central one. A small landaulet is shown of a type suitable for medical practitioners and others whose work entails covering C()11Side-.111110 distnn, es in all LO'S Of .\ large limousine completes an exhibit of considerable interest. A. inlerosling body by the sm., iwitors is show. oft Lomb,. mid Pilrisiai^ Car ('0.'m shOld, NO. 29 I. 1110 ,\111111
The platiCIIIII, point Ith011t it is the way in whirl' the folding of the upper works is attained. The usual leather hood extends to the driver's screen, the front portion folds brick dal, against the front frame of the body, then the section of the hood between the front supports and the rear door support, fold up one upon the other, the whole lot fulling kick on to the top of the back seals, thus leaving n completely open car for ordinary use. Though' the whole of II.. top part, is collapsible, we are assured that the method of construction avoids all possibility of draughts and affords as warn(;on( •ifinfurtaide an interior a, (I,,. 'nit, ',um( hndaulo,
E. „VNIO II. IloR.t 36, Peckham (toad, London, S.K (158). An interesting feature on the double landaulet body exhibited here are the fauteuil spring seats, vrhieli fold back very neatly when not in use, and give a comfortable seat NV lien extended. The body has I) shaped frotd lilt panels, and a hood folds back from the rear door posts only. A Roi des Beiges touring car body in also exhibited, fitted with it well designed Cape curt hood, giving a clear entrance to both front and hack seats.
ANn SONS, Chapel Field, Norwich (157), exhibit, three types of closed bodies of good design and hoe finish. One is a limousine, another a three-quarter landaulet with two folding seats, and another somewhat similar body, but rather smaller. The latter is a particularly neat, little hotly, and one which will appeal to those who are contemplating replacing horse drawn vehicles by those mechanically propelled.
.1. 11,',E3,1,: AND CO., 72, New Buret Street, W. (141), show Belsize, 1)arracqs, and Enfield cars of the latest types, with smart side-entrance 1^11:1^11111 111)(114'S. The upholstery on these cars is 'spec Tally tt art Icy of notice. We may say that there is little of its kind to surpass it, in the exhibition, the phaeton body on the 20 h.p. Belsize particularly so.
.1, A. LAWTON ANt) Co., 24-27, Orchard Street, Oxford Street, W. (131). An exceedingly II:noisome Victoria attracts considerable attention on this stand. It is fitted to the Austin dropped chassis, and front the driver's seat backwards hat, ,very a plata', nc, and at I vantage of a horse-drawn carriage of the same description. There is a wide side door entrance with an additional mudguard swept up from the front edge of the step, this front mudguard proper being carried tilt from the step tA- the front steps. Two add suite 111101 •01' emergency use, and a screen is slid in the back of the front seat, which slides up between the front edge of the leather head. The whole of the design is very carefully thought out, and the complete vehicle is suitable for either town or country work, it being more than a summer conveyance. Two other well designed and well finished bodies are also staged. A limousine and I us thrl,illal•t1.r landaulet fund the requirements of the restwetive type of vehicle.
.111c.N timer AND CO., Worcester (146).-TWO curs W111(11 serve to show the motor bodywork by this old-established firm. one is it three-quarter landaulet of the conventional type, and fitted with all the usual accessories. It is a large, roomy conveyance, and with all its luggage space would make a useful touring car, in addition to being a serviceable everyday conveyance. The scrotal body is a full limousine giving seven seats, inducting the driver, and is (tell fitted in the interior with such things as are likely to he useful and necessary on tour.
ANo SON, 13iggleswade (129). Undoubtedly one of the most handsome bodies in the show t NIttythorn's "1) fronted limousine. Its outline design is easy and light in appearance, as the body itself actually is in avonclupois when size awl workmanship are considered. The interior lifforis accommodation for six people, throe on the loiur scat and throe more on swinging armchair seats. I time finer seats are so arranged that there is comfortable accommodation for all. The interior decorations lire in a pretty shade of H.,1 chilli with silk linings and silver fittings. Its appointments are complete in every detail, there being a folding table which extends in front of the Isar seats folding away so neatly that its promen( e is not noticed until attention is •llod to it. The front 1)ee «inners are fitted with Chippendale type of cupboards, and beneath the front seat is a small locker containing a complete luncheon -itlit for four persons. Electric. is, of emirse, Mod, and ahio a spea!, inn tube. There is no overhang beyond that usually found, yet as we have said, there is comfortable accommodation for six people. -in fact, the room provided is a source of astonish merit when 000 enters this most luxurious body. The whole of the body bent been most carefully thought cut in design, and carefully constructed in production. Two other handsome open bodies with Cape cart hoods are exhibited on the stand.
NIE-nuisit AND Co., Camden Town, N.W. (110).---This is a new firm of body makers, who exhibit a well-built limousine with very simple yet graceful linos. The lock panelling is particularly neat and artistic in its simplicity. The car is generally well finished and fitted. The whole of the constructional wf.1, is carried out in wood, without being unduly
McentNen. (Long Acre), London AN!) Nol•n/v.1F•ost, L•D., 132 to 135, Long Acre, W.C. (148).---One of the prettiest and most useful cars in the show is the Mulliner touring phaeton 4 fitted to a drop frame Austin chassis. This is a most commodious body, yet on account of the drop in the frame it t, appears to be smaller than it actually is. It is fitted with a collapsible leather hood and screens, in addition to the wide seat. There are two collapsible seats of very neat design, and the detail fittings of the interior are very excellent, including an umbrella and walking stick stand. Lying along the back of the front seat above this is a small writing table ,r* with all necessary fittings. Beneath the rear seats are drawers 5 giving plenty of storage room and a sufficient depth to carry a silk hat. A luggage grid is provided, so that the car is of all round usefulness. It is a real pleasure to examine a body of this description, and the carriage as a whole is one which we have no hesitation in saying will become deservedly '" popular. On the same stand is a double landaulet with folding hood, sliding wind screen, and detachable canopy and other fittings, making for a most complete and exceedingly roomy vehicle. The folding seats in this body are of 101 particularly good design, inasmuch as while they fold noolei very wally, when extended they form a miniature annehair,mel the arms extending as the seat is raised. The universal* motion obtained permits of a large range of position for thoW occupants of these comfortable seats, A limousine body isflo ako exhibited, the arrangement of fitment being somewhat, similar to those of the double landaulet. trait
II. .1. MULLINER AND CO. 28, Brook Street, W. (143).A (lift magnificent told artistically designed limousine body occupies one stand when these excellent bodies are exhibited. The body curves are beautifully swept and harmonise completely ,;tithing)) there contrasting angles and (.111,TH, II lutist, difficult thing to harmonise. The lusty it extremely roomy, and should be exceedingly comfortable or the road; the detail work is well thought-out for the eon) fort ioal convenience of the timers. A point, of considerable importance in a wi(•'.1 boil), is a nicely designed II fronted landaulet, specially designed for town use. In its lines the curves here are graceful and pleasing to the eye, while the workmanship is, of course, excellent. On the forward half ' the canopy is a luggage rail, and on the side of the front t is a co lapsable step enabling one to load up luggage thout running any great risks of damaging the high finish at is put upon these cars. A little two-seated hotly fitted a De Dion chassis for ladies' use is also exhibited. This a charming little car, with a beautiful shade of green, een cloth hood, glass screen, and all fittings nickel-plated, altogether a beautiful little vehicle.,
. C. PENMAN, Motor Carriage Works. Dumfries (120).-- The well-designed and finished bodies are exhibited by this 11-known North British firm. There is a very nice three-quarter landaulet, the 'principal detail features of which are e folding extra seats, which collapse into the underpart of e front seat, occupying but very little space of the valuable mn afforded by the underpart of the forward seats. A typo body in which this firm excel is the natural wood finish, the cane-covered panels, and a very fine specimen is to be on the stand. A limousine body is also staged, and ed to this is the Millar() driver's screen. Standing up #3111 the top of the dash is the ordinary screen joined to the ..9f. On the left-hand side of the screen is an ordinary piece pi plate glass, but in front of the driver this single sheet - replaced by two sheets of glass, providing a slot through lath the driver gets a clear view when the glass is smeared th rain. To prevent a cutting draught, or water being own through the slot, a form of pent-house covering in glass fitted to deflect the wind and ram. This is an interesting m of screen, but one upon which we should not care to express an opinion without personal experience.
. AND F. THORN, 19, Great Portland Street, and Little thmnd Street, W. (1471.--Beautifully finished bodies are exhibited here of the limousine and landaulet types. There also a double phaeton of elegant design, the effect of which somewhat marred by being placed on a chassis built high is from the ground, which tends to destroy the symmetry of lines. The chief feature in the design is in the production of a roomy body without it appearing to be unduly ge and cumbersome, this being the outcome of the firm's g experience in building motor bodies. Ii,
THRUPP AND MA-EION, 425, Oxford Street, W. (111).- trupp and Maberly and excellence of bodywork always go hand in hand, and their exhibit this year is if of this. Enclosed or semi-enclosed cars are staged, an attractive feature q Mg a three-quarter limousine of somewhat original design. tto back panel springs upward and ()award from the base, isliing with a backward sweep at its top end. Over the river's seat is placed a leather hood, which, when not required for practical use, folds backwards over on to the front the body, while leaving the front lights quite clear. The interior work, needless to say, is exceptional and complete in every respect. The colour scheme is primrose and black mouldings, giving a most striking effect. A body eminently suite, for town work, or for ladies' general use. is a victoria phaeton provided with a neat folding leather hood, with screen droppe, down to the hack of the front nieat, and with side curtain shade to 'nest the top of the side doors, thus forming an entirely closed carriage in the event of inclement we alter I de; encountered. A Pullman limousine and three-quarter andante complete an interesting and practical exhibit.
'rum WINDHAM SLIDING DETACIIABLE MOTOR. PODY CO. 22a, St. John's Hill, Clapham Junction (1271.—Capt. Wind ham's method of interchangeable bodies is now so well know-i that there is no need to cutter into their constructional detail in the present description, but those unacquainted with then will appreciate the recapitulation of their features. First, on can have practically any number of ears with one eltassis that is to say, any type' of bodies which 'nay be found 'eves sary er desirable can be made on the detachable principle t• fit on to one and the same chassis. By a simple arrangement of slides and an ingenious locking device, the body can b slid front the chassis on to a special tray or table vial wheel,/ to one side, while the next body can be wheeled up to the chassis, slid on to it, and taken straight away on a drive The slides in fixing have from time to time been modified ate improved until it would seem impossible to make a change 0 bodies more simple. This will be appreciated when we say that the body can be changed from a two-seater racing hod; to a four-seated open touring car or landaulet, as may b desired, in a few initiates. Capt. Windham has for many years made a special study of bodies, and the results of hi experiences are found in the bodies built by the Windhan Sliding Detachable Motor Body Co. and by other coach builders working under license. In the earlier forms o detachable bodies, there was in some designs the objection that the interchangeable part of the body did not join closely to the front seats, but this objection has now bee] removed by the fact of the front seats themselves on landau lets and other smaller types of bodies being attached to the main portion of the body, and sliding into position on to the base work of the front seat with the main body itself. feature which will appeal to all motorists who travel without chauffeurs is the patent detachable mudguard. This is quit a simple arrangement, consisting of a slotted bracket ant thumbscrews. By undoing each, the whole of the guard Cal be readily removed, thus facilitating tyre repairs. Further than this, when the Stepney Spare Wheel is employed, tit guard can be set out so that it entirely covers the added wheel and thus saves the passengers a great deal of dust or mud We have no hesitation in saying that the bodies made upon this principal are excellent in every detail, and they are undoubtedly a very great convenience to the motorist wly wishes to use his car for all purposes all the year round.
C. S. WINDOVER AND Co., LTD., 95, New Bond Street, W (126).—Two enclosed bodies by these well-known makers affort one an opportunity of appreciating simple outline of design, comfort, and good workmanship in combination. These are very excellent features, but difficult to explain in cold type. However, there is one feature particularly worthy of note on the three-quarter landaulet — that is the double position seats for extra passengers. These fold up out of the way very neatly, and can be drawn out so as to afford seating accommodation facing passengers at the back of the car, or facing in the same direction, giving comfort in either direction.
W. VINCENT, 76, Castle Street, Reading (109). — The firm are placed at a disadvantage in that their space was not allotted to them until a few days before the opening of the show. However, they stage a two-seated body on Mercedes chassis. The body in itself is somewhat unique in that it is provided with a leather hood, with high glass screen, meeting the forward end of the hood itself. For comfort we should say that it would be unsurpassed, as the two seats feel more like the more luxurious back seats than the ordinary front ones. The corner panels art distinctly unique, being sunk into a moulded beading, giving a very finished appearance to the car. There are two details we noticed in this particular vehicle. One is a brass protecting plate over the lubricator pipes, preventing any escaped oil running over on to the rubber foot mat. The other point is an ordinary cocoa-matting strapped on to the side step. Another excellent body by the same makers is to be seen on Messrs. Straker-Squire's stand (63 in the Main Hall).
THE ACETYLENE ILLI' M I ATING CO. Ian., 269-270, South Lambeth Road, S;.W. (184). --Cylinders of dissolved acetylene are put up it neat cases ready for fitting to cars. A new feature is the combination I if the cylinder box with a tool chest. As this firm markets plant for acetylene welding, it shows samples of work, in different stages, which can be accomplished with this plant. This firm is producing a carbide of its own, of which samples are shown.
Various Lifting Appliances.
H. ADAMS AND CO., 16. Newton Road, Tunbridge Wells (258).—The Adams motor jack- and car elevators are now well known, but one or two improvements have been introduced for the coming treason. A new form of the jack is mounted on caster wheels, so that the car to which it is applied can be readily removed sideways directly it is r ,clear of the ground, instead of having to " back and fill." as is the case with the old pattern. The elevator, it NV I I be remembered, takes the form of an inclined plane, up which the car is hauled by means of a winch. The under part of the err is rendered much more accessible by the clearing away of the intervening framework, each of the sides being now independent. Fort-her, the alteration enables the width between the wheel supports to be adjusted to any particular car. To those who have no convenience in the way of a pit this elevator Omni.' be extremely- handy
THE ALBANY MFG. CO.. lan.. Cumberland Park, Willesden Junction. N.W. (308).---A new pattern silencer. The gas passes down the central pia e. which carries it number of branch pipes at right angles communicating with the outer cylindrical chamber. At one end there is a circular diverging, plate forming a narrow passage, circular in forth, through which the final exhaust makes its exit. The Albany gear pumps are fitted with double helical wheels for both water and oil circulation. A reciprocating pump is also exhibited well as the Albany radiators and a new carburetter, the cartmvetting chanilier of which is internally heated by a bypass from the exhaust. We hope to describe this fully at a later
ANDRE A. Gontst. 1, Red Lion Square, Holborn. W.C. 1909t. -The " Ducellier " lamps are shown in a number of different patterns which have been improved in detail. The well-known Ducellier lamps are shown self-contained and with separate generators. The Ducellier separate generator is one of the best things of the kind on the market, being invariably reliable and safe. Reliability in an acetylene generator- is a priceless quality. The Ducellier side lamps shown are carefully designed in the matter of vents to avoid smoking of lens aunt reflector and seldom, if ever, give trouble in this particular. The Hydra magnet., which was illustrated and described in a late issue of The Antora r, is particularly well thought out, and is spoken of in the highest terms by those who have used it at home and abroad. A few new models of hooters are shown, and an improved electric hooter. The lamps have been improved by the fitting of a new mirror reflector.
THE A samo-AmEnicAN Out, Co., !mi., 22, Billiter Street, E.U. (221).—The Anglo-American Oil Co. show samples of oils in the various forms in which this well-known and much appreciated spirit is packed. A spirit is shown of which the specific gravity is .760, this being known as Anglo Spirit, which can lie retailed at ls. per gallon in London.
THE ASTER ENG. CO., LTD., 4, Princes Street, Hanover Square W. (286).- An excellently-arranged exhibit of the popular Aster engines of all sizes anti horse-powers. The four new patterns for 1908 are the 14-16 h.p. four cylinders cast in one piece; the 24-30 h.p. four-cylinder; the 30-35 h.p. four-cylinder; and the six-cylinder 45-50 h.p., each with cylinders cast in pairs. All these new patterns are self contained — that is to say, the engine is complete with oil pump, water pump, ignition, exhaust and inlet pipes — so that the maker who buys the engine has only one pipe to fit to the exhaust and one to the inlet attachment on the engine, instead of two or four, as in engines which are net self- contained.
The New Aster Carburetter. Quite a leading feature is being made of the new Aster carburetter made under Hamilton's patents. This carburetter is fitted with an air inlet valve, by which the suction of the petrol jet or depression in the mixing chamber is varied in such a manner that the spray induced is always the very best mist are of any possible combinations for throttle opening and engine speed. It is mechanically operated and there is an entire absence of complicated arrangements of springs. The air ports are of special formation and the movements of cut-off are arranged so that one of the members is directly connected with it in proportion to the movement of the throttle. The other is either fixed or moved in accordance with the speed of the engine. The Aster carburetter is made in two size to suit engines of various powers from 12-14 h.p.
Also on stand 67 two chassis are shown-24-30 h.p. and 18-22 h.p. Dealing with the former, the engine has four cylinders cast separately; the bore and stroke are 105 by 140 The usual type of Aster carburetter is fitted, and two ignitions: Simms-Bosch high-tension magneto, driven off the half-time shaft and accumulator and coil ignities, the contact breaker being carried in a particularly accessible position, immediately in front of the dashboard. The water circulation is effected by means of a pump driven off the camshaft. Immediately alcove it is an over-flow pipe, which conducts the water through a gauge attached to the top of the lubricator, 'which resisters the water circulated, and thence through the lubricator, which jackets it, and which it serves to warm in cold weather. The lubrication is effected by scans of a pump driven if an eccentric, the amount of oil flowing being seen through the drip fitted above the lubricator. The clutch is of the Hele-Shaw type, and the gear box contains three speeds forward and one reverse, while the drive is transmitted by scans of side chains. The counter-shaft brake is provided with a neat form of adjustment, it being possible to tighten the brake by a small handle. The side brakes are of the internal expanding type. It is interesting also to note that ball bearings tire fitted wherever possible. Finish throughout is excellent and great attention has been paid to small details. For example, the fan is carried on a bracket, which is !douched it one end and has a spring on the other, so that when the belt stretches, the tension is maintained. The 20-22 h.p., which has •a bore and stroke of 95 by 130 Hite., is similar to the chassis we have just described in other details .
.A STER • LTD.. Crown Works, Barford Street. Pir-ingliam (2221.-----Messrs. Austers, Ltd., show a very fine range of metal fittings for motor car bodywork which should be carefully inspected.
Taw AUTO MACHINERY CO., Li-n,, Coventry (294).—A well arranged exhibit, of highly finished Auto ball bearings, also inns castellated and planed, and pins and bolt, the same. ()tie 0' the Auto ball hearings is erected on a sand and shown running at over 1,000 r.p.m. with a load of 7 cwts. The bear- in:;, are made in all sizes for either load or thrust, and many will he found um cars of welt- known cokes below.
THE AVON INDIARVIIIIER Co., Mel kShatIIR , Wilts (a72).— The collection of the Avon tyres with square grooved treads, squared treads, and steel studded treads. The studs t: of the latter are semi-solid, fitted with a washer 1-11 the top T .end clinched underneath. Solid rubber tyres are also made e by this firm as well as rubber tyre gaiters, eyeleted for attachment to the rim. A special department is devoted s to vulcanised repairs of motor covers and tubes, and the fits - tell is they will be pleased to send their new list to anyone , who does not attend the exhibition. The quality of the articles shown here are an undeniable. They compare with a the best in the Exhibition, and motorists can have perfect confidence when specifying Avon tyres.
I^i, N E IIINK .1ND CO., Ian., 107-108, Cheapside, E.C. (194). t -- I its exhibit is chiefly coetined to tools, of which a spiel, del variety is ShO•IL Chief iatellt1011 is drawn ID motorists' b k lities alai pocket tool-sets; a slow-bur-ing stove for use in g frosty weather burns a specially compressed fut-I, and takes s up nut little room; inspection lamps, both electric and en p tne " Davy principle, arc shown.
HESTON AND SON E, Bracebridge Street, Birmingham (230). C —This firm, which have for so long enjoyed an excellent n reputation for lubricators, show many example' of their n standard patterns, together with nisei or three I .eW 1111(I in I 1 interesting developments, one of which is a sight-feed 1.1)6 - cator, with milled disc adjustable drips and a swing back waxed door which can be opened for cleaning purposes. I .1 not her excellent development in connection with lubricators is a combination hand pump which serves oil through j each or any of the drips in case of failure of the force pump I or pressure when the oil would reach the bearings before I running into the crank chamber, which is not the case when ( the ordinary (-raid( chamber pump is fitted. Sight-feed , hibrieators are also shown in which the sight feed is merely an indication that the pressure feed distinct therefrom is proceeding satisfactorily. A very well considered and neat form of petrol filter is also shown, in which by ...crewing ' the nut carrying the drain cock, the gauze filter itself comes 1 away therewith and can be at once easily cleared.
THE BsdtEsFouts Rim Co., Ian., Newcastle, Staffs (293).—1 What a-pears to be a very simple method of a detachable , flange fur beaded edge tyres is shown here. There is no , fastening in the usual sense of the word, the flange tiring held , na entirely by inflation. The rim on the side where the detachable bead Ins is haunted, no that when the bead is in position the imitation of the tyre forces the bead outwards and it interlocks with the rim. The joint of the detachable is mitred.
BLERIOT, LTD., 53-54, Long Acre, W.C. (250).—A large 'election of the well-known Bleriot headlight s. numerous models being shown. (hie of the features of the exhibit, is the No (liais• headlight. 'These lamps are provided w it a series of aluminium slats -la•ed horizontally just inside t he front glues. The effect is to cam, brilliant light straightforward and through a small angle, so aLu to illuminate the road, but the light is shaded from the eyes of drivers of rowing vehicles. As very thin plates are used in the construction of the shades, hardly any light is absorbed. A pair of these headlights is fitted on the six-cylinder Siddeley car recently supplied to the Queen. Another feature is a range of the new Petrel-Oxygen lamps. It is claimed for this illuminant that its power is 25 times; that of acetylene. The largest of these lamps shown has it 15in. projector, and it is possible in clear it raft to read a newspaper by its light at a distance of a mile. S01114. greltill V light lamps are those roust met 4,,1 fur use on airships. This type, constructed in aluminium, has been used by M. Bleriot for this purpose. Messrs. Bleriot are introducing a new type of combined ignition, automatic starter and lighting apparatus for cars, termed the Auto-electric. It consists essentially of a combined dynamo motor machine conjunction with the accumulator wiring of the machine, being arranged at that the engine when it has started drives it as a dynamo to provide ignition and power for the lamps. A battery of ten cells is employed in connection with the apparatus for running the electric machine as e motor for starting up the car engine.
The Bowden Control.
E. M. BOWDEN'S PATENT SYNDICATE LTD. , I il'ay's Ina !toad, E.C. (291).—Every variety of the Bowden cable control, among %O-ch may Ise mentioned the Bowden throttle. the carburetter flooding arrangement, also the Bowden petrol filter, oil and petrol leads made of flexible cable. A 1111, thing governed by the Bowden control is the exhaust cut-out, made in two sizes. Miraculum, the patent filling for tyres, is alms exhibited here, and a wheel fitted lip and denaonstralions !nude daily of its puncture healing properties. The Bowdenloc lever, a self-starting lever for use with the Bowden wire mechanism.
S. BowL•Y AND Sox, Wellington Works, Battersea. Bridge, S.W. (211).---Bowley's spirit and lubricating oils are shown on this stand. A new spirit shown is Benzolite. This was the spirit recently used on the Napier car in the three thousand miles benzol test, and a testimonial from Mr. Edge as to its qualities is displayed.
13itasirros linos., 1,11-., 12o, Cannon Street, E.C. (249).— On this stall is a selection of Brampton driving chains and also sprockets, together with some hydraulically pressed bands and flanges. A useful table is prepared which will greatly assist customers in selecting the right type of chain, since the n.akers nsmher the pitch, the width and the price per foot is given for chains suitable for every known make of car. Messrs. Brampton Bros. are making a speciality of chains of 36 mm. pitch by 16 mm. wide, and 16 min. diameter of roller, which is a size suitable for use on a very large number of British and Continental cars. The weight, per foot is 21 010., and the breaking strain is as great as 10,600 lbs., which is undoubtedly high for a chain of this size.
BRANSOM, KENT, AND CO., LTD., 40, Great Eastern Street, E.C. (207).—Those in search of horns should pay a visit to this stand, as a large number of new models are being shown here for the first time. A protector is shown which should go far to lengthen the life of hooter bulbs. In addition to horns, lamps, tools, lubricators, steering joint covers, cutouts, and tyre levers are shown. New patterns of the latter are on view, and should be seen.
The B. and M. Engines. 'fats.. Bums. It.nitu i i ii iso MAIME ENGINE Co., Cm. 10, Poland Street, W. (289).—The B. and 11. motors. The new pattern is type F. 16 11.p. four-cylinder 80 x 100. 111.• whole of this engine, including carburetter, is the production of this firm. The carburetter is automatic in action; it has no springs or other controlling devices. The air ports are uncovered by a slide, which is operated by the suction of the engine, and the weight of which is calibrated in proportion to the suction capable of being exerted by the engine. The', engines are suitable for either high tension magneto or battery and coil ignition. In the case of the former, the magnet- is advanced in proportion to the advance of the low tension contact maker. Samples of the finished parts, including crank axles, connecting rods, etc., are on exhibition, and these give an idea of the excellent work put into then. engines. In addition to the 16 h.p., there are on the stand a 40-45. 30-35, and a 20 1-.p. At the time of our visit a six- cylinder engine was hourly expected.
Tier Burrisn P•raoLEusi Co., LTD., 22, Fenchurch Street. E.C. (187).---On a very prettily arranged stand the well-known Shell petrol cans and packages are displayed. .1. 13. BitooKs Asn Co., LTD., Great Charles Street, Binning bans (188). Luggage liete10011es sum up flu, chief I.articles shown. These are of so many types that we cannot refer to them at length, but we call attention to a neat leather case for carrying a spare can of petrol. In addition to luggage articles, the firm is showing a non-skid with a hardened stud, a new form of spanner, and tyre wrappers of all kinds.
linowN AND BARLOW, LTD., Loveday Street, 1Birmingham(219).— i The B. and B. carburetters are shown in varying sizes suitable for all types of car. Improvements have been effected in the facility offered in the construction of this carburetter for dismounting. Every part of the instrument can now be detached, examined, and adjusted without interference with the engine in any shape or form. The adapter is now telescopic with spiral springs to prevent rattling.'
DAVID BROWN AND SONS, LTD., Park Gear Works, Lockwood, Huddersfield (287).—Gear boxes, worm and bevel drives; in fact, all types of machine cut, gears. A complete gear box for motor cars, steering column, with irreversible steering. This firm claim to have the largest factory in Europe for the manufacture of machine cut gears, and are prepared to make any type of gear to special design as well as to supply their standard parts.
Mechanical Tyre Pump.
Bitowsr BROS. , LTD., 15, Newman Street, W., and 22 to 30, Great Eastern Street, E.C. (192).—The Duco specialities include jacks, lamps, horns, valve springs, lifters, and turntables, which enable a car to be turned round in a garage in its own length. As the firm markets the Gabriel horn, it has a set of these in operation. In addition to the triple expansion tyre pump, Maxfield's Autoainttator is on view. This takes the form of a small air-cooled reciprocating pump driven off the flywheel.
W. H. M. BunuEss, 40, Glasshouse Street, W. (237).—On this stand is an excellent example of White and Poppe workmanship, as exhibited in two 14 engines, one of which is sectioned so as to show the entire working of the internal mechanism. A description of this engine, however, with the White and Poppe carburetter, will be found elsewhere in these pages. Several of the A.P.B. chassis components that this firm is exhibiting are also worth attention. The rear live axle, which constitutes one of the exhibits, is a good example of a well-trussed bevel driving live axle fitted with expanding brakes and squared driving-shaft ends for the wheel seatings, which are forced up on to cones forming part of the ball hearings which take the weight of the car. The universal joint on the bevel shaft is of substantial construction, and of such design as to permit the joint being well cased. The front axle, which, like its component, is designed for a 24-30 car, calls for no particular remark beyond the fact that the steering arms and their connecting rod are placed behind the axle to conform with standard ideas. The steering gear, which has been standardised with the front axle, is of the lock and sector variety. The A.P.B. gear box on this stand is also suitable for a 24-30 11.p. car. It offers four- speeds and a reverse, with direct drive on the top gear, by which the power is transmitted through a (log clutch. The secondary- shaft is always revolving, and the other three gears are of the ordinary sliding pattern. The mechanism is fitted with an exceptionally powerful brake at the back of the gear box shaft. We understand that the gear box designed for the 14-18 car is on identical lines, but offers only three instead of four speeds and a reverse. A very handy little tool is exhibited on this stand in the shape of a portable and universal hand drilling machine for repair work, etc., on chassis. Space does not permit of our describing it here. Suffice it to say that, it is well worth the attention of any owner or proprietor of a country garage who pays any attention to repairs.
A Non-slipping Collier„Tyre.
THE COLLIER TYRE Co., LTD., 127-130, Long Acre, W.C. (260). -The Collier tyre, both of the original bolted type and the later Clincher system, are both on view here, the former being specially adapted for very heavy work. A new introduction consists of a cross-cut all rubber non-slipping tread. This, while practically consisting of a number of diamond-shaped studs, is not subject to the difficulties which sometimes attend the use of a metal tread. Other types of :moon-skids are also shown.
CONNOLE1 BROS., Chorlton Street, Euston Road, N.W. (255).—Enamelled hides for the upholstering of motor cars uric shown here in grand variety of hues. The exhibit will be probably of most interest to the manufacturer, though purchasers undecided as to the colours to adopt for their new vehicles will receive considerable assistance by comparing the varieties on view here.
THE COVENTRY CHAIN CO. (1907), LTD., Coventry (236).- One of the most interesting features of this exhibit is the introduction of the new range of chains with worm rollers. In this case, the rollers are made of strip metal wound helically. The advantages claimed are that the roller is less liable to fracture, as the grain of the metal follows the circumference and also is free from the bell-like ringing sound which is inherent in the tubular roller. A fractured sample shows that the case-hardening process is carried out very successfully and as far as the metal itself is concerned it is considered that it is possible to obtain material of a more absolutely uniform character than with the ordinary type of roller. Further, the power of the worm roller to resist crushing and bursting strains has been proved to be more than twice that of rollers made from the solid bar. The new type has been very thoroughly tested by the Daimler Motor Co. A car with these chains fitted has run about thirty or forty miles a day in all sorts of weather, approximately 10,000 miles, and the chains have not only given every satisfaction, but have proved quieter than other types.
The Continental Detachable Rim.
THE CONTINENTAL TYRE AND RUBBER CO., 102-108, Clerkenwell Road, E.C. (263).—At the time of our visit, the new i»et-Continental detachable rim and tyre had not arrived, but it was hourly expected. This is made under the well-known Vinet patents, and differs very little from similar detachable tyres and rims bearing the same name. The detachable portion of the rim is held to the tyre felloe by six screws and nuts. The 1908 Continental tyre and non-skid has a special type of square washer under the rivet. In Addition to the above, the iced-Continental non-skids are shown in both round and square-treaded patterns. Aeronauts will be interested in illustrations of La Pattie and the Zeppelin airships, for which the Continental Co. made the balloon sheeting.
THE COVENTRY MOTOR FITTINGS Co., Far (k)sford Street, Coventry (218).—Radiators form the chief feature of this exhibit. One of the most interesting types shown is a honeycomb pattern gilled radiator. This consists of a series of vertical tubes with horizontal corrugated gills extending across the whole length of the radiator. The corrugations of the gills are arranged to oppose one another, so that the general appearance from in front is that of a honeycomb radiator with squares turned to an angle of 45°. The result is a strong radiator of exceptionally neat appearance. Ordinary horizontal and vertical gilled radiators are also shown, together with honeycomb radiators of the recognised type. The exhibit also includes a variety of lubricators and brass fittings generally. A fan of neat appearance and good finish is among the minor features of the exhibits.
A Puncture Indicator.
THE COWRY ENGINEERING Co., LTD., Archer Works, Kew Gardens, S.W. (225).—This exhibit consists chiefly of Cowey speed and distance indicators. Some new models me shown, one of which is a speed indicator with a second dial arranged at the back of the car for the passenger's use. The other model is a combined speed indicator and distance indicator, with two pointers for the trip portion. One of these shows the distance which is to be travelled, and the other the distance which has been travelled. A tyre indicator consists of a bell, which fits on the valve, and remains in action as long as pressure remains up; but when the pressure falls below what is correct the hell is brought into action, and gives warning of puncture.
G. DAVENPORT ANU Co., 108, Hatton Garden, E.C. (183).-- The Imperial specialities include clocks, speed and distance indicators, and communicators. The chief feature is the cable by which they are driven, which is of special construction. It consists of slotted blocks connected together by twists,' metal links. We are informed that this has been put through very stringent tests, and has come out very successfully. It is being adopted in all of this firm's constructions. A mechanical communicator shown to us is one of the simplest things we have seen in this way. We were informed that a Dentan carburetter will be on exhibit during the show.
THE DOHERTY MOTOR COMPONENTS, MD., Coventry (301). —A vertical tube radiator with front to imitate the honeycomb type, tanks, lubricators, and bonnets. A special novelty is the Doherty spare tyre carrier. This is made of metal, and exactly fits the contour of the tyre. It is divided across the centre, and is provided with logs for attachment to the step or step boxes on the car. In addition to being divided at the middle, the whole of the inner ring removes, which enables the tyre to be firmly held when in position.
Motorists 1. .ve often found that it is a somewhat messy job to insert . large quantity of grease through the holes provided in the ck axle gear boxes. We were shown a novelty for rap'd injection of grease, which consists of it large metal pump twitted with at wooden bindle and plunger. With the aid ' this instrument, it should be an easy matter to till tilt 'ati. box in a lc, seconds. DOVER, L•D., Northampton (300).--The Dover steering wheel is made up with solid arms and hollow rim. Every part is steel, coppered to prevent ried , and afterwards covered th exonite in any colour to match the finish and upholstery the car. Every variety of handles in exonite for electrical (poses, brake levers, and change speed handles ate shown.
Amateurs and Repairers Tools.
Dotirdloixn Boos., LTD., Ryde's Hill, near Guildford. Surrey (242).—On this stand several lathes are exhibited in o sizes, namely, 3in. and 5i-. centres. On one of the slier machines a very interesting milling attachment is ted, anal the ingenious design enables the change speed eels of the lathe to be utilised on this machine as divid.ng tes, a formed wheel holding the work slipping into the th of the gear wheel, which is temporarily acting as a iding plate. The most sophisticated, if one may use the , of the two larger lathes, is made with a double lied, e design of which struck us as extremely good. ()I- the inary lathe bed, as usually constructed, the constant sliding Lion of the saddles tenths to wear the bed, and so to lower e height of the back centre relatively to that of the head k. Accordingly, the top bed, while serving to act as a 'de and to steady the saddle, takes no weight or bearing the saddle on its top surface. This upper bed, e hich machined level with the surface to which the headstock is ached, stops short at some distance from the headstock lie the lower bed continues right up the headstock. This of construction offers the advantages of a gap without disadvantages. Automatic sliding and surfacing action also provided on a separate shaft to the leading screw. d both these actions can be worked at onc , giving the the a compound diagonal motion In both the lathes made this firm, the slide rest is so designed that the tool-post ' traverse slide are quickly detachable, leaving the top the saddle to act admirably as a table to which to secure ark for boring purposes. The simpler pattern of 54in. he is provided with deep liners that can be placed under e headstock and back centre poppet, t hits raising the height the centres.
Coat for x,x0o Guineas.
ALFRED DUNHILL, LTD., 359-361, Euston Road, N.W., and nd 5, Conduit Street, W. (191).---Those in search of motor ats will find a large range on this stand, the prices being ything up to 1,100 guineas. The majority of the article, clothing shown are for ladies' wear, and, naturally, include e very latest novelties to which we can hardly do justice. addition to the clothing, the firm show a new motor map. ith is one of the most ingenious and useful articles of th,. d we have come across. The neap includes a number of dem slides, showing as large area of country, and natural squall section. The desired section is placed in a frame d looked at through a magnifying glass, showing up the untry on a large scale, so that even the mileage can be read th ease. At any time the slide call be looked through tools the lamp and read without difficulty. The slides aril e whole apparatus can be packed away in a small twat box.
A new tunnel is shown. This screws on the petrol can, and is turned upside down. When emptying the can, it is claimed that no splashing can take place, and no foreign !mitt, can pass through the filters in the funnel. The Nonex non-explosive fittings are shown in their different applications. Amongst the number of accessories to which it is impossible to refer in detail, we would all attention to a combined electric and pneumatic hooter, a cable connector, a chain tightener, toil a rubber and chenille goggle.
Drasa•, 369, Oxford Street, W. (253). A good assortment of motor coats is on view here and a special feature is made of the new Luxemoor leather. This material has a surface resembling velveteen, and is embossed with a 'teat pattern, giving the appearance of brocading. The collar reverse and facings are in cloth, and the lining is of brocaded silk. Coats made entirely of, or lined and trimmed with, different furs are on view, and also it very useful man's overcoat in fancy whipcord, with detachable leather lining. Waterproofs, gloves, caps, and other goods it the like character are also to be seen here.
The Dunlop Detachable Rim.
THE Dr N1,01' PNEUMATIC TYRE CO.. London and Binning ham (274).—Demonstrations of the ease and rapidity with which the Dunlop detachable rim can be removed and attached to the wheel. This detachable rim was fully illustrated and described in Tlu! Autocar, of Nov. 2nd last, so we need not refer to it at length in the show report. An indicator is fitted at the back of the stand to show the number of seconds occupied in detaching and attaching the rim to the wheel. At the time of our visit this was not at work, but we understand the fastest time for complete removal and attachment is eight seconds.
EAST Losrn-x Ru-nnER Co., 2. 4, and 8. (Treat Eastern Street, E.C. (227).----This exhibit consists of general accessories, of which it is impossible to give a list. but we may mention lamps, sparking plugs, two and four-volt coils, Vulcan speed indicators, hooters, tools. chains, accumulators of different kinds. models of the new pattern Lorgue•rare carburetter, and the new Trier and Martin automatic carburetter. E. li,,tcnatontv. Coventry House, South Place, E.('. (177).-- Lamps and horns form the chief attraction on this stand. These are of mill types and sizes. The exhibit also includes goggles, jacks, and lamp generators.
THE EL AST ES Cut., LTD., 79 and 80, Vol* Street. Westminster (275).•The Elastes Co. are now providing a movable flange rim for either Elastes or ordinary tyres inflated with air. The whole of one side of the flange is removable, and is attached to the wood felloes by transverse bolts, which screw into pipe nuts on the opposite side of the felloe. A brace and bit is employed to euicitly remove the pins. This fitting was fully described and illustrated in The Autocar of October 26th last. The old Elastes filling is very much harder than the new material, which feels particularly pliable to the bawl,
'Pith: ELECTRIC IcNrT:oN CO. , LTD. , titan Road NOVI it, Sparkbrook, Birmingham ,(215).---The E.I.C. electrical fitments have not undergone much change, Inn their list has been molded to with an electric generator for lighting purposes. This is fitted with an automatic cut-inn to prevent the current running -back or the accumulators being overcharged. A simple form of multiple unit coil is shown, in which the separate units are held in place by a single nut. A new magneto sparking plug is shown. The chief centre of attraction is the firm's new magneto. This is of the high-tension type, and i. Rustle so that it is easily taken to pieces. We were unable to examine the magneto very carefully, a tit the time we called at the stand it was in pieces before an admiring crowd.
ETABLISSEMENTS HUTCHINSON, 13, Maddox Street, Regent Street, W. (269).---A special tyre with very strong walls, with plain and non-skid tread. In the case of the latti r, the studs are fastenol to compressed fibre blocks, each bled, carrying three studs---ne large central stud and two sm II ones. The fibre blocks are riveted to the leaf her tread, and it is then vulcanise! to the cover. Another type of non-skid has the centre made of hard rubber with the :turfs yid eanised in position in the usual manner. In addition ordinary Hutchinson tyres are shown with plain treads.
ENGELHERT AND Co., 119-125. Finsbury Pavement • E.('. (190).—This firm claims to he one of the oldest in the oil trade. mind, although its name is possibly not well known among users, it has dealt largely with the trade. This year, however, it launches out with oils, sold under its own time, and shows samples.
W. T. FLATHEri, LTD., Love Street, Sheffield (2541.—This stand may not appeal to the ordinary visitor to a motor show, as all steels are simply steels to him as far as appearance goes, but the manufacturer will appreciate the fractures and other special features of the exhibit. Besides the Ubas case-hardening steel, which enjoys a reputation of many years, there are also samples of nickel chrome and nickel vanadium steels. Another important line consists of steel files.
For Tyre Repairs.
HARVEY FROST AND CO., LTD., 39, Great Eastern Street. S.C. (204).—The Harvey Frost portable vulcaniser has undergone but little change. It now has a larger burner and a time indicator, and also the new cycle chain attachment. The firm market now, in conjunction with the portable vulcaniser, a new fitting with a vulcanising mandrel. This is used in conjunction with the car vulcaniser to deal with repairs on the inside of the cover, well as on the outside. The garage vulcaniser has been improved in detail, and a vulcaniser for re-treading six complete tyres at a time is also shown.
J. C. FULLER AND SON, Wick Lane, Bow, E. (1781.—At this stand will ho seen what is probably the smallest four- cylinder coil every made. Its overall dimensions are x x 2jin., which includes the lid. We are informed that it gives a ,tin. spark, and has been used successfully. This demonstrates clearly how the high efficiency of this firm's Syntonic trembler enables the size of the coil to be reduced. The firm is showing a coil of both types at a very low figure, and also their well-known accumulators. The self-starting magneto, which we dealt with in The Autocar of 30th August last, can be seen in operation on the stand.
A Mere Outline.
A. W. GAMAGE, LTn., Hollnrn (203).—It is impossible to do full justice to this stand, but as it is probably inspected by every motorist, we need but refer to one or two articles. In the clothing line, a feature is being made of leather undercoats, which are intended to be warn under ordinary coats to render them windproof and waterproof. Samples are shown for both sexes, as also are detachable leather linings which can be fitted to ordinary coats. A new form of windproof coat and impervious Macintosh without rubber neck is on exhibit. In the case of the Macintosh, a loose neck portion fits round the wearer and is as efficient as the ordinary rubber neck without its disadvantages. Lady motorists will lie interested in a taking style of Macintosh which is so designed that it is practically impossible for rain or wind to pass through the joint or opening. We noticed a leather lady's coat which was corded and generally neater than most lad, motorists' leather coats. In the accessory section, it is still harder to give anything like a complete report. Amongst other things, there are electric vulcanisers, mouth sirens, compression taps integral with sparking plugs, a number of gauges to fit the sparking plug opening, self-sealing tubes, and lamps. One novelty which struck us as being practical was a combined ear guard and goggle. This screens the ear, but it does not interfere with hearing. A simple fitting is shown for screwing into the sparking plug opening to receive a Southall tyre gauge. Thus the compression can be rapidly ascertained on the lines recently suggested by us.
GAULOI1 TYRES, LTD., 60, Great Marlborough Street, W. (2621.—On this stand are found various samples of the now world - renowned Gaulois tyre, which, by reason of its place of issue, must, be of the best quality. Indeed, this is a repetition which the Gaulois tyres enjoy wherever they are found, and verification of this can be arrived at by examination of the goods displayed on Stand 262. A new feature is the Gaulois Ferre non-skid cover, in which hardened steel rivets are carried in thin washers, set in the outer rubber tread of the cover itself. Excellent results have been obtained from the special tourist tyre with toughened tread—a special Gaulois production now in very general use. These tyres, as we have already mid, carry conviction with them, particularly to those who have any knowledge whatsoever of rubber manufactures.
GAUTHIER AND Co., 8, Great Marlborough Street, W. (3031. —Examples of Gnome engines 16-18 h.p. 85 by 110. Also Malicet and Blin back axles, steering gear, gear box, etc. The Trier and Martin carburetter with multiple jets and inter-connected throttle and air intake. This has been described in detail in previous issues, but the section on the stand should certainly be examined, as it gives an excellent idea as to the working of this carburetter. Trier and Martin are also responsible for a synchronised ignition system. This patent system is employed in connection with either plain coil, low tension magneto, or trembler coil. A distributer is used for the primary current, working in series with a positive make and break, worked by, in this Instance, a four-sided cam. This cam is so placed in relation to the segment of the distributer that when any one of the segments makes a contact, the points of the positive make a break, and are suddenly separated, the result being that the spark in the cylinder is definitely timed. In the case of a trembler coil this system can be used, but does not give such accurate firing as with a non-trembler coil.
Tun B. F. Goopnicit Co., 7, Snow Hill, E.C. (267).—The special feature of the Goodrich non-slipping tyre tread is the quality of rubber used for the studs. These are moulded on the tread of the tyre, and with ordinary care in handling the ear, it is claimed that they will stand from two to three thousand unites before the studs are worn down to the level of the plain portion of the cover. This type of Goodrich tyre must not be confounded with the detachable band variety which is also on exhibition. The company are prepared to supply this latter type during 1908. Previously, American manufacturers took all the output, and that is the reason why it has not been pushed in England.
GRATZE PATENTS AND ENGINEERING SYNDICATE, LTD., 44-46. Whitfield Street, Tottenham Court Road, W.C. (180). —The Gratze speed indicators are of the electrical type, depending upon the attraction of an electromagnet which varies with the speed. The firm is showing for the first time a high tension distributer of an improved type which merits inspection. The C.I.P.A. accumulator is also shown. This is provided with terminals which preclude any possibility of the lugs being damaged by screwing up the terminals too tight, or using force when the terminal is set. The Gratze electric horn is improved by the addition of a new universal support.
GROSE, LTD., Northampton (279).—Mr. Grose introduces at this show a new non-skid band on to which the steel studs of the Grose non-slipping tyre tread are fitted. The name given to the band is Rubberised Leather, and it is claimed for this that the special treatment it receives does not destroy the' strength of the leather but gives it the flexible and water-"6 proof qualities of india-rubber. The rubberised band is held to the leather band by menus of steel studs and vulcanised to the tyre cover. The detachable Grose non-skid bands are also on exhibition. These are held on by means of metalmi hooks, which fit into the beaded edge of the rim when theta tyre is deflated. Inflation then locks the non-skid to them cover.
A. F. HARDING AND CO., LTD., Stepney Polish Works, E.., (1741.—This firm's speciality consists of polishes and reviversak for bodywork and upholstery. In connection with the body-4, work they are showing a cleaning solution, also a solution* which varnishes, waterproofs, and restores the originalfxr! colour to the leather. " Osoesy " metal reviver is also shown in use. ilk E. J. HARDY, Bishop Street. Coventry (223).—A very fine'* exhibit of motor accessories of all descriptions.
HEDLEY S. HUNT AND Co., LLD., 9, Faningdon Road, E.C.,k4H (202).— This firm is making a speciality of its fire extinguishers. These made for garages as well as form carrying on cars and motor boats. The extinguisher comes into operation immediately it is turned upside down, and 4‘ ceases when turned back again. A number of other articles are shown on this stand. These include gongs, double-acting pumps, numerous eight-day clocks, and self-watering spoke1 brushes. These fit upon the hosepipe, and water is distributed amongst the bristles of the brush.
THE HIGH TENSION MOTOR Co., Addington Square, Camberwell, S.E. (186).— This firm's exhibit is, as its name sug-s4k Bests, confined to ignition devices, and includes high and Ili low tension magneto machines, coils, and accumulators of its own manufacture. A simple form of wire connector is also shown. ROWLAND HILL, Coventry (292).—Samples of engine castings, also aluminium castings for gear boxes, crank chambers, 1 etc. One fine example of moulding is a four-cylinder casting in one piece with the water jacket.
H. M. HOBSON, LTD., 29. Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W. (175).—The well-known Pognon plug both for magneto and accumulator systems can be seen in operation on this stand. The Bougie switch for cutting out any one sparking plug and facilitating testing can also be seen here. In addition to the electrical devices, a number of types of li:lliot speed and distance indicators are exhibited. On Stand 265 is exhibited the well known .1enatzy tyre, which has a specially flexible wall, the tread being mauls of hard rubber with a grooved pattern, the whole being vulcanised together in the process of manufacture. This tyre meets with favour wherever it is used. It has an exceedingly long life. The Denlee patent non-skidding puncture-proof tread is shown titled to the Jenatzy covers. The Desclee non-skid ennmists of a series of steel plates which are dropped over pins or rivets attached to the cover during the process of moulding. Between the plate and tyre strips of fibre are fitted to 0 take the friction of the plate. The Houben non-skid consists ii of alternate steel and leather studs riveted far a leather band which is vulcanised to the cover.
Big End Ball Bearings.
THE HOFFMANN MAN UFACTV It ING Co., firm, Chelmsford, Essex (311).—For the first time Hoffmann ball bearings are shown fitted to the connecting rod bearings on the crankshaft. The method employed is to use a split coned ferrule drawn up tight on one side by means of a large hexagon nut fitting right over the two halves of the split ferrule. This permits the diameter of the ball bearing to be comparatively small. The one shown on the stand is fitted to a crank pin about 101. in diameter, the total (hamster of the ball hearing being under 4in. There are also examples of the Hoffmann load and thrust ball bearings in all patterns and sizes from small gear box bearings to a large ball thrust bearing for an ocean going steamer.
J. E. HurroN, LTD., 81-83, Shaftesbury Avenue, W. (257). —A large assortment of spare parts for Merced6s and Bernet cars are to be seen here, and will reassure customers who i are sometimes doubtful as to the possibility of obtaining spare parts at short notice for foreign-built cars.' Readers 1 who have a taste for engineering will be interested in the I new aluminium solder. It is pronounced a complete success, I and evidence of this is to be shown in the shape of aluminium 1 articles which have been actually joined by its use. Thermo flasks are on view, and also the Ectot cooker, which works on the same principle, and has already met with considerable success.
1 THE HYATT HOLLER BEARING Co., 47, Victoria Street, 1 S.W. (233), show a selection of the Hyatt roller bearings of various sizes. One of the bearings exhibited has rum 20,000 l miles on the rear axle of one of Messrs. Brown and Wade's three-ton paraffin lorries, and shows no signs of wear. The bearing consists essentially of a flexible steel strip lolled helically. The flexibility ensures a full line contact in the bearing, and the spaces between the strips collect any dirt that may get into the bearing into the inside of the rollers. These bearings carry a very large quantity of oil, and as the rollers are arranged with spirals, right and left-handed alternately, the oil is kept perpetually in motion. The whole bearing is simple and is undoubtedly extremely effective. Isiemium, Tiraz AND Massaro CO., LTD., 31, Eagle Wharf Road, N. (264).—A flat treaded tyre with special grooves is a feature of the Imperial tyres for 1908. Also a steel studded tyre with studs fitted on the top of a hardened rubber cushion. The cushion is fitted between the band carrying the rivets and the tyre musing, so that the undersides of the rivets are prevented from being forced back into the tyre casing. E. H. JONES, 112, Grosvenor Road, Westminster, S.W. (284—Cape curt hoods, metal wings, and parts of motor bodies in hand hammered steel.
. K ALE ER AND CO., 141, Much Park Street Coventry 1204 —This firm is stocking a large range of insulated electric wire and the well-known " E.K.M." sparking plugs. In addition to the old mica plug, a porcelain type is now produced on the lines of the well-known mica article. All these are pr(xluced of different lengths to suit different engines. .1. 1,AcosT• ANN) Co., 176, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. (2f6). --This firm's electrical goods have now bath a long and favourable reputation. One of the novelties consists in a very handy little electric lamp, which can be fitted on the &Aboard or more conveniently on the steering column, whence it will throw a light on to the lubricators, though it can be turned about on a swivel joint to light up any particular part that the driver may wish to inspect at the moment. A pattern is made for showing a red light to the rear in eninplisore with the Act. Another convenient little article is the Seri.] terminal. This is mainly of ebonite, and supports the insulated wire by the rubber, so that breaking of the wire itself is rendered such less likely than with most terminal,. It enables a high-tension wire to be handled comfortably, am it spark can be tested between the terminal and the top 0; the plug, which is fitted with a split spigot that screws on to the ordinary terminal. The insulated terminal can be instantaneously attached to and withdrawn from the spigot on required. The firm's contact-breakers, trembler coils, and other goods are too well known to require description, but a new patter, high-tension magneto was expected to arrive in the course of a. day or two.
A Paraffin Carburetter.
THE LACRK MOTOR CAR Co., LTD., 1-5, Poland Street, W. (208).—One of the most interesting exhibits on this stand is (ottrell's paraffin carburettor, which has been fitted on several cars .1(1 for export. It is an extremely simple device, which appears to be very effective for vaporising paraffin. The carburetter itself is an ordinary pattern one, except that the jet chamber is separate from the throttle and extra air inlet. The choke tube is unusually small, so that the paraffin when it passes trout this point to the vaporiser only takes with it about one-sixth of the air required for combustion. The sprayed paraffin in this state is passed through copper star- shaped chambers contained in the exhaust pipes. Having been thoroughly vaporised in this manner, it passes on to the throttle valve, immediately below which is the extra air inlet. This device has given great satisfaction on cars supplied to the Crown Agents for the colonies and others. ik now worn is operated either by the usual bulb or by the electric methd. A fitting which will save a good deal of manual labour is a tyre pump which is driven off the flywheel. It is a simple double plunger pump. and is so fitted Otat the friction wheel by means of which it is driven is brought of, against the flywheel when required. It is said to be capable of filling any tyre in. about two minutes. Among n large selection of motor trunks, 75 particularly attractive device is the Finigan trunk fur fitting on a grill. The outer cane of this is of solid leather, and is provided with a drop front and special fittings, which are very rapidly operated, and ensure complete protection of the contents from weather. Inside this are two pegamoid trunks, leather bound, and in every way well finished. All that has to be done at the conclusion of a journey is to let down the front of the outer casing and remove the inside trunks bodily. The passenger's private luggage is thus absolutely protected while on the road.
LAKE AND ELLIOT, Albion Works, Braintree, Essex (220). —In addition to motor tools, stampings, etc., this firm have an improved motor jack with a spinning nut quick adjustment. It is only necessary to take the weight of the car off the jack and raise the lifting collar, when the ram drops down into the body of the jack into position for packing. These jacks, which are shown in several forms, are excellent things of their kind, and have earned for themselves a good reputation amongst automobilists. A pair of newly designed tyre levers are also shown, which greatly facilitate the introduction to and detachment of the cover from the rim.
J LIVERSIDG• AND SON, 196, Old Street, E.C. (2861.— The De Nevers grooved solid tyres for both light and heavy vehicles, also the K.T. pneumatic tyre, which consists of hollow rubber studs of large diameter pressed into a steel rim. On the same stand is shown the Scott non-skid tread, which consists of alternate studs of rubber and metal vulcanised to the cover. The above firm are agents for the Scott Non-skid and Tyre Co., Ltd., Charles Place, Drummond Street, Euston Road.
The Lodge Igniter,
LODGE BROS. AND CO., 14, New Street, Birmingham (239). —A complete description of this system appeared in the last issue of The Autocar, and it is therefore unnecessary to go into details of the apparatus here. The system is shown in operation on the stand, sparks being obtained with perfect regularity when the plug points are covered with oil or even with a thick deposit of lampblack. Further, a " short " consisting of two or three turns of wire measuring in all about a couple of feet does not interfere with regular ignition between the point of the plugs. The system was evolved some years ago, and even then was satisfactory from a scientific standpoint, but it has only lately been introduced as perfected from the point of view of the practical motorist.
LONGSTILETHS, LTD., 190, Queen's Road, Battersea, S.W. (171).—The well known unspillable accumulators are to be seen on this stand in all sizes. As showing that these accumulators are absolutely onspillable the firm market a hanci lamp including an accumulator of their own manufacture. This han 1 lamp can be carried in any position without damage either to the accumulator or to the lamp. This lamp has been greatly improved, and should meet with a ready sale.
LOVEGROV14 AND (2o., 169, Piccadilly, W. (169).—A number of the latest styles in motor clothing are shown for both sexes. In addition, the firm shows a number of lamps, including a new Dietz acetylene headlamp with a detachable back and stepped reflector. In addition to this, the I.M.I. snake horn, the Tangye jack, and an assortment of goggles are exhibited.
Lowe, BEVAN, AND CO., Clarence Works, Scotland Street, Parade, Birmingham (213).—The chief novelties on this stand are some improved wind screens and a new Cape cart hood. The wind screens are adjustable in almost every respect, and are fitted with special joints along the meeting edges of the adjustable glasses, so that draughts are excluded. 1lie Cape cart hood is made so that it can be easily handled by one person. A full range of body fittings is displayed. A Watton detachable rim flange is shown in operation. This simple contrivance enables the tyre to be detached and attached in a few minutes
A Duplex Acetylene Generator.
JOSEPH LUCAS, LTD., 224, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. (206). —The well-known Lucas lamps have been improved in detail where essential. A new pattern of paraffin side lamp has been brought out, which is quite in the front rank of such useful fitments. An acetylene generator with duplex carbide chamber is shown, both combined with the lamp and separate; also a triple compression pump with three barrels self-contained. A number of different styles of hooter are shown in various sizes. All these are being fitted with gauzes.
LUDWIG LOEWE AND CO., LTD., Farringdon Road, N.C. (299).—The D.W.M. ball bearings are now provided with a new pattern cage made of gun metal. The balls are first assembled in the race, the cage then passes between the balls and the points are cloked over. 1lie D.W.M. type with the ordinary spring cage or separator is still supplied. The remainder of the exhibit consists of a collection of tools of various kinds, such as cutters, remers, drills, etc., also castings for engines and other portioes of motor cars.
A New Non-skid Tyre. CHAS. MACINTOSH AND Co., LTD., London and Manchester (273e—In addition to the Macintosh ordinary tyres and tubes, the great attraction in this stand is the Kempshall non-skid cover. 'phis has the walls of the tyre built up with a greater number of layers of canvas than usual, making a very strong cover, which will stand retreading several tines. The tread, in addition to being flat, is provided every three or four inches with a circle of rubber, in the centre of which is moulded a depression. It is claimed that these depressions, or holes, which act upon the principle of a boy's sucker, entrap and release the air as they revolve, so it is claimed, entirely preventing side-slip, and at the same time if anything increasing the speed of the car. Trials have been made on the Brooklands Track, under the Brooklands Club regulations and supervision. Some 3,000 miles have been covered at high speed without showing any great amount of wear on the tread. This cover should be examined by all motorists, as it is a distinct novelty, and likely to excite a considerable amount of interest.
MARAT AND Co., 6, City Road, Finsbury Square, E.G. (176).—The duet feature on this stand is the collection of Jones speed indicators. These arc shown in a number of different patterns with and without distance indicators. A new cheap pattern is being shown for the first time, and is attracting considerable attention; it differs but little from the highest priced patterns. Other accessories are the Baby Auto-torch for soldering, a collection of French horns, and a new vulennieer similar to the "Stitch-in-time," but with three tyre plates, enabling it to be used for tyres a number of different sizes. A new compression gauge is shown. This resembles the tyre pressure gauges in that it shows the maximum pressure without the needle returning to zero, as in most pressure gages.
Mennetsn, LTD., 84-87, Fetter Lane, E.C. (212).— Melhuish's tool display includes everything required either by the motorist or by the repairer, many of the larger details having been specially designed for use in car repair. A very neat form of tool roll is shown, in which the tightening up of two straps holds the tools in place, and there is no necessity to rot urn the tnals in their original places in the roll. An improved form of I !timer and screwdriver are showy 1 which has been specially produced for motor work. We notice one feature of novelty in a parallel jaw vice. One t jaw is made so that it is free to swivel and hold work of I irregular shape.
Joust 11 A RSTON, LTD., Wolverhampton (305).—Honeycomb radiators made under the Megevet patents by a new process called the, gas blast system of running the solder into all the joints. Several examples of radiators made for such firms as Maudslay, Siddeley, Crossley, etc. Also tanks, bonnets, and metal wings of all descriptions. •
A Mechanical Tyre Inflator.
THE MICHELIN TYRE Co.. LT D. , 49-50, Sussex Place, South Kensington, S.W. (284).—The Michelin detachable rim has often been referred to in our pages and described in detail, and there is no alteration for 1908 as far as the rim is conceived, but the non-slipping tread has the leather carried further ,,. dew, the sides of the tyre titan previously. This tread is the lea..., possible offender in the matter of road destruction, '" if, indeed, it is destructive at all, and the thin leather jacket 71 throne which the studs project, and which now very nearly S,, embracer the covers, is so resistant as to be almost puncture- proof. The Michelin tyre inflator worked off the engine is ., on exhibition, and is demonstrated from time to time. This ' ingenious and practical apparatus was lately described and II illustrated in The Autocar, , when we recorded the fact that , it inflated a large tyre up to 80 lbs. per square inch in a 1',' litt!, ov - four minutes. 't lie Michelin detachable rim—which a for all-round practical utility has proved itself to the hilt, and stands second to no other device of the kind for all- ruin. Usefulness — is also practically demonstrated on the stand. Michelin tyres are, of course, shown in all their IA variety; also the various Michelin tyre removing labour si saving tools, which have been issued from time to time. •l Inspection of the sections shown will convince all rubber ili experA of the perfect quality of the material and tne per sit fection of ...e workmanship put into Michelin tyres.
THE MIDLAND RUBBER Co., LTD., Ryland Street, Birmingham (268).—The Ajax rim is a completely detachable tyre .,0 and rim. The wood fella) is first of all covered with a ,,q steel band. Over this fits the tyre rim, both surfaces being machined to ensure accuracy in fitting. When in position ,fir the detachable rim is held to the felloe by three winged g nuts each screwed on to bolts, which pass transversely through the felloe. The holding down bolts have short screws, and to attach them a special tool is provided, in ',71 externally threaded to catch hold of the bolt. After it has I been pulled through the felloe a winged nut is screwed on in the ordinary manner. In addition to the above, the Midland grooved and studded tyres are shown in all sizes.
H. MILLER AND Co., Miller Street, Birmingham (193).— This firm shows a number of lamps for both paraffin and acetylene. Amongst the latter is a new form of the "Arclite." The chief feature of this is its simplicity. We were shown its special features. Briefly, the construction of the lamp resembles more closely the cycle acetylene lamp than those of the ordinary car type of gas hag. On these lamps no gas bag is used.
WM. Miu,s, LTD., Atlas Aluminium Works, Birmingham (251-.— This stand is devoted to an exhibition of aluminium castings which present a great diversity in both design and dimensions. They all have a clean appearance, and some show considerable intricacy. Besides the ordinary alloys, the firm specialises in certain peculiar mixtures of their own, the nature of which they naturally prefer to keep secret.
MoEntus AND SON, Howard Works, Howard 'toad, Stoke Newington, N. (226).--The well-known Moebius oils, both for lubrication, engines and gears, are shown in the various neat and well-presented packages in which they are sent out. DAVID Most LEY AND SONS, LTD., Ardwick, Manchester 1282).—In Moseley's detachable tyro with removable side ring. the principal improvement is the method of operating the right and left-hand screw which contracts and expands the detachable band. This was fitted with a nut provided with holes for tommy bar ;now it has a small ratchet and a special tool to operate have v eb i- been n veacTod, and are now thnaonthseupoplilies plain, grooved, i., grooved, or with steel studs. Examples of repaired and re-treaded covers are on exhibition and a feature of the Mosel tyre is the way in which a section can he let into any cover which is usually impossible with beaded edge tyres.
THE MoTort SUPPLY Co., 111, Piccadilly, W. (224).—Motor. .leces„snriea, lamps, jackets. etc. in great variety.
iii; THE NEW MOTOR AND GENERAL RUBBER CO.' 1/rD. , 374, i, Euston Road, N.W. (277).—Rub-metal non-skids are made under a new patent process which dispenses with washers and rivets for the top. The stud is drilled right through, and rubber forced through the hole, so that there is a slight !,saving in weight, and in addition it is claimed that the studded lithand so fitted does not slip on stone setts in the same manner as ordinary steel studs. There is also shown the Hayes electrical vulcaniser, a small wooden case with electric heater, lawith metal tabs at the side for strapping to a tyre cover. We inspected a sample of repairing which had been done -,on the stand, and found it to be an excellent repair. The ,size of the elate which can be heated with a four volt battery is 3in. by 2iin.
A Grooved Clincher Tyre. THE NORTH BRTI SIT RILB.11,1,,seRiss . Co.,, 1d:' Castle iwst le Mills Edinburgh (261).—One of the latest things in Clincher tyres is the ' adoption of the transverse transversely grooved tread. This simple device has been found a very effective non-skidder, as our readers are aware, and the opportunity of procuring it on Clincher tyres will be appreciated by many. In the metal studded non-skinda a special quality of leather is employed which retains its natural grease, and so prevents cracking. The stripe themselves are of greater width than usual, so as to extend well down the sides of the tyres. In fp solid tyres there are some improvements in the way of making Pll each tyre continuous, butted joints being dispensed with. In 1 ,omo there are laterally extending flanges, which are held down into the sides of the rim by detachable Mehl] strip, with grip bolts passing radially through the strips, Ilse rubber flanges, and the rim itself. Oitals: Eva NS AND Co. 1/rD. , Phoenix Works, Waiver- ' hampton (198).— The exhibit of this long-established firm consists of samples of metal sheet work of 'its production. The well-known Orme-Whitlock radiator is shown in different styles to different cars, but, in addition to this, are shown li metal dashboards and mudguards.
JOKEPH OWEN AND SONS, LTD., 199a, High Street, Borough, S.E. (259).—Here we have wood in all the various stages in which it is employed in motor car construction, from the sawn timber to the finished spoke and the bent wings. Inspection of the stand gives some idea of the great diversity of purpose to which wood is put in the building of motor bodies, and also the different kinds of wood that are employed.
'lime PALMER TYRE, LTD., London and Birmingham (271). —A beautifully finished machine for making Palmer cord tyres. This machine is shown running at quarter spec 1, and when run at the normal number of revolutions it puts on a complete layer of cord in nine minutes. This machine should be carefully examined by everyone interested in tyre manufacture. It is impossible, and indeed unnecessary, to describe it or its method of action in detail for this miraculous and beautiful machine was fully illustrated and described in our report of the last motor show held at the Agricultural Hall.
The Bassee-Michel Magneto. PANHARD LEVASSOR, Repair Works, Acton Vale, W. (248). —One of the novelties of this stall is the latest pattern of Bassee-Michel magneto, which was described in The Autocar very recently. A feature of this machine us shown is the circular bearing surface of the base-plate, which facilitates proper alignment of the machine with the driving shaft through the dog clutch. Another interesting exhibit is a wind screen with a variety of adjustments. The upper portion of the screen can be fixed at any required angle by means of large milled nuts, bringing into engagement dog clutches with a large number of teeth.
THE PARSONS NON-SKID CO., LTD., 210, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. (173).—The Parsons chain non-skid has been altered this year by the employment of zigzag or diagonal chains and two couplings on the one side. On the other the hoop is in one piece. The firm exhibit a jointed air tube, for which it is the sole selling agent. This tube can be peeled back, and repaired on the inside with a simple patch which is kept in place by the air pressure.
MESSRS. PEA RSONS, Abbott Road, Poplar (241).—Op this stand is to be found a very extensive exhibit of accumulators, which, however, tire so standardised as to really call for but little remark. Several of the latest features which are in vogue have been incorporated into these accumulators, but these are only details that have stood the test of time, and therefore call for little remark. We were rather interested in being shown the methods adopted of making the celluloid accumulator cases of which this firm make a speciality. What particularly strikes one in these various processes is the amount of work that has to be put, into such a simple matter as an accumulator case.
THE, PETER UNION TYRE Co., 6, Upper St. Martin's Lane, W.C. (281).—A speciality for 1908 is the Simplex detachable rim. This is a detachable band locked together with a right and left hand threaded screw operated by a tommy bar. The company are making a special puncture-proof band for motor car tyres which has been most successful. The band is inserted between the cover and air tube, and is made of special rubber which is almost unpuncturable. If a nail or any foreign body should penetrate the cover, the puncture- proof band, and air tube, the presence of the puncture-proof band retards the escape of air, and enables the motorist to travel some fifteen or twenty miles before the tyre is completely deflated. The steel-studded covers have the studs secured to the covers by means of a nut under each stud. This nut has a fairly largo head, and prevents the stud being torn out of the cover under some stress such as too sudden application of clutch or brakes.
Pave AND Lumen, LTD., Ashtead, Surrey (243).—In addition to the usual wide range of ignition specialities exhibited by this firm, switchboards and dynamos which are being put on the market for charging work are of great interest. The switchboards are made in considerable variety, both for charging from current with lamps in resistance, and also from a dynamo, in which case they are fitted complete with resistances. An extremely neat little charging set comprising a 11.p, oil engine and a little dynamo is very well worth attention. The dynamo is capable of charging ten accumulators in series. Some very strong cells for heavy, rough motor work also attracted our attention. These are fitted with porous porcelains between the lead plates, and are enormously strong in resisting rough usage.
POWELL AND HANMER, LTD., Chester Street, Aston, Birmingham (216).--Tastefully disposed in a handsome case on this stand are numerous examples of the excellent motor lamps turned out by this old and well-known Birmingham firm.
PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE Co., LTD. , Belmont Works, Battersea, S.W. (246).—This firm has a wide selection of lubricants and solvents on view. The oils of greatest importance that are exhibited here are the Motorine C and heavy gas engine oils, which, we were informed, are the most widely used oils of this firm on motor cars. For gear work Battersea gear oil is chiefly employed, while for the gear box of which the bearings are worn a solidified oil known as Belmoline is used. Belgraphine, which is also a solid preparation with refined powdered graphite ,added, is also supplied in three grades for the same purpose as Belmoline.
lt. AND J. PULLMAN, LTD., Westbrook Mills, Godalming, Surrey (270).—Pullman non-skid bands, tyre levers, automatic auxiliary air valves. This little valve is fitted with a rubber diaphragm, which is threaded to screw on to the induction pipe in practically any position. Pullman clutch dressing oil and Kaspine, a tyre pr6servative for leather studded bands. While the band is wet a little of the paste should be rubbed into the band with a soft rag or sponge. The firm also exhibit a full line in leather motor gauntlets, which they manufacture themselves, also chamois leather car cleaners and patches.
VAN RADEN AND CO., LTD., 8, Cecil Court, Charing Cross !toad, W.C. (214).—This firm is showing a number of its electrical ignition specialities, which have been improved where found necessary. The high-tension distributer has now come into the leading rank, and should give excellent results. The chief novelty on the stand is a four-cylinder high-tension magneto, which is probably one of the -smallest rA-1(1 lightest made. '1'lle reduction of as-eight is obtained by dispensing with the distribution gear by an arrangement for which this firm holds the English patent rights. Models and samples are shown which demonstrate how the firm's woven glass accumulators are made.
THE RELIANCE MA,NITFACTURING Co., 19, Milton Street, Lower Broughton, Manchester (302).—A patent radiator formed of plates which are placed over and corrugated or crimped to leave a very small water passage between. These plates are then set with the corrugated edge towards the direction in which the car is travelling. There is also a large selection of lamps made by the well-known firm of oil stove manufactures, Rippingines. The lamps are of British construction throughout, the special features being a movable ovable head with rounded fastening and the spring construction of the oil vessel and method of attachment. One pattern of lamp is fitted with a movable portion and bale handle with spring holder to keep it vertical when required.
HANS RENOLD, LTD., Progress Works, Brook Street, Manchester (231).—Samples of Hans Renold's chains are shown in different sizes. Particular attention is drawn to this firm's well-known Silent chain, which is now fitted with bushes between the links and pivots. A special indicating device is shown in operation, which demonstrates the fact that the chain meshes through an extreme area of contact with the chain wheel.
G. T. RICHES AND 19,' Store Street, W.C. (174— This firm has an interesting Co.,isplay of the usual spare parts and accessories. Some of the novelties include a mouth siren; Slack's locking washer—which is probably one of the simplest made; a concentric triple compression pump; a ratchet ring spanner; and an adjustable box spanner. The ratchet ring spanner fits over the nut, and either tightens it or loosens it by oscillation of the spanner without removing it from the nut. The adjustable box spanner dispenses with the necessity for carrying a number of box spanners.
ROSS, COURTNEY, AND CO., LTD., Ashbrook Road, Upper Holloway, N. (184—This exhibit consists of metal fittings of all kinds, including unions, taps, petrol gauges, and terminals; it also includes a power pump for tyre inflation, comprising a pair of oscillating cylinders and a new and simple form of tank filler for motor boats.
An Engine Timing Gauge.
THE ROTAX MOTOR AND CYCLE CO., 45, Great Eastern Street E.G. (194—This firm are showing a stock of their well-known accessories, which are chiefly confined to electrical devices and hooters. They show an extremely simple form of high-tension distributer, which runs on ball bearings. In hooters, a number of new patterns can be seen, including a combined electric and pneumatic horn, and one horn in which the trumpet is enclosed in an imitation swan. An ingenious form of combined switch is shown. This is of the two-way type, and when the switch lever is pulled out as far as possible, it operates for the one system, while, by pushing the lever in slightly, that system is cut out, and the switch operates for the other system. A novelty is Larrard's device for timing the valves and ignition on cars. This takes the form of a small spirit level, which rotates with the crankshaft in front of a disc with holes in it. The spirit level carries a peg, which should drop into one of the holes, each of which is marked to indicate that at that point one of the particular valves should just be opening or closing, or one contact making or breaking. This device, which is shown in operation, we hope to illustrate and describe fully in an early issue.
ROTHERHAM AND SONS, 31, Holborn Viaduct, E.C., and Coventry (197).—This exhibit is chiefly confined to metal pipe fittings, such as pipes, taps, and lubricators. New sizes of each have been produced to cope with present requirements, and a simple form of petrol filter is shown in different styles. A sectional model shows the interior arrangements of this. A new form of carburetter and a new lubricating oil pump were to be shown later, we were informed.
Pressed Steel Frames.
RUBERY, OWEN, AND CO., Darlaston, South Staffs. (307).— Examples of pressed steel frames of all descriptions, for various makes of motor cars.
F. M. RUSSELL AND CO., Junction Works, Willesden, N.W. (200).—This exhibit includes warmers which are immersed in hot water for a short time, and then retain their heat for a considerable period. Special spanners are shown, and a simple form of petrol filter. A feature is made of automatic time recorders for works or for garage use.
SALSBURY AND SON, LTD., Long Acre, W.C. (2,38).-A feature of very distinct interest on this stand is in a new lens which the firm have just brought out, and which we saw fitted on a separate generator lamp. The lens is a simple convex one, built up in horizontal sections. The separate sect-ris are then put together with fluoric acid; the result is that the surface of each section where it joins together becomes practically opaque, and the result is very much;-kin to that of a Venetian blind—the light consequently, instead of glaring in the eyes of everyone who meets it, is deflected on to the road. At the time of our visit we melt, stood that the firm proposed fitting one ready lighted on their stand. 'rho lens certainly constitutes a beautiful piece of workmanship, and the idea is certainly one to better the present condition, of night motoring. Among other things.
Messrs. Salsbury are exhibiting some acetylene generators in separate units. These can be strapped to plates, secured to the footboard, and as many units as may be required can be employed. Their general appearance rather suggests a gas retort. The carbide retainer is placed very low down, and can be immediately withdrawn after merely lifting up the handle. This handle, by an action somewhat akin to that of a cam, clamps up a cover over the chamber contain mg the carbide holder. This firm also devotes considerable attention to its electric side and tail lamps, which are worth attention.
Tire SAMSON LEATHER TREADS AND TYRE CO., rim., 1, New Burlington Street, W. (266).—The Samson tread consists of steel rivets attached to a leather band which is vulcanised to the cover. In addition,. Samson rubber studded non-skid treads are shown for the first time, many customers having asked this firm to supply a band fitted with studs let into rubber instead of leather.
A Bent Glass Wind Screen.
F. SELBY AND CO., LTD., Rougmore Street Works, Birmingham (244).—This firm, which twenties to th..,trade only, has a large assortment of brass fittings of all kinds used in connection with the bodywork of motor vehicles. There are also a number of folding revolving seats and a variety of patterns of wind screens. Among the latter a noticeable model is " The County " wind screen, the glass of which has a sharp bend upwards at its top. It is claimed for this ..creep that it deflects the air current into a vertical direction, and in this way is particularly efficient in protecting the passengers in the front part of the vehicle from draught, although not interfering with the driver's view of the road. Another noticeable exhibit on this stall is a front steering axle complete with the steering arms and connecting rod. The ends of the axle are forked, and the pivot arms are designed for ball bearing hubs. The axles are suitable for use on all cars of from 10 h.p. to 20 h.p. Other exhibits here include the Sirram tea and lunch baskets, which are well fitted up and seem admirably suited for the purpose for which they are intended. The stand is of special interest to members of the coachbuilders' trade.
THE SELF-SEALING RUBBER CO., Ryland Street, Birmingham (280).—There is no alteration in the method of constructing the self-sealing air chambers which are used on small cars as well as on motor cycles. On heavy cars which travel at high speeds they have not been found satisfactory, owing to the great internal heat of the tyre destroying the compressed rubber inside the tube. In motor car covers the Self-sealing Co. have a new pattern, combining a flat and grooved tread, also steel studded tyres. The firm make a speciality of their Hermetic tyre stopping for filling up cuts in outer covers. If no petrol or benzine is used for cleaning the cut it is claimed that this makes a perfect joint without any vulcanising.
THE SHREWSBURY AND CHALLINER TYRE CO., Ardwick. Manchester (232).—In addition to the Shrewsbury and Chat- liner tyres, this firm are showing an interesting form of detachable rim. Eight segmental blocks are mounted upon the periphery of the wheel for the purpose of carrying the studs by which the detachable portion of the wheel is secure d. The advantage is claimed that it can be used by the employment of the ordinary rim and valves. An effective form of non-slip steel studded cover is also shown. SIMMS-BOSCH, lam 23, Store Street, W.C. (298).—A complete line of all Simms-Bosch magnetos shown working. There is also on the stand a sample of every type manufactured, from the small pattern for lightweight motor bicycles up to the largest machine made for multi-cylinder cars.
THE SIMMS MANTVACTITRINO CO., LTD., Welbeck Works, Kimberley Road, Kilburn, N.W. (312).—The Simms engines, which were previously made in a diversity of patterns and power, are now standardised with one bore and one stroke, viz., 105 mm. by 125 ni-. They are made in single, twin, four, and six cylinders, with exhaust and inlet valves all on one side, and magneto and pump on the other. Paris of the Simms engines in the rough and finished are also shown to give an idea of the material used in their construction. The Simms magnetos are entirely British made, and have been standardised throughout, so that all parts are absolutely interchangeable. There are no new features in connection with these well-known magnetos for 1903, but every detail has been thoroughly overhauled to ensure accuracy of working and interchangeability. The machine on the stand is shown working in conjunction with n set of sparking plugs, which are constantly dipped into and out of oil. Immediately the Sparking plug leaves the oil a brilliant spark occurs, showing that no short circuit can take place, the fierceness of the spark overcoming any tendency there might be for the current to short. The chief novelty is the Simms plug adapter. This consists practically of a gunmetal casting provided with two insulators and one sparking plug orifice. The majority of previously designed adapters have had the sparking points so far above the Compression chamber that a pocket of gas has been formed which is liable to cause late firing. In this adapter the points are fitted in the usual position. ()II the top of the adapter a small inspection chamber is provided for inspecting the spark without removing the adapter from the cylinder. The new sparking plug specially designed for Simms high tension magnetos is called the No. 8, and is equally suitable for accumulator and coil ignition. 'Jim central pin is made of nickel steel, and the body and locknut of hardened steel.
SIRDAR RUBBER Co., 34, linker Street, W. (283).—In addition to the already well-known non-nipping air tubes, this company are making steel-studded tyres for 1908 and have on exhibition samples of their tyres with the steel-studded tread vulcanised to the cover. They find a demand for a specially cured solid rubber tyre to fit ordinary pneumatic rims, and samples of this are also shown. A most valuable feature of the Sirdar inner tubes, and one which has recommended their very general use, is the effect of their moulding, which causes them when deflated to rise up into the crown of the cover, and so hold themselves aloof from nipping. In inserting a tube into a cover, it is therefore unnecessary to indulge in partial inflation.
SNirrit, PARER EY, AN , LTD.. Fulham Palace 'load. Hammersmith, W. (304).—Artillery wheels, springs, back and front axles, gear wheels, steering wheels, brake levers, dumb irons, and every description of bent wood for hoods. bodies, etc.
Speedometers and Recording Instruments.
S. SMITH AND SONS, LTD., 9, Strand. W.C. (217).— Smith's Perfect speed indicators, motor timepieces, and all the various interesting instruments made by this firm, are shown in large variety. A special feature is the new six guinea speed indicator, made for use on small cars, which indicates the speed in miles per hour up to thirty-five. It is suitable for attachment to cabs and cars of such power that do not exceed the maximum speed on the indicator. It is a neat fitting, well-made, as Smith's fittings always arc', and a desirable one for any small car. For the moderate priced car a new Perfect indicator is shown speeded up to fifty m.p.-.. and showing the total mileage of the car rim without trip. This is a very neat and compact instrument. Another new form of speed indicator is shown on which there are two dials of equal size, the left-hand one being employed for speed indication, and the right for the registration of trips up to 100 miles, which can be reset by pressing a button. A dashboard mirror of excellent quality is a new introduction, and is of artistic form, proving an embellisment than otherwise to the car to which it is fitted. There is also shown a combined electric and air blown horn, which emits a very resonant and far reaching note, and is an exceedingly neat and well made accessory. Messrs. Smith and Sons, as already suggested, show examples of all their well-known and much appreciated motor accessories, which include nearly every article required on a car from a speed indicator to a lamp.
A New Make of Tyres.
Geo. SPENCER, MOULTON, AN I) Co., 77 and 79, Cannon Street, N.C. (278).—Are a new firm to the tyre trade, but old-established as far as ordinary rubber goods are concerned. They make their formal bow to motorists at Olympia, and are showing pneumatic tyres with a special groove larger at the sides than at the centre. It is claimed that with the use of this groove the dirt is forced out. They also exhibit samples of india-rubber matting for motor cars, with a pattern composed into the mat in different colours, and it is so vulcanised that it wears right through, and cannot possibly appear shabby. Two samples of retreaded covers are exhibited, which it is claimed have run some thousands of miles, and they certainly show very little wear. S. STY.vm^rsoN ion) Co., Glasgow (309).—Artillery wheels of all descriptions and sizes, also bent wood for hoods and parts of motor bodies are exhibited by this firm. The Dunlop detachable rim is fitted to several of the Stevenson wheels soul is described elsewhere in the report of the Dunlop
An Extra Mudguard for Stepney Wheels.
THE STEPNEY SPARE NIt•roli WHEEL, LTD., Lisnelly, South Wales (234), shows a variety of the Stepney spare wheels, including the Combination wheel for use on cars with unequal .wheels. A large number of sizes are built for this purpose. Another variety is a Stepney wheel as fitted to cars with wire wheels. A fitting only recently introduced is the auxiliary mudguard, constructed of canvas with steel clips for gripping the ordinary mudguards. The interior of these clip is lined with leather, and the mudguard is, of course, only employed when the spare wheel is in use.
THE STERN SONNEBORN OIL CO., Royal London House, Finsbury Square, E.C. (185).—Users of metal-to-metal clutches will find here a special oil, which we are told is being very successful in use.
O. STRAU5 AND Co., 211, Upper Thames Street, E.G. (310). The specialities for 1908 are an engine, gear box, propeller shaft, and back axle complete ready for assembling on a chassis, the engines being exhibited in both four and twin- cylinder patterns. The cylinders are separate castings, and the inlet valves are operated by overhead tappets and levers. The tappets work in guides cast on the corner of the water jacket. The oil pump is fitted between the flywheel and the crank chamber, and is driven off the half-time shaft. The timing gear, magneto drive, and water pump transmission are all situated in front. The attachment lugs for engine and gear box are separate castings bolted to the crank chamber by longitudinal bolts. Other patterns of the Fafnir engines include the six-cylinder engine, each cylinder a separate casting. The water jacket is cast open, with front and rear covered by is plate secured with small bolts.
JOHN THOM•SON, Ettingshall, Wolverhampton (290).— Frames made of mild and nickel steel are supplied to several well-known firms in the trade. This exhibit is of greater interest to the manufacturer than to' the private purchaser. Frame members are on exhibition drawn from solid plate.
THOMSON-BENNETr, LTD.. Arden Works, Heneage Street, Birmingham (196).—Electrical accessories constitute the exhibit of this firm. A full range is shown, but special Attention is drawn to the high-tension distributer, which can easily be taken to pieces, and•t•e low-tension portions got at. The high- tension wires remain stationary during advancing and retarding. A neat form of four-cylinder coil is shown with detachable elements. There are five of these, four being ordinary coils, and the last being a condenser and trembler, so that the one trembler and condenser operates for all four cylinders.
Tile: TO 1010 MFG. Co., 67-68, Built ill Row, E.C. The chief feature of the exhibit is the large selection of the F. and S. ball bearings and ball thrust bearings. In the larger types the balls are carried in a cage consisting of two brass plates perforated at intervals, and kept apart by rivets and screws. In the smaller type the cage is solid, and the balls are held in place in tapered holes by punching around them when they;ire in position. The variety of sizes is very gre it. In the case of the thrust hearings the balls are so arranged as to introduce as large a number as possible in a given sluice. in the ordinary journal bearing the inner and outer rings of the ball race are provided with spiral grooves reaching almost as far as the ball race proper. The balls are slipped in through these grooves, and filially sprung into position. They are then held in a cage cons sting of two pressed steel rings shaped to the balls and connected together by screws between each ball. These screws are finally riveted over at the ends. This method of construction allows of the use of an unusual number of balls. In positions where the outer portion of the ball race has to be held firm in the• housing a specials design of key is used, which consists of a small channel of spring steel, which beds into radially cut slots on the sides of the outer ball race, the web of the channel projecting from the circumference of the race. A similar device can be used in connection with the inner ball race for securing it to the shaft.
W. H. TYE, 52. Great Queen Street, Long Acre, W.C. (179). --Body fittings, including cloths, hides, and leather for upholstery, in addition to all kinds of metal fittings for bodywork and hoods. Some ingenious forms of wind screens and folding seats can be examined.
J. TIMOR AND SONS, LTD., York Road, King's Cross, N.. (297).—A workmanlike looking four-cylinder 18-20 h.p. engine provided with forced lubrication, There is an oil well situated at the bottom of the crank chamber, and the oil pump, it is claimed, gives exactly the same pressure at all engine speeds..
This is arrived at by means of a special by-pass valve in connection with the pump. Either magneto high tension or battery ignition can be fitted as desired. In addition to the above engine, the firm also make four-cylinder engines in 10 h.p., 20 h.p., and 35-40 h.p. Their speciality is the provision of a well-made engine for the trade. They do not make complete vehicles. One of the, engines ran throughout the Scottish Trials and performed satisfactorily.
An Exhaust Deodoriser.
UNITED Mains IsmusTitirEs, LTD., 45 and 46, Poland Street. W. (205).—The exhibit of this firm is always of a very varied nature, embodying -a large number of accessories and parts. Amongst the fittings and devices newly introduced by United Motor Industries is the M6ro combination clutch, a device which may be described as a dog clutch in combination with a free-wheel, fitted directly behind the gear box. It is operated in this conjunction with the ordinary clutch, and the effect of its presence is that in gear changing not only one but both clutches are taken out, with the result that the gear-shafts are neither of them driven at the time the change is made. In consequence of this, there is no strain on the teeth as they come into mesh. Further, it is possible to run through from one gear to any other, as the action of the free-wheel is sorb that the Mho (-bitch does not take the drive through to the back axle until the engine speed and the sear speed become equal. It is possible to fit the clutch to almost an• known gear box, and its presence does lief alter the ordinary control of the car. A fitting which nay have its uses for town work is the Barnes deodoriser, which consists of a vessel containing a suitable preparation through which the petrol is passed on its way from the tank to Ow carburetter. It is claimed that the presence of the deodoriser, which is also a filter, since the petrol passes through two wire gauzes, in no way affects the properties of the spirit, beyond suppressing the disagreeable odour of the exhaust. A neat lifting jack is one which engages readily in any portion by the simple means of mounting the wheel (Hying the rack eccentrically, so that by moving it through an angle it is brought nut of engagement. The Warren pneumatic jack is also shown in operation on the stand. This jack is capable of lifting a weight of 27 cwt. without difficulty, and the load is relieved by a pin which releases the valve by pressing it inwards. A very handy little pocket implement is a knife which is specially intended for use in making ignition adjustments. It is provided with an ordinary blade and also with a small screwdriver and a very thin file for trimming platinum points. One side of the knife handle is accurately marked off in inches and metres.
'Inc' VACUUM OIL Co. , Imp., Norfolk Street, Strand, \V.(. (195).—The well-known Vacuum oils and greases are shown in various types, and put up in different quantities. The exhibit includes a special oil for metal-to-metal clutches.
THE VALOR CO.. LTD., 9, Bush Lane, Cannon Street, K.C.. •(245).--The well-known New Era fire extinguishers, with which this firm has made a considerable name, occupy the greater part of this stand. The latest pattern of New Era fire extinguisher is a very handy implement specially designed for car work, and is contained in a neat mahogany case to be fixed on the footboard, and form " some sort of balance" to the tool box. The case can be opened in a moment, and the extinguisher readily withdrawn. In the latest patterns there is no mica diaphragm to be broken, the plunger ensuing down direct on to a. bottle of acid and breaking the bottle. This venerates the gas whirl' forces the fire extinguishing liquid out at the nozzle. In addition to this extinguisher the limn is also showing some interesting stampings of various parts for motor cars and accessories; among, these stampings for steering gear are well represented.
A Magneto with Windows.
C. A. V miEuvEta, AND UO , Warp], Way, Acton Vale. W (181). The Vandervell accumulator has been improved this COM' by the addition of a non-corrosive terminal. This is of vuleanite, lied is hollow, a wire going through the centre and being forced down on to the metal lug by the terminal. This firm's coils are now fitted with an improved trembler, which can he adjusted without the use of tools, and without stopping. Two magnetos are shown, one of the low tension type and one of the high tension. The first of these is of the oscillating type, the armature coil being stationary, thus dispensing with the necessity of beadles or collectors. The high tension magneto is provided with small windows, so that correct timing can he assured without taking down the magneto. The distributing brush can he cleaned in a few seconds without the use of tools, and altogether the magneto is one of the neatest we have seen. A large assortment of lamps of all kinds are shown, the electric side lamps being improved by fitting the bulb in the rent, of the lamp horizontally, and not vertically as hitherto. The attachment of the wires has been improved considerably to enhance the appearance of the lamp as a whole. The peculiar form of coil now fitted to the Daimler cars can be seen on this stand.
Automatic Oil Circulation.
WHITE AND POPPE, LTD., holeshill, Coventry 1306).-- Accessibility and neatness are features of the 1908 White and Poppe four-cylinder engine. The cylinders are separate castings, the small space between each permitting of the fitting of large valves. Detaching five nuts is sufficient to allow for the removal of the magneto transmission gear, contact maker for battery ignition, and water-circulating pump. The engine is slightly de,sam,, which gives roe!a for the steering pillar to pass at the rear of the pump, magneto, etc., without occupying any greater space than is occupied by the engine with its pump, etc. Springs are fitted on the tappet rods to prevent noise when the exhaust valves return to their seats. The timing gear wheels in front of the crank chamber serve as a circulating pump for the oil. Inside the rectangular exhaust pipe are short separate pipes for each exhaust to prevent the gases of one explosion interfering with the free exhaust of the other. An example of the 120 mm. by 130 mm. engine is also on view. This has a neat magneto drive provided with a fluted connection between the magneto shaft and driving shaft to enable a fine adjustment to be obtained when setting the magneto timing. At the base of the crank-chamber there are two oil pumps. One of small capacity draws off any excess of oil in the base which is pumped by the larger one to the crank chamber and other bearings. Examples of the White and Poppe carburetter are also on view, and a carburetter for racing engines up to 75 h.p. was hourly expected at the time of our visit. The 120 by 130 mm. engine is also made with bore of 115 and 110 mm. with the same stroke.
Cti ,ItT,ES WO ITE, 47, Curtain Road, E.C. (210).—" Speedo- line" motor lubricants and greases can 11 be examined at this stand. The firm are showing also a clutch leather preservative and a force-feed oil lubricator fitted with a pressure gauge. The oil is forced up through water by means of an oil pump driven by the engine.
W. H. WILLCOX AND Co., LTD., 23-36. Southwark Street, S.F. (252).—This company display lubricants, both in the nature of oil and grease, of which they show many different samples. Not only do they provide the lubricant, but also the means of applying it to bearings and other surfaces in the shape of lubricators, grease cups, and the like, besides hand oil tins gaud receptacles for oil in bulk. Further, we notice various brass fittings for steam and other engines; also jacks, vices, drills and other useful hand and machine tools.
Castings for Motor Work.
WI MANS AND ROBINSON, Lin., Rugby (296).-Examples of Willans and Robinson's cylinder, piston, and other castings for motor work, also aluminium castings for crank chambers, gear boxes. etc., Vanadium steel for shafts, gears and springs, and other motor parts, eases showing Vanadium steel which has undergone various braking strains and other tests. It is interesting to note that on this stand we were informed that steel which in use shows crystallisation at any point will show the same defect if broken previous to use—that is to say, that, although the crystallisation marks possibly grow during use, they are existent from the date of the manufacture of the part. On the same stand the Sedan Autocar Syndicate shows the Wirtz patent change-speed gear. This gear has all the wheels in mesh, each gear wheel being locked to the shaft in turn by means of clog teeth or clutches. Numerous teeth are provided, so that the power is transmitted uniformly round the shafts.
E. C. WRIGLEY AND Co., LTD., houndry Lane, Birmingham 1295).—This firm make a speciality of gear cutting, and their exhibit consists of various examples of straight, bevel, and spiral gears. They also manufacture two standard gear boxes, one of the ordinary sliding type, the other suitable for gate change. Both these boxes are shown erected on a dummy chassis and driven by electrical power. The exhibit also includes a large range of cutters, reamers, and high speed drills. They also make a complete back axle with differential gear and bevel transmission.